させる + させられる ( = saseru+saserareru) Causative verb Introduction


:maggie-small: 「泣かせるわよ!」

 = Nakaseru wayo!

“I am going to make you cry!”

MAGI 約束の犬 ( = Yakusoku no inu) The Dog’s promise

感動の実話 ( = Kandou no jitsuwa) A touching true story

大ヒット上映中 ( = Dai hitto jouei chu) A smash hit movie. Now showing in theaters.

主演 マギー ( = Shuen Maggie)Leading actress Maggie

Hi everyone!

Have you seen the movie, “Hachi” starring Richard Gere? It is a touching movie based on a true story in Japan.


ハチ公 ( = Hachikou) is known as 忠犬ハチ公 ( = Chuken Hachikou)  Loyal Dog, “Hachikou”.

He became the most famous and loyal dog in Japan because he continued to wait for his master even after his master had passed away.

You can see the statue of Hachiko in Shibuya station. It hasbecome a popular place to rendezvous with friends.

Check the story on Wikipedia!

This new movie, “MAGI” looks very interesting as well!

Maggie says :


= Nakaseru wayo! 

= I am going to make you cry!

泣く(=naku) to cry

泣かせる  ( = nakaseru) to make someone cry

Note : ( = wa) or わよ ( = wayo) : This is an ending that adds emphasis to a sentence and is commonly used by women.

So today’s theme is 「させる+させられるSaseru & Saserareru , 使役動 詞 ( = shieki doushi) causative verb and 受け身動詞(=ukemi doushi) causative passive verb!

(1) マギーはマックスを泣かせた。

= Maggie wa Max wo nakaseta.

Maggie made Max cry.



= Max wa Maggie ni nakasareta.

Max was made to cry by Maggie.

Note 1) In English the passive form is not that common so we translate both sentences as Maggie made Max cry but actually the second sentence’s subject is Max. So Max was made to cry by Maggie. would be the literal translation although it doesn’t sound natural in English.

Note 2)  There are two  causative forms for 泣く(  = naku)

:rrrr: (1) かせる ( = nakaseru ) and (2) 泣かす ( = nakasu). 

(泣かせる ( = nakaseru) is  more common)

:rrrr:passive causative form: (1) 泣かされる(  = nakasareru) or (2)   泣かせられる ( = nakaserareru)

(泣かされた(=nakasareta) is more common)

Leeeeet’s practice!!

• する ( = suru) to do

:rrrr:させる ( = saseru) to make someone do

:rrrr:させられる ( = saserareru) to be forced to do

•勉強する ( = benkyou suru) to study

:rrrr:勉強させる ( = benkyou saseru) to make someone study

:rrrr:勉強させられる ( = benkyou saserareru) to be made to study by someone

Note : If you use    勉強   ( = benkyou) as a noun, You can put “” after 勉強  ( = benkyou) and it becomes an object.

= Nihongo no benkyou (wo) suru.
to study Japanese

= Seito ni benkyou (wo) saseru.
to make students study

= Haha ni benkyou (wo) saserareru.
I am force to study by my mother.

*練習する  ( = renshuu suru) to practice

:rrrr:練習させる ( = renshuu saseru) to make someone practice

:rrrr:練習させられる ( = renshuu saserareru) to be forced to practice

Note : The same as 勉強 ( = benkyou). You can put “” after   練習  ( = renshuu ) as an object.

*結婚する ( = kekkon suru) to get marry

:rrrr:結婚させる ( = kekkon saseru) to make someone marry

:rrrr:結婚させられる  ( = kekkon saserareru) to be forced to marry

= Mou sanjussai ninatta node kanojo ni kekkon saserareru kamo shirenai.
Since she is 30 years old now, I might be forced to marry my girlfriend.

Note : Again, you can put   ( = wo)  after 結婚   ( = kekkon) as an object.
Ex.  結婚をさせる.. ( = Kekkon wo saseru)

飲む  (= nomu) to drink

:rrrr:飲ませる  ( = nomaseru) to make someone drink

:rrrr:飲ませられる (=nomaserareru) to be forced to drink
:rrrr: 飲ます ( = nomasu) to make someone drink
:rrrr: 飲まされる ( = nomasareru)  to be forced to drink
Ex. 昨夜は上司にたくさん飲ませられた/ 飲まされた。
= Sakuya wa joushi ni takusan nomaseraeta/ nomasareta.
I was forced to drink a lot by my supervisor.

来る  ( = kuru) to come

:rrrr: 来させる  ( = kosaseru) to make someone come

:rrrr:来させられる  ( = kosaserareru) to be forced to come

Ex. 今日は誰に来させられたの?
= Kyouwa dare ni kosaserareta no?
Literally By whom were you made to come here today?

