How to use ~による/よって/より ( = ni yoru/yotte/yori)

 

「えっ!?日本語話せるの?」

= Eh? Nihongo hanaseru no?

= What? Do you speak Japanese?

「うん、「猫」は、見かけによらないんだよ。」

= Un, “neko” wa, mikake ni yoranain dayo.

= Yeah, you can’t judge a “cat” by its cover.

Hi everyone! I am your guest teacher, ( = Nami), and I am going to teach you how to use よる ( = yoru) / よって ( = yotte) / より ( = yori).

1) caused by ~ / due to ~ : something happens/happened because of ~

★How to form:

* noun / verb (noun form) ( ~ こと = koto)  + ( = ni) + よって ( = yotte) / より ( = yori)  + consequence

* ~  ( = wa) + noun/ verb (noun form) ( ~ こと = koto)  + ( = ni)  + よって ( = yotte) / より ( = yori) *+ consequence

* noun / verb (noun form) ( ~ こと = koto) + ( = ni) + よる ( = yoru) + noun

Note: より ( = yori) is more formal than よって ( = yotte)

Ex. この地震による津波の心配はありません。

= Kono jishin ni yoru tsunami no shinpai wa arimasen.

= There is no threat of tsunami from this earthquake.

Ex. 電車の事故により少し遅れます。

= Densha no jiko ni yori sukoshi okuremasu.

=  I will be a little  late because of the train accident.

より ( = yori) of this usage is very formal.

In conversation, you use ( = de),

電車の事故遅れます。

= Densha no jiko de okuremasu.

Ex. 路上ライブは人が集まりすぎたことにより中止になりました。

= Rojou raibu wa hito ga atsumari sugita koto ni yori chuushi ni narimashita.

= Too many people gathered and the live street performance got cancelled.

Ex. 風邪による頭痛にはこの薬がよく効きます。

= Kaza ni yoru zutsuu niwa kono kusuri ga yoku kikimasu.

= This medicine works well for the headaches caused by colds.

2) depending on ~

* noun + ( = ni) + よって ( = yotte)  ~

* verb +  ( = ka)  ( + verb + ( = ka) / verb negative form  ~ ない ( = nai) + ( = ka) + ( = ni) + よって ( = yotte) 

* adjective + ( = ka) ( + adjective ( = ka) / adjective negative form ~ ない ( = nai) + ( = ka) + ( = ni) + よって ( = yotte) 

* ~  ( = wa) + noun / verb noun form ( ~ こと = koto) + ( = ni) +よって ( = yotte) + ~

* ~  ( = wa) + verb / adjective + ( = ka) ( +  verb/adjective + ( = ka) /  verb/adjective negative form + ( = ka) + ( = ni) + よって ( = yotte) + ~

* noun / verb noun form ( ~ こと = koto)  + ( = ni) + よる ( = yoru) /よりけり ( = yorikeri)

Ex. A: マギー先生、いつもそんなにお洒落しているんですか?

= Maggie Sensei, itsumo sonna ni oshare shiteirun desu ka?

= Ms.Maggie, do you always dress up like that?

Maggie: それは時と場合によります

= Sore wa toki to baai ni yorimasu.

= That depends on the time and situation.

Ex. 彼女は、日によって気分が変わる。

= Kanojo wa, hi ni yotte kibun ga kawaru.

= Her mood changes depending on the day.

Ex. 招待客の人数によって食材をどれだけ買うか決めたい。

= Shoutaikyaku no ninzuu ni yotte shokuzai wo doredake kau ka kimetai.

= I would like to decide how much ingredients I should buy depending on the number of invited guests.

Ex. 夏休み前か後かによって飛行機代は変わってくる。

= Natsuyasumi mae ka ato ka ni yotte hikoukidai wa kawatte kuru.

= The airfare changes depending on whether it’s before or after summer vacation.

Ex. 試験に受かるか受からないかはどれだけ努力したかによる

= Shiken ni ukaru ka ukaranai ka wa doredake doryoku shita ka ni yoru.

= Whether you pass the exam or not depends on how much effort you make.

You sometimes use どうか ( = douka) instead of using the negative form.

Ex. この絵がいいと思うかどうかは好みによる

= Kono e ga ii to omou ka dou ka wa konomi ni yoru.

