How to use はず ( = hazu)



= Kotoshi no aki made niwa kare ga dekiru hazu datta noni…

= I was supposed to be able to get a boyfriend by this autumn…

Hi, everyone! Today’s lesson is for my Twitter  follower, David and  Facebook friend, mew.   They both asked me to make a lesson on how and when to use はず(= hazu). I was going to make a mini-lesson on Facebook, but it got longer than I expected so here it is.

You might think the usage of はず (  = hazu) is easy, 易しいはず= Yasashii hazu  = It should be easy! 

Still, the difference between the two past tense forms and negative forms might confuse you.  Hopefully, this lesson will clear things up.


⭐️ = はず = hazu

to be supposed to do/be, when you expect  something, It is certain ~/  must ~ / should~



🔹 Verbs :


★ verb (plain form )  + はず  ( = hazu) +  だ  ( = da)/ です  ( = desu) *  (です  ( = desu) is a polite form.)

to be supposed to be/do, / I expect ~ /  things should work as you have expected.

Ex. このおもちゃは電池を入れたら動くはずです。

= Kono omocha wa denchi wo iretara ugoku hazu desu.

= This toy is supposed to move when you put in batteries.

Ex. マギーは今、家にいるはずだ。

= Maggie wa ima ie ni iru hazu da.

= Maggie should be home now.

Ex. これだけ勉強すれば誰でも試験に受かるはずだ。

= Koredake benkyou sureba daredemo shiken ni ukaru hazu da.

= Anybody would pass the exam if they studied this much.

Ex. 明日、荷物が届くはずだ。

= Ashita nimotsu ga todoku hazuda.

The package is supposed to be delivered tomorrow. / I expect the package will be delivered tomorrow.

Ex. 彼女も会議に出席するはずです。

= Kanojo mo kaigi ni shusseki suru hazu desu.

= She, too, is supposed to attend the meeting./ I expect she will also attend the meeting tomorrow.

Ex. もうすぐタクシーが来るはずです。

= Mousugu takushii ga kuru hazu desu.

= The taxi should come soon. / I expect the taxi will be here soon.

Ex. あのお店はそこそこ儲かっているはずだ。

= Ano omise wa sokosoko moukatte iru hazu da.

= That place (store, restaurant, bar) must be making some (modest) money.

Ex.このサイトに毎日来たら、1年後には日本語がかなり上達しているはずです。 :)

= Kono saito ni mainichi kitara ichinengo ni wa nihongo ga kanari joutatsu shiteiru hazu desu.

= If you come to this site every day,  your Japanese should improve a lot.

When things don’t work out as we have expected, we use

:rrrr: はずなのに = hazu nanoni = It is supposed to be ~ but…

Go check  the function of  のに in  this lesson.

Ex. 新聞は毎朝6:00までには配達されるはずなのに今日はまだ来ていない。

= Shinbun wa maiasa rokuji ni haitatsu sareru hazu nanoni kyou wa mada kite inai.

= They are supposed to deliver the newspapers by 6:00 every morning but they haven’t delivered it yet today.

🔹 Variation : なんだけど  ( = nandakedo), なのだが  ( = nanodaga), なのですが ( = nanodesu ga), etc.

Ex. もうそろそろ彼から電話があるはずなんだけど…

= Mou sororo kare kara denwa ga aru hazu nan dakedo…

= He should call me at any minute, but … (I expect he will call me at any minute.) but…


★Verb Negative Form 1) :


verb (plain negative form ) +  はず  ( = hazu)  +  だ ( = da)/ です ( = desu) *  (です ( = desu) is a polite form.): to expect something/someone doesn’t do something/isn’t ~

Ex. マギーは今、家にいないはずだ。

= Maggie wa ima ie ni inai hazu da.

= Maggie shouldn’t be home now./ Maggie is not supposed to be home now.


= Ano geimu wa america dewa  utte inai hazu da.

= The game is not supposed to be sold in the U.S.

Ex. 彼女はまだ20歳にはなっていないはずだ。

= Kanojo wa mada hatachi (or nijussai) ni wa natte inai hazu da.

= I don’t think she can be 20 years old yet. / She can’t be 2o years old yet.

Ex. こんな難しい問題は彼には解けないはずだ。

= Konna muzukashii mondai wa kare ni wa tokenai hazu da.

= He should not be able to solve such a difficult problem.

Ex. 誰も私たちの居場所を知らないはずなのだが。

= Dare mo watashitachi no ibasho wo shiranai hazu nano daga…

= Nobody is supposed to know where we are but…



Verb Negative Form 2) :


verb (plain form )  +  はず/(  = ~ hazu ga/wa ) + ない ( = nai) / ありません ( = arimasen)        →* ありません  ( = arimasen) is more polite

= There is no way that someone/something does/is ~

Ex. 彼女があんな男を好きになるはずがない。

= Kanojo ga anna otoko wo suki ni naru hazu ga nai.

= There is no way that she would like that kind of man.