• やる ( =  yaru) to do

:rrrr: やらせる ( = yaraseru) to make someone do

:rrrr: やらせられる  ( = yaraserareru) to be forced to do

= Kono shigoto wa buka ni yarasemasu
=I will make my subordinate do this work.
書く ( = kaku) to write
:rrrr:書かせる  ( = kakaseru) to make someone write
:rrrr:書かせられる ( = kakaserareru) to be forced to write
Note: 書かせる ( = kakaseru):Sometimes we say 書かす ( = kakasu).
Also we say 書かされる ( = kakasareru) instead of 書かせられる( = kakaserareru) as
a shorter form.
Note :
It is grammatically wrong but there is also a colloquial form for this.
:i: 書かさせられる ( = kakasaserareru) 
Ex. まだ小学校にも行っていないのに漢字を書かされている。
= Mada shougakkounimo itte inainoni kanji wo kakasareteiru. 
 = They are forced to write kanji even though they are not even in elementary school yet.
*So there is a tendency to insert ( = sa)   in certain verb conjugations especially among young people.
That is called さ入れ言葉  ( = saire kotoba).
Ex. やらせる( = yaraseru) to make someone do
:rrrr:  やらさせる ( = yarasaseru)
:rrrr: やらせられる ( = yaraserareru) to be forced to do
:rrrr:  やらせられる ( = yarasaserareru)
Ex. やらせて頂きます。 ( = Yarasete itadakimasu.)
:rrrr: やらせて頂きます。( =Yarasasete itadakimasu.)  I will do it./Let me do it.
「さ入れ言葉」( = saire kotoba) is getting VERY common and you can  hear or see this more and more in everyday conversation including on TV and etc.  But if you are going to take a Japanese test, avoid using it.
(Also there is ら抜き言葉 ( = ranuki kotoba) skipping ( = ra) 
*れる  ( = mirareru)
:rrrr: 見れる ( = mireru) to be able to see
but I will talk about it some other time.)
Note: If the person is willing to do something, it means  ~させる( = saseru) could also means “to let someone do something.”

Ex. 子供をキャンプに行かせる。
= Kodomo wo kyanpu ni ikaseru.
It could mean “I make my kid go camping (even if he doesn’t want to go.)

Or “I will let him go camping (because he wants to go.)
So the kid would say:

= Haha ni kyanpu ni ikasareta.
“I was forced to go camping by my mom.”
(He didn’t want to go.)

= Haha ni kyanpu ni ikasete moratta.
=  “I got to go camping (because my mom let me go.)”
(He wanted to go.)

=Haha wa kyanpu ni ikasete kureta.
“My mom let me go camping.”
(He is happy to get to go camping.)

= Kare ni kono shigoto wo yarasareta.
”I was forced to do this work by him.”

= Kare ni kono shigoto wo yarasemasu.
”I will force him do this work.”

= Kare ni kono shigoto wo yarase(te mi)masu.
”I will try to let him do this work.”
(He would like to try to do this work.)

(=Watashi ni kono shigoto wo yarasete kudasai .)
Let me do this work.”

= Matasete gomennasai.
“Sorry to make you wait.”

= Kokode matasete kudasai.
“Let me wait here!”

= Haisha de ichijikan mo matasareta.
“I was forced to wait at the dentist’s office for one good hour.”

frenchbulldogマギー先生より  =Maggie sensei yori =  From Maggie


= Kono eiga wa namida nashi dewa miraremasen. Minasan hankachi wo wasurenai dene.
This is a tear jerker movie. So be sure to take a hanky with you!

From Yukari : Actually Maggie-sensei was waiting for her “master” just for 3 minutes in front of a convenience store…


Will you be my Patron? 

I appreciate your support!  サポートありがとう!

Become a Patron!


You may also like


  1. Hello Sensei、
    I am trying to understand what the される means at the end of this sentence.

    Is it passive Causative, or just passive?

  2. Just noticed this was posted a long time ago and glad that it’s still effective. A bit off-topic, but I noticed that if you translated that “I was fined”, it becomes 罰金を「科せられる」. I know that it’s original form is 科す, but I’m a bit confused on how this was conjugated in the first place. I was expecting something like 科される which is normally the passive form. I tried searching my dictionary but the only 「科せ〜」 was potential and imperative form.

    Thank you!

    1. The verb 「科する」 has two passive forms depending on the conjugation types.
      科せられる and 科される
      irregular conjugation of s-stem verbs and godan verb conjugation

  3. Hello マギー先生
    I was wondering if the causative form can be used for
    “accidentally made”, for example –

    “When the milk expired, I threw it away in the sink and made the sink smell.”