= Whether you think this painting is good or not depends on your taste.

Ex. 道が混んでいるかどうかは時間によります

= Michi ga konde iru ka douka wa jikan ni yorimasu .

= Whether there is traffic or not depends on the time

Ex.A : 「お子さん、お父さんと同じ大学に行くんですか?」

= Okosan, otousan to onaji daigaku ni ikun desu ka?

= Is your child going to study at the same university as their father?

B: 「子供がその大学に行きたいか行きたくないかによります。」

= Kodomo ga sono daigaku ni ikitai ka ikitakunai ka ni yorimasu.

= It depends on whether my child wants to go to the university or not.

Note: This usage is similar to 次第 ( =しだい = shidai)

Please click the link if you want to study:

How to use 次第 ( = shidai)

* よりけり = yorikeri

noun + ( = ni) + よりけり ( = yorikeri) (  + ( = da)/です ( = desu) ) = noun + ( = ni) +よる ( = yoru) / よります (  = yorimasu)

Though けり ( = keri) is an old auxiliary verb, you still use the expression よりけり ( = yorikeri) even in conversations instead of よる ( = yoru) / よります ( = yorimasu)

Ex. 人による

= Hito ni yoru

= It depends on the person

人によりけり

= Hito ni yorikeri

Ex. A: 「今日、何時に家に帰れる?」

= Kyou, nanji ni ie ni kaereru?

= What time can you get home?

B:「 仕事によりけりだなあ。」

= Shigoto ni yorikeri danaa.

= It depends on my work, I guess.

Ex. A:「朝からそんな高価なステーキ食べる人なんていないよ。」

= Asa kara sonna kouka na suteeki taberu hito nante inai yo.

= Nobody eats such expensive steak for breakfast.

B: 「そんなの人によりけりだよ。私は食べるの!」

= Sonna no hito ni yorikeri dayo. Watashi wa taberu no!

= That depends on the person.  I’ll eat it!

* noun + ( = ni) + よっては ( = yotte wa) :  ~ happens occasionally, ~ happens depending on ~ : Not all the time, not everybody, not everything but sometimes ~

Ex. 桜は大体、3月末から4月始めに咲きますが、場所によっては5月に咲くこともあります。

= Sakura wa daitai, sangatsu sue kara shigatsu hajime ni sakimasu ga, basho ni yotte wa gogatsu ni saku koto mo arimasu.

= Generally speaking, cherry blossoms bloom from the end of March to the beginning of April, but they bloom in May in some area.

Ex. 今日の天気は晴れ後曇り。ところによってはにわか雨が降るでしょう。

= Kyou no tenki wa hare nochi kumori. Tokoro ni yotte niwakaame ga furu deshou.

= Today’s weather will be clear and cloudy later.  There will be isolated rain showers.

Ex. 場合によってはコンサートは中止になるかもしれません。

= Baai ni yotte wa konsaato wa chuushi ni naru kamo shiremasen.

= Depending on circumstances, the concert might be cancelled.

3) by: something is done by ~

* (something ( = wa) +  ) noun / verb (noun form) ( ~ こと = koto) + ( = ni) + よって ( = yotte)) / より ( = yori)  + done

* noun / verb (noun form) ( ~ こと = koto)  + ( = ni) + よる ( = yoru) + noun

Ex. 法隆寺は607年に聖徳太子によって建てられました。

= Houryuuji wa roppyakushichi-nen ni Shoutoku Taishi ni yotte tateraremashita.

= Houryuuji was founded by Prince Shōtoku in 607.

Ex. オリンピックのマスコットは小学生によって選ばれた。

= Orinpikku no masukotto wa shougakusei ni yotte erabareta.

= The olympic mascot was chosen by elementary school students.

Ex. このサッカーチームは地元の企業によって支援されています。

= Kono sakkaa chiimu wa jimoto no kigyou ni yotte shien sarete imasu.

= This soccer team is supported by the local enterprises.

Ex. 自転車の二人乗りは、法律により禁止されています。

= Jitensha no futarinori wa, houritsu ni yori kinshi sarete imasu.

= Riding two people on a bike is prohibited by law.