Ex. 理想の彼なんているはずがない。

= Risou no kare nante iru hazu ga nai.

= There is no such thing as an ideal boyfriend.

Ex. そんなやり方でうまくいくはずがありません。

= Sonna yarikata de umaku iku hazu ga arimasen.

= It would never work like that. / Things shouldn’t work that way.

Note: はずが(は)ない  ( = hazu ga (wa) nai)  is similar to わけがない  ( = wake ga nai) / わけはない  ( = wake wa nai)  Go check this lesson


Verb Double negative :


Ex. マギーがそのことを知らないはずがない。

= Maggie ga sono koto wo shiranai hazu ga nai.

= There is no way that Maggie doesn’t know that.

:rrrr:  (the same thing)


= Maggie wa mochiron sono koto wo shitte iru hazu da.

= It is obvious that Maggie knows that.



Verb Past Tense  1)


verb past tense (plain form) + はず  ( = hazu) +  だ  ( = da)/  です  ( = desu)

When you are sure something had happened in the past / you or someone did something. /I expect something happened/ I expect someone did something.

Ex. 昨日、彼はここに来たはずだ。

= Kinou kare wa koko ni kita hazu da.

= He must have come here yesterday.

Ex. もうみんな寝たはずなのに一階で物音がする。

= Mou minna neta hazu nanoni ikkai de monooto ga suru.

= Everybody should have gone to bed already, but I heard something downstairs.

Ex. 忙しいからって電話ぐらいかけることが出来たはずでしょ!    (female /casual speech)

= Isogashii karatte denwa gurai kakeru koto ga dekita hazu desho!

= Even though you were busy, you could have at least called me.

Ex. 勉強しないと試験には受からないとわかっていたはずだ。

= Benkyou shinai to shiken niwa ukaranai to wakatte ita hazu da.

= You should have known you would fail if you didn’t study.

Ex. ここに財布を置いておいたはずなのにない。

= Koko ni saifu wo oite oita hazu nanoni nai.

= I thought I had put my wallet, here but it is gone.

Ex. 傘を持ってきたはずなんだけど。

= Kasa wo motte kita hazunan dakedo…

= I thought I brought an umbrella but…


= Shinda hazu no kare ni atta toiu hito ga iru.

= There are people who said they had seen him — and he’s supposed to be dead. / There are people who have seen (the supposedly dead) him.

Ex. この話はマギーは知らなかったはずだ。

= Kono hanashi wa Maggie wa shiranakatta hazu da.

= I am sure Maggie didn’t know about this.

Ex. あの人のことはもう忘れたはずなのに…

= Anohito no koto wa mou wasureta hazu nanoni…

= I thought I’d already forgotten about him/her but…

Verb  Past Tense  2)


verb present tense (plain form ) +  はず  ( = hazu)  +  だった ( = datta) / でした ( = deshita) * でした ( = deshitaI is more polite

= was supposed/expected to have done something/been ~

It is used when the things didn’t turn out to be what you had expected. You can tell the speaker is expressing the feelings of regret, unsatisfied feelings, etc.

Ex. 彼とは昨日、会うはずだった

= Kare towa kinou au hazu datta.

= I was supposed to see him yesterday.

Ex. 全てうまく行くはずだったのに…

= Subete umaku iku hazu datta noni…

= Everything should have gone well.

Ex. このまま行けば大金持ちになるはずだったのに…

= Kono mama ikeba ooganemochi ni naru hazu datta noni..

= If things had worked out, I would supposedly have become a millionaire


 Verb past tense 2)  – negative form :

● verb present tense (plain form )    +   はず  ( = hazu) +では ( = dewa) +なかった  ( = nakatta)/ありませんでした ( = arimasen deshita)。

I was not supposed to do something (expressing the feeling of regret, Disappointment or dissatisfaction)

Note : では  ( = dewa) : casual wayじゃ  ( = ja) or じゃあ ( = jaa)

Ex. こんな所に来るはずではなかった。

= Konna tokoro ni kuru hazu dewa nakatta.

= I was not going to come to this kind of place. / I wasn’t going to come to a place like this.

:rrrr: (more casual)

Ex. こんな所に来るはずじゃ(あ)なかった。

= Konna tokoro ni kuru hazu ja(a) nakatta.


Note:  In case you get confused… Here is the difference.


a) マギーは3時に着くはずだ。

= Maggie wa sanji ni tsuku hazu da

= Maggie is supposed to arrive at 3 o’clock.

b) マギーは3時に着いたはずだ。

= Maggie wa sanji ni tsuita hazu da.

= I expect Maggie to arrive at 3:00

c) マギーは3時に着くはずだった

= Maggie wa sanji ni tsuku hazu datta.

= Maggie was supposed to arrive at 3:00. (But she didn’t)


🐶: From the picture above :


= Kotoshi no aki made niwa kare ga dekiru hazu datta noni…

= I was supposed to be able to get a boyfriend by this autumn…

〜までには= ~ made niwa = by (the time)

カレ =  彼 = kare ( Or  彼氏= カレシ = kareshi) = boyfriend

カレができる= kare ga dekiru = to have a boyfriend / to be able to get a boyfriend

(present plain form)    はずだった  ( = hazutatta) = was supposed to ~(things didn’t work out as I planned.)

のに  ( = noni) = but…. (expressing my disappointment.)

 Note : The difference between はず ( = hazu) and  (~に)違いない  ( = (~ ni) chigainai)

The translation could be the same,

:rrrr: It must be Maggie Sensei who ate my snack.

d) 私のおやつを食べたのはマギー先生に違いない

= Watashi no oyatsu wo tabeta no wa Maggie sensei ni chigainai.

e) 私のおやつを食べたのはマギー先生のはずだ。

= Watashi no oyatsu wo tabeta no wa Maggie sensei no hazu da.

:rrrr: 違いない  ( = chinagainai)  : when you guess something by intuitive assumption,

:rrrr: はず  ( = hazu) is based on more logical assumption or reliable information.


🔹 Adjectives :


i-adjective + はず  ( = hazu) +  だ ( = da)/ です ( = desu)

* 美味しい ( = oishii) delicious + はず  ( = hazu) +  だ ( = da)/ です ( = desu)

:rrrr: 美味しいはずだ ( = oishii hazu da) /美味しいはずです ( = oishii hazu desu.) = It should be delicious

Ex. 彼女の作ったものなら何でも美味しいはずだ。

= Kanojo no tsukutta mono nara nandemo oishii hazuda.

= Everything she makes must be delicious./ I expect everything she makes to be delicious.

Ex. あのドレスは高価なはずだ。

= Ano doresu wa kouka na hazu da.

= That dress must be expensive.

Ex. マギーの妹ならかわいいはずです。

= Maggie no imouto nara kawaii hazu desu.

= If she is Maggie’s younger sister, she must be cute.

na-adjective + な ( = na) + はず  ( = hazu) +  だ  ( = da)/ です  ( = desu)

*簡単な ( = kantanna) easy  + はず  ( = hazu) +  だ  ( = da)/ です  ( = desu)

簡単なはずだ  ( = kantanna hazu da) / 簡単なはずです。 ( = kantanna hazu desu.) = should be easy

Ex.  明日の試験は簡単なはずだ。

= Ashita no shiken wa kantanna hazu da.

= (I expect ) The exam tomorrow should be (or is supposed to be) easy.

Ex. マギー先生は仕事中はもっと真面目なはずだ。

= Maggie Sensei wa shigoto chuu wa motto majime na hazu da.

= I expect Maggie Sensei to be more serious when she works. / Maggie Sensei should be more serious when she works.

Ex. 便利なはずのスマホが時々すごく不便に感じる。

= Benrina hazu no sumaho ga tokidoki sugoku fuben ni kanjiru.

= Smartphone is supposed to be convenient, but I sometimes feel it is very inconvenient to use.


Adjective Negative Form :


There are two negative forms.

1) adjective plain form   + はずが/はない( =  ~ hazu ga / wa nai) /ありません ( = arimasen) ありません ( = arimasen) is more polite

There is no way that ~

Ex. マギーの料理が美味しいはずがない。

= Maggie no ryouri ga oishii hazu ga nai.

= There is no way that Maggie’s cooking is delicious. / Maggie’s cooking can’t be delicious. / I expect Maggie’s cooking can’t be good.

2) adjective negative form  + はず   ( = hazu) +  だ ( = da) / です  ( = desu)

Ex. マギーの料理は美味しくないはずだ。

= Maggie no ryouri  wa oishiku nai hazu da.

= Maggie’s cooking is supposed to be bad. (not delicious) / I am sure that  Maggie’s cooking is bad.

:rrrr: The difference between 1) and 2)

1) You are denying the fact “マギーの料理が美味しい” = Maggie no ryouri ga oishii = Maggie’s cooking is good

2) You are sure about the fact “マギーの料理は美味しくない = Maggie no ryouri wa oishiku nai = Maggie’s cooking is not delicious”

Adjectives double negative :

Ex. 私の料理が美味しくないはずはない。

= Watashi no ryouri ga oishiku nai hazu wa nai.

= There is no way that my cooking is not good.

:rrrr: But it is more common to say…


= Watashi no ryouri wa oishii hazu da.

= My cooking should be good!



= Watashi no ryouri ga mazui hazu wa nai.

= My cooking can’t be bad.



Adjectives Past tense 1) :


adjectives past tense plain form + はず  ( = hazu)  + だ ( = da)/です ( = desu) = It must have been ~ / It should have been

When you are sure someone/something was ~ in past. /It/Someone was expected to be ~  in past

a) i-adjective :  ~ かったはず = ~ katta hazu

Ex. 今でもこんなにかわいいのだから小さい頃、マギーはもっとかわいかったはずだ。 :)

= Ima demo konnani kawaiino dakara chiisai koro Maggie wa motto kawaikatta hazu da.