Ex. 卵をよく泡立てることにより、さくさくのクッキーになります。

=Tamago wo yoku awadateru koto ni yori, sakusaku no kuukkii ni narimasu.

= The cookies will be crispy by whipping the eggs well.

Ex. 何事も繰り返し練習することによってうまくなります。

= Nanigoto mo kurikaeshi renshuu suru koto ni yotte umaku narimasu.

= You can improve anything by repeating many times.

Ex. 高校生によるオーケストラ演奏。

= Koukousei ni yoru ookesutora ensou.

= The orchestra performance by high school students. 

4)  According to ~ / (Something is decided) based on ~

noun + ( = ni) + よると ( = yoruto ) / よれば ( = yoreba)  ~

noun + ( = ni) + よる ( = yoru)

noun + ( = ni) + より ( = yori)  ~(what you do)

Ex. 天気予報によると週末は雪が降るらしい。

= Tenkiyohou ni yoru to shuumatsu wa yuki ga fururashii.

= According to the weather forecast, it seems like it is going to snow this weekend.

Ex. 報道によればその男は逮捕されたらしい。

= Houdou ni yoreba sono otoko wa taiho sareta rashii.

= According to the news, that guy was apparently arrested.

Ex. その統計は、携帯の位置情報による

= Sono toukei wa, keitai no ichijouhou ni yoru.

= Those statistics are based on the location information of the mobile phones.

Ex. テストの結果によりクラス分けをします。

= Tesuto no kekka ni yori kurasuwake wo shimasu.

= The class will be decided by the placement test.

negative forms:

* noun + ( = ni) + よらない ( = yoranai) : It doesn’t depend on ~

* noun + ( = ni) + よらないで ( = yoranai de) / よらず ( = yorazu) ~ : to do something / to be decided not depending on ~

Ex. 人は見かけによらない

= Hito wa mikake ni yoranai.

= Appearances can be deceiving.

Ex. 彼女は見かけによらず力が強い。

= Kanojo wa mikake ni yorazu chikara ga tsuyoi.

= She is (physically) strong regardless of her look.

****

よりによって = yori ni yotte 

1) Why does it have to be ~ ? / When something happen at the worst possible timing.

Ex. よりによってどうしてこんな忙しい時間に電話してきたの?

= Yori ni yotte doushite konna isogashii jikan ni denwa shite kita no?

= Why did you call me at this busy time?

(There is a better time to call me.)

Ex. 息子に「誕生日に何が欲しい?」って聞いたらよりによって一番高いゲーム機を選んだ。

= Musuko ni “Tanjoubi ni nani ga hoshii?” tte kiitara yori ni yotte ichiban takai geemuki wo eranda.

= I asked my son what he wants for his birthday, so he ends up picking the most expensive game console.

2) There are many people but why was me/he/she was chosen? = Why, of all people, was me/he/she chosen?

Ex. よりによってどうして私がリーダーに選ばれたんだろう。

= Yori ni yotte doushite watashi ga riidaa ni erabaretan daraou.

= Why, of all people, was I chosen as a leader?

(It implies there are many other people who are better than me.)

Ex. 彼女がよりによって私の元カレと結婚したなんて..

= Kanojo ga yori ni yotte watashi no motokare to kekkon shita nante…

= I can’t believe that she got married to my ex-boyfriend.

(There are many men but why him?)

****

マギー先生より = Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

波先生、ありがとう! = Nami Sensei arigatou! = Thank you, Nami-Sensei!

日本語がうまくなるかどうかは、どれだけ楽しんで勉強するかによります

= Nihongo ga umaku naru ka dou ka wa, dore dake tanoshinde benkyou suru ka ni yorimasu.

= Whether your Japanese gets better or not depends on how much you enjoy studying.

***

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6 Comments

  1. in the spot where you put you can also use it with auxiliary verbs were you referring to よりけり? in the first place im not to knowledgeable on grammar but i couldn’t understand how the examples used an auxiliary verb after searching a lot up

    1. Hi Joshua,

      Sorry for the confusion. That sentence should be deleted. I thought I erased the sentence when I made a lesson but I guess I forgot to do so.

      1. thank you for clearing up the confusion. i learned a lot while trying to figure it out so its all good! thank you for your wonderful lessons Maggie sensei

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