= Since Maggie is this cute now, she must have been much cuter when she was little.

b) na-adjective : ~だったはず= ~ datta hazu

Ex. 彼女のウェディングドレス姿は素敵だったはずだ。

= Kanojo no uedingu doresu  sugata wa suteki datta hazu da.

= She must have been beautiful in a wedding dress.

Ex. 昨日は平日だったから静かだったはずだ。

= Kinou wa heijitsu datta kara shizuka datta hazuda.

= Since it was a weekday yesterday, it must have been very quiet.


★Adjectives Past tense 2) :

adjective present tense +  はず  ( = hazu) +だった ( = datta) / でした ( = deshita)

~ was supposed to be ~

Ex. 自分にとって特別なはずだった人が嫌いになってきた。

= Jibun ni totte tokubetu na hazu datta hito ga kirai ni natte kita.

= I’ve come to dislike someone who was supposed to be special for me.


🔹   Nouns :


noun + の ( = no)  + はず ( = hazu) + だ ( = da) / です ( = desu)

Ex. 試験は明日のはずだ。

= Shiken wa ashita no hazu da.

= The exam should be tomorrow.

Ex. 彼が探していたのはこの本のはずだ。

= Kare ga sagashite ita no wa kono hon no hazu da.

= The book he was looking for should be this one.

Ex. 確かにこの道のはずだが…

= Tashika ni kono michi no hazu da ga…

= I‘m certain to take this street but.. (It should be this street but..)

Past tense with a noun 1)


noun  + だった  ( = datta) +  はず  ( = hazu) + だ  ( = da)/ です  ( = desu)

~ was supposed to have done something /  It must have been ~

Ex. 5年前、彼はまだ小学生だったはずだ。

=  Gonen mae kare wa mada shougakusei datta hazuda.

= He must have been an elementary student five years ago.


= Anohito no ie wa kono hen datta hazuda.

= I think his (her) house was around here.

Ex. あの頃の家賃は7万円だったはずです。

= Anokoro no yachin wa nanaman-en datta hazu desu.

= I think the rent at that time must have been 70,000 yen.

Past tense with a noun 2)


noun + の ( = no) +  はず ( = hazu) + だった ( = datta)/  でした ( = deshita)

It was expected that ~  / ~ was supposed to do something / be ~

You use this form when things didn’t work out as you planned and you wonder why or express your complaints, regrets, or unsatisfactory feelings.

Ex. 今度飼うのは猫のはずだったが犬を飼うことになった。

= Kondo kau no wa neko no hazu datta ga inu wo kau koto ni natta.

= We were supposed to have a cat as a pet this time but we ended up having a dog.

Ex. 明日は休日のはずでしたが仕事をしなくてはいけなくなりました。

= Ashita wa kyuujitu no hazu deshita ga shigoto wo shinakute wa ikenaku narimashita.

= It was supposed to be my day off tomorrow, but I’ll have to work after all.

Ex.  彼とは友達のはずだったのにだんだん好きになってきた。

= Kare to wa tomodachi no hazu datta noni dandan suki ni natte kita.

= We were supposed to be (just) friends, but I’ve begun to like him.

🔹 adnominal adjective :


Ex. こんなはずではなかった。

= Konna hazu de wa nakatta

= This isn’t supposed to be happening.

:rrrr: Note : Again, colloquial Japanese では  ( =  dewa) → じゃ(あ)= ja (a)


= Konna hazuja nakatta.

Ex. 「コンサートは6時に始まるんだっけ?」(casual)

= Konsaato wa rokuji ni hajimarun dakke?

= The concert will start at 6:00, right?


= Sono hazu dakedo..

= It should (start at 6:00) but..

マギー先生より= Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

= Aah, konna nagai ressun ni naru hazu ja nakattan dakedo…

= Ah… it wasn’t supposed to be this long a lesson but…


= Demo kore de minna “Hazu” no tsukai kataga wakatta hazu dayone.

= But I bet you all know how to use “hazu” now.


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  1. could i ask a question?
    Is the following sentence correct? Xのものだったはずの帽子…
    why instead of はずだった is written だったはず ?
    I’m confused

  2. Hi, Maggie-sensei! I love your posts very-very much, thank you for your work!

    My question is about this example: 彼女はまだ20歳にはなっていないはずだ
    I didn’t know we can use wa twice in one sentence – it’s like we have two topics of the sentence. Could you elaborate on that please? Are there any tips/rules for using wa multiple times in a sentence?

    doumo :3

    1. Hello Valery

      You are right. You tend to avoid using the same particle because repeating the same particle may look/sound confusing.
      You can say
      彼女はまだ20歳になっていないはずだ as well but the nuance changes a little.

      彼女は this は is a topic marker
      20歳には→ this は is to show the contrast. (showing the contrast of 20 years old and other ages. For example, maybe she is close to 20, like 19 years old but not she hasn’t turned 20 yet.)

      So even if there are two は, it won’t be confusing.

      I will show you another example.
      = This company offers good salary but gave us a lot of work.

  3. Hello Maggie Sensei,

    1 – A「今日、川口さんも会いに出席するでしょうか。」 B え? 川口さんは今、日本にいない(XXXXX)ですよ。おとといアメリカに行ったんです。」

    a- はず
    b – わけ

    Hello for the above statement I wrongly chose b – わけ, why is it wrong? I thought it means something factual, unlike はず?

    Also for:
    2 – 彼は「必ず行くよ。」と言っていたのだから、来る( )ですよ。もう少し待ちましょう

    I again chose b – わけ wrong, but the correct answer is はず why is it wrong? I thought わけ means something factual, unlike はず?

    thx in advance

    1. Hi Mark

      Hmm but did you read this lesson?
      I think I covered the same usage of はず in this lesson.

      1  いないはずです
      I explained the usage of はず in the example sentences
      verb (plain negative form ) + はず ( = hazu) + だ ( = da)/ です ( = desu)
      to expect something/someone doesn’t do something/isn’t ~
      Ex. マギーは今、家にいないはずだ。
      = Maggie shouldn’t be home now./ Maggie is not supposed to be home now.
      It is the same pattern.

      2. 来るはずです

      Is the same pattern

      verb (plain form ) + はず ( = hazu) + だ ( = da)/ です ( = desu)

      to be supposed to be/do, / I expect ~ / things should work as you have expected.

      Ex. もうすぐタクシーが来るはずです。
      = The taxi should come soon. / I expect the taxi will be here soon.

      I am not going to explain the usage of わけ here but わけ is like
      Something explain why/the reason why

      A: 川口さんは今、アメリカにいます。 Kawaguchi-san is in the US now.
      B: ああ、だから家にいないわけだ。 Ah that’s why he is not home now. That explains why he is not home now.

  4. Hi Maggie-sensei~!

    I have a question about this example:

    Sonna koto saisho kara wakatteta hazu na noni.
    I knew that from the beginning.

    I heard this in an episode from ‘GTO’ but I’m not sure why is it ‘wakatteta’ and not wakatta instead?

      1. Hi Maggie-sensei!

        Yes I like it a lot! I started watching it with a friend and we always laugh super hard at it! But also the themes in the anime are very real and it gets quite deep/sad sometimes too. Do you like it?

        That’s fine I will check that lesson out! If I don’t understand it still I will ask, thank you!

  5. Hello! Maggie-sensei I love your website and dog! 💖💖

    Thank you so much for looking into a detailed look into はずだった^^. I’ve struggling, I do mean ~struggled~ with the meaning of it.

    May I ask if it’s possible that the speaker who says はずだった say it without a regretful or unsatisfied tone?

    I came across a dialogue bubble containing the words はずだった and 代わりに in the same bubble and thought to myself if the character “really” feels regret? I’m unsure about that.

    Thank you, I look forward to more of your content:)

    1. Hello Darlene
      はずだった is used when something you were expected didn’t happen so a lot of time, it involves the speaker’s feelings, such as “It’s too bad”/ “I am disappointed” but I guess it is possible to use はずだった without the feelings of regret if the event has nothing to do with you and you just state the fact.

      Ex. 建設工事は4月に完成するはずだったが6月に延期になったみたいだ。
      The construction projects was supposed to be completed in April but it seems like they got postponed ’til June.

      In this case, if the writer/speaker has nothing to do with the construction projects and just state the fact, it doesn’t involved any feelings.

      1. Hello again, Maggie-Sensei ^^

        Gotcha, I understand it’s common that the speaker will feel something while saying any sentence that includes “はずだった”. Thank you for your clarification.

        If it’s not too much trouble, may I ask for your help on that said dialogue I’ve been struggling with? >//<

        Here it is: "ユリと叶うはずだった新婚生活君が代わりに果たしてくれなきゃ"

        It contains 代わりに and はずだった which throws me off from the thinking that the character is feeling regret since they said 代わりに.

        It probably doesn't make any sense without context, huh?

        1. “ユリと叶うはずだった新婚生活君が代わりに果たしてくれなきゃ”
          Let me rephrase this sentence to understand the meaning better.

          I believe the speaker was supposed to get married to Yuri but something happened and he couldn’t marry her.
          So the speaker is asking the listener to marry him, “Instead of Yuri, you should carry out/fullfill my new married life.
          Since there is のに, it doesn’t express so much of regrets here.

          1. You’re so incredible!!❤️ I understand the rephrase better. ┌|o^▽^o|┘♪

            Oh gosh, I made a mistake >\\<

            The piece of dialogue was actually written this way: "ユリと叶えるはずだった新婚生活君が代わりに果たしてくれなきゃ" with the "叶える" instead of "叶う" but when it's rephrased, it produces the same meaning, right?

          2. OK, that makes more sense.
            叶える(かなえる) to make ~ come true / to realize one’s hope (transitive verb)
            叶う(かなう) one’s wish/dream comes true (intransitive verb)

            叶える involves’s speaker’s will.

          3. I see (・_・;) what you mean.

            So the rephrase or meaning would be different if it comes from the way this is written?
            “ユリと叶えるはずだった新婚生活君が代わりに果たしてくれなきゃ” where the phrase “はずだった” will openly show the speaker’s regret since it uses “叶える” but not so much or none at all if it uses “代わりに” too.

            I’m so sorry to keep bothering you with this!
            ~♡•́ ‿ ,•̀

          4. Lmao, that’s right. ☺️ Thank you so very much for your help, I really appreciate it, you’re an awesome teacher! (*^3^)/~♡🙏

  6. Hi Maggie-san

    Is it ok to rephrase this:


    1. Hello Spencer,
      No, you can’t.
      When you connect two sentences, the first sentence can’t finish with だった
      You need some conjunction (in this case なのに) or finish the sentence once and start with conjunction, such as しかし
      Also but だった is a past tense. 毎朝 means “every morning” so you have to use the present tense.
      If you are talking about the past, you can use だった but you still need conjunction.


  7. Hello Maggie Sensei

    With this grammar point, can you say


    So trying to say, on the contrary, he must be a lazy person.


    1. Hi Jen
      Since you are talking about someone’s personality I would say
      彼は怠け者に違いない is more natural.
      If you are less sure,
      彼は多分、怠け者かもしれない。 works as well.

  8. If it’s “verb はずだ/です”, can’t you simply say “verb はずじゃない” for the negation, instead of “verb はずがない”? Is it wrong?

    1. Usually the negative form of noun+だ・です is noun+ ではない・じゃない
      But the negative form of はず is special and you use はずがない・はずはない as its negative form.
      He should be here on time.
      When you deny the possibility strongly you use はずはない・はずがない
      There is no way that he would be here on time.

      You don’t say 来るはずじゃない

      You use はずではない・はずじゃない はずではなかった・はずじゃなかった when things don’t/didn’t work out as one has expected.

      It’s not supposed to happen.

      1. So I can say じゃない after はず only when it’s alone (or with こんな, その, etc.), right?

        How do you negate “noun のはずだ”? Do you still use がない?

        Is こんなはずがない right? If so, what’s the difference between this and your last example?

        1. Yes, you can use がない・はない to negate noun+のはずだ

          Ex. 彼は医者のはずだ
          (strong negation)彼が医者のはずはない・はずがない

  9. Hello,
    I have a question concerning this sentence:
    Why did you use the form “joutatsu shite iru” instead of “joutatsu suru” at the end of it? I thought the meaning was supposed to be “your Japanese will get better”.
    I’d be really grateful for the reply :)

    1. Hi

      You can say 上達します,too.

      The nuance difference is

      上達している will have improved (talking about the state that you are already improved)
      上達します will improve

      The key word is 一年後 
      Let’s say your Japanese level is “0” now. But if you come to this site every day, your level will be “10” a year from now.

  10. こんにちは先生、質問してもいいんですか?

    1. 飲んだはずのミルクはなぜ冷蔵庫にまだ残っているんですか?

    2. 飲まれた…(継続は1と同じです)

    3. “高価なはずだったの時計がいま安くなりました。”
    “The watch, that was supposed to be expensive, has now become cheaper.”


    1. こんにちは、Sassy

      1. 飲んだはずのミルク”は” → 飲んだはずのミルク”が” is better but the sentence itself sounds a bit mysterious. Is that what you meant?
      The milk that I thought I drank is still in the fridge.
      2. 飲まれた (passive form “The mill that was drunk”) is not natural.

      3. It is not natural to use “the watch which was supposed to be expensive has now become cheaper”
      高価な時計が今は安くなっている。 will work.
      If you want to use はず, how about the sentence like

      1. Thank you for the reply Maggie sensei

        1. I was trying to say: ‘why does the milk that is supposed to be drunk(by someone) still remain in fridge ?’

        2. In this case, i was trying to say :’Why does the milk that should have already been drunk still remain in the fridge?’

        3. I understand. I tried so much to include hazu in a sentence. In this case I tried to combine it with だった but it appears I got it wrong hehe.

        1. 1 & 2

          OK, in that case, you can say
          but passive form is not natural X飲まれたミルク

  11. Hello Maggie sensei,

    What is the difference between “Hazunanoni” and “Hazudatta”
    To be more specific, what is the difference between
    (1) ここに財布を置いておいたはずなのに。。。。
    (2) ここに財布を置くはずだった。。。

    Thanks Maggie sensei for always helping us.

    1. Hello,
      See the nuance difference?
      (1) ここに財布を置いておいたはずなのに

      I thought I put my wallet here (but it’s not here/It’s gone. I wonder why it’s not here..)

      (2) ここに財布を置くはずだった
      I was supposed to put the wallet here but I didn’t.

        1. OK, let me add
          (1) emphasizes the fact that the wallet is missing
          (2) emphasizes the regret or duty that you had to put the wallet but you didn’t.

          1. Hello ,

            Thanks for adding more explanation.
            I think I am getting your point.
            But, is it はずだった is similar with つもりだった?

            Thanks Maggie sensei for always helping us.

  12. Hello Maggie sensei, i’ve got a question
    What are we supposed to do if the sentence end with はすなんだ ?
    Thank you for all your lessons

    1. こんにちはピエル

      You have seen how to use はずです。はずだ
      はずなんだ is used when you show your strong emotion or frustration because something was supposed to work in certain way but it didn’t work or someone is supposed to do something but they don’t.

      1. Can it be excitation, maybe ? It comes from a game I’m playing, and I don’t think frustration would fit the context.
        I also have another question which isn’t related to this article ( sorry )
        Can どかな ( meaning “could be”) be spelled どうかな instead ? I saw it like that in the same game, and from the look of the official translation, I think it should be どかな.

  13. Maggie sensei,

    今、Maggie sensei サイトの大ファンになっています。毎日の朝、仕事の前にレッスンを読んでいます。



    ごめん、Maggie sensei. I try to make Japanese sentence by myselt.
    Hope you can understand my Japanese !!!!

    1. Hello!

      (Note: 今日ははずというレッソンを読むながら、質問が浮かんですので、→to make it sound more natural you can say 今日は「はず」というレッスンを読んでいたら質問が浮かんできたので)


      Actually the usage of でしょう is kind of limited.
      You use it when you predict something, forecast the weather or it is used in the written form.
      はず is based on one’s strong belief.

      For example the weather reporter says
      明日は雨が降るでしょう。= It will rain tomorrow.

      But they will never say 明日は雨が降るはずです。in the weather forecast. It sounds like “I believe it is going to rain tomorrow.”

  14. こんにちは!
    Thank you for taking the time to post all these lessons. They help a lot.
    I do have a question:
    For example in this dialogue I’m looking at a couple of bags with a friend.
    A: Cさんの鞄はどれですか。
    B: くまモンの鞄のはずです。
    Is it possible to leave out the 鞄 and just say くまモンののはずです or would that sound really weird?
    Thanks in advance 先生!

    1. こんにちは、Eli,

      くまモンの鞄のはずです。 is OK but くまモンののはずです is not natural. I would avoid using two の
      Also you wanted to say “It must be the one with kumamon’s picture?”

  15. Hi again, thank you for your reply the last time.
    I have a question again

    the example you provided


    I am confused. Why do we need a double verb? Why isn’t it just
    ここに財布を置いたはずなのにない ? please teach me.

    thank you so much.

    1. Hello yuuna,
      置いておく implies leaving something in a certain state.
      That’s why Maggie used this pattern. It sounds just more natural and adds this nuance.


  16. Hi Maggie sensei! Can you use はずin a question? For example, “Is it supposed to rain today?” 「今日雨が降るはずですか?」 Is this correct? Thank you in advance!! <3

    1. Hello Courtney,
      since はず implies speaker’s guess with conviction it would be unnatural to ask (someone) for it.


  17. このサイトに毎日来たら、1年後には日本語がかなり上達しているはずです。


  18. Dear Maggie Sensei,

    Thank you for your wonderful site, I have learned a lot and also many things have been clarified :)
    マギー先生におかげで色々なことを分かれるようになりました! :D

    I have tried to create some sentences using “hazu” but I’m not sure if they are correct… Could you please help me correct this one?

    I was trying to say: “If you leave the window open, it is sure that I won’t be able to sleep” (because my husband likes to sleep next to an open window, but the noise of the street disturbs me, so I always tell him this. In the end he always closes it :grin: )
    My version was: 窓をあけておいたら私が寝られないはずです。

    Thank you in advance! :mm:


    1. @Berry

      “If you leave the window open, it is sure that I won’t be able to sleep”
      In this case, I wouldn’t use はず
      won’t be able to ~ できなくなる/~なくなる/〜できない

      *You can also say

      はず is used when you expect someone/something to happen/ something should happen

      For example, you couldn’t sleep for some reason and found out the windows were open. Then you can say

      = The windows were open. No wonder I couldn’t sleep.

      1. Dear Maggie Sensei,

        Thank you for your quick reply! !heart3!
        It sounds so clear and simple when you explain it!
        It seems I still need some time to get the hang of the use of “hazu”! ^^;
        I even made a 4 page long note and summary out of this lesson for personal use, but I’m sure my brain needs time to process it…
        I’ll keep trying! :grin:


        1. @Berry

          You’re very welcome!
          Wow! 4 pages long note??? すごいですね。
          ( I am sure you can do it, Berry!)

  19. Can I say:

    予約確認番号は 678954 。ホテルに着いたところ、この番号はホテル員に申し上げたりするはずです。
    Is it correct?

    What I mean to say is: you should give/say this number to the hotel clerk when you arrive

    1. @LyraGiulia

      Do you work for a hotel?
      If you are talking to a customer,
      (arrive = ご到着されたら but check-in チェックイン is more natural.)

      1. No, I’m telling their confirmation number to my japanese friends who are coming in Rome. And maybe they don’t know what the confirmation number is meant for. So I wanted to tell them what they are supposed to do with it. !AHOUSE!

        1. @LyraGuilia

          OK, then you don’t have to be so polite.

  20. 先生、こんにちは。
    I’d like to thank you for this great lesson.
    やっと「はず」の使い方が分かったはずです。(I hope that sentence is correct. If not, how embarrassing…

      1. Sensei, what’s the difference between “hazu” and “tsumori”?
        Ex: Watashi wa sono hon wo yonda tsumori desu.
        Watashi wa sono hon wo yonda hazu desu.

        Chichi wa mada wakai tsumori desu.
        Chichi wa mada wakai hazu desu.

        1. @Rodrigo

          Ex. 私はその本を読んだつもりです。
          = Watashi wa sono hon wo yonda tsumori desu.
          = I thought I read the book. (But I could be wrong.)

          Ex. 私はその本を読んだはずです。
          = Watashi wa sono hon wo yonda hazu desu.
          = I must have read that book.(I am pretty sure.)

          Note : verb present tense + つもり= (~するつもりです)to be going to do something, will do something
          (When you are talking about what you are going to do in near future.)
          verb past tense + つもり=(~したつもりです。)is used when you thought you did/have done something.


          Ex. 3) 父はまだ若いつもりです。
          = Chichi wa mada wakai tsumori desu.
          = My father believes he is still young.

          Ex.4) 父はまだ若いはずです。
          = Chichi wa mada wakai hazu desu.
          = I believe my father is still young.
          Note : As you can see the subject of Ex.3) is “my father” but the subject of Ex.4) is “I”.

  21. Hi!

    Thank you very much for your great site, it’s really thorough and great help when studying Japanese.
    However, there’s a small typo in the following example. I hope you could fix it when you’ve time.

    Ex. ここに財布を置いておいたはずなのにない。

    = Koko ni saifu wo oite oita hazu nanoni…

  22. Maggie sensei, can we use hazu when we blame someone ? For example “You should have taken off your shoes!”

    Thank you very much >3<

    1. @Lodee

      Hi Lodee!
      You should have taken off your shoes.
      →I would translate that sentence using with のに not はず
      靴を脱がなくてはいけなかったのに= Kutsu wo nuganakutewa ikenakatta noni.
      But yes, you can use ”はず=hazu” when you blame someone.

      = Itta hazu desu.
      = I told you that you should have taken off your shoes.

  23. Great Lesson! I have two queestions regarding はず. I can always understand the meaning of the sentences that use はず, but when it comes to making up my own’s, I end up getting stuck especially in deciding which verb tenses should be used. So the questions are.
    Can you use Verb Past tense + はず + だった (i.e, double past tense)? What would it mean?

    The other question was about a situation that occured to me. I slept at my friend’s house and then he told me he had to wake up at 7 am, but it was already 9 and he hadn’t woke up yet. So I thought of the sentence “He should already have woken up”. And when I tried to translate to japanese, I came up with “もう起きたはずなのに”. Is this correct?

    Sorry it became a little long, this is the first time I comment on this site but I always follow the posts and it has helped me a lot in my studies!

    1. @RPARAH

      Q1) It is possible to use double past tense.
      V 1 (past / past perfect)+ はず+ だった = When you expected that you have done something/someone has done something.

      Ex. 1) お金を持って来たはずだったのに…
      I thought I have brought money

      The translation could be the same as

      Ex. 2) お金を持ってきたはずなのに

      But Ex.1) shows slightly more regret than 2)

      Q2) That is a tricky one.
      How about もう起きていなければいけないはずなのに。He should have been woken up already.

  24. hi, I like your site a lot, and i have a question!

    can you do a bit on baking cake and words and sentences you would use in the kitchen and how to understand recipes from recipe books!

    maybe you could just use some japanese recipe for some cake and then go through it line by line and explain and translate the instruction and mention what other words would be used in the kitchen!


    1. @Marril

      Hi Marril! I’m happy to hear you like my site. Right now I have been working on three different lessons and there is a long list of request from people.
      Still I found cooking will be an interesting topics because I love eating. I can not use someone’s recipe taking out from a book or Internet for copy right reason. But I could make a very basic and general lesson on how to read basic cooking instructions someday. !happyface!

  25. I am so happy! ^^ Thanks to you, Maggie Sensei! And, thanks also to tagging my name on this lesson. ^^ This is the best site I’ve ever seen online! ^^

    1. @Mew

      I’m very happy to read your comment.
      Now you have to practice using はず. (And wait for the べき lesson which I will post on Facebook soon!) !JYANE!

      Nov. 17 : I just posted a lesson on FB so please check.

    1. @DanielleCanada08

      Haha 完璧!そうしたらDanielleの日本語はもっともっと上手になるはずです! :)

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