    I didn’t force for the sink to smell, but accidentally made it smell, can causative be used here? Can causative + ちゃう be used?
    Is there any examples of “accidentally made/forced”?

    1. おはよう、Milk

      For that particular example sentence, “made ~ smell” you can just use ちゃう・しまう 臭くなってしまった(casual ちゃった) instead of using させる but yes, you can use
      causative + ちゃう・してしまう

      親を心配させる to make one’s parents worry (about ~)

  4. HI Maggie, I have a question about the causative form. So far, I understand that we can use it to talk about being made to do something or letting someone do something.

    But, I came across an example in a manga I’m reading where the speaker uses the causative to say that he has to do something.
    I would translate this as having to finish the transport of the exhibition goods. Is this a different use of the causative??

    1. Hi Angus,
      It is one form of causative usages.
      You can use causative form with people or things.
      to make someone do something
      to make something ~

      〜を終わらせる = to make something finish →finish something / have finished

  5. What is the Difference of 今度の実験はなんとかして成功させたい vs 今度の実験はなんとかして成功したい

  6. Hello Maggie Sensei.

    With Causative forms,

    1) How best to distinguish the difference between てくれた and just a ~させた sentence?

    Is my understanding of the following correct?
    The teacher let/made me speak in Japanese.

    The teacher lets**/allows me to speak in Japanese.

    2) Can you have a negative causative sentence like the following?

    The teacher does not allow me to speak in English.

    The teacher did not let me speak in English.

    3) にor を?
    I read in the Genki that verbs such as “to go”, “to return”, “to sit” use the に particle, so in the causative sentence, it takes on a “を”. Does that sound right to you? I am still trying to wrap my head around this concept…

    The examples below – have I used the right particles or are they written correctly?

    The teacher made/let me go to the bathroom.

    My father does not let me go to the Night Club

    Thank you!


    1. Hi Jen

      1) Yes, your interpretation is right.
      させた  forced someone to do something
      させてくれた someone allow/let you do something for your sake



      They are both correct.
      Though you can use に in the causative sentence (Ex. 私に行かせた) you avoid using the same particles in one sentence. (You are already using に as a direction marker,トイレに・ナイトクラブに)

      1. Hello Maggie Sensei!

        Thank you for explaining that!

        For question (2), what did you think of the negative causative sentences ? Or is causative form only used for positive sentences?


        1. Oh sorry. For some reason, I must have erased my answer for 2) by accident.
          2) You can use causative form in a negative sentence.
          I would change the particle を to で to make them sound more natural, though.
          The teacher does not allow me to speak in English.

          B: 先生は私に英語で話させませんでした。
          The teacher did not let me speak in English.

          1. Hello Maggie Sensei.

            Thank you for clarifying that and for your explanations!! I really really appreciate it!

            I am working on some textbook examples. And I am finding it confusing as to when to use the に or を particle for causative sentences.

            Are there some rules/ structure to consider here?

            **My initial thought is if the verb itself takes on the “を” particle (e.g をする、を拾う、を食べる – transitive verbs), then the sentence structure is :

            ==>Action Tellerは Action Doerに objectを action。
            e.g 1. 母は私に野菜を食べさせます。
            e.g.2. 先生は私に英語で話させませんでした
            e.g.3. 先生は学生に宿題をさせました。

            **if the verb takes on the “に” particle に行く、に帰る、にくる…
            ==>Action Tellerは Action Doerを non-object に action。 (And as you mentioned before, avoid using the same particles in one sentence)…

            e.g 1. お父さんは私をナイトクラブに行かせませんでした。

            Q: This is the right way to think of the particle?

            Q – What about these examples though?

          2. Q1) Yes, that’s right.
            Q2) 先生は生徒を宿題させます。→先生は生徒に宿題をさせます (生徒 indierct object / 宿題 direct object)

            部長は部下を休ませました。 Good.
            But if you add 仕事, it changes

          3. Hello Maggie Sensei.

            So it really depends on whether the sentence itself has a direct object mentioned in it or not to determine which particular to use, does it?

            Using previous examples:

            部長は部下を休ませました。 (Teller は Doer (not direct object) を action)

            But if you add 仕事, it changes
            部長は部下に仕事を休ませました。(Tellerは Does に direct object を action)

            Just another example – where there are irregular verbs such as

            *部長は部下を空港に迎えに来させます。<– Think this one is obvious because there is a place and we cannot have two "に" in the sentence.

            **部長は部下を迎えに来させます。<– This one I am not sure now.. my guess is it is "部下を" because there is no direct object and the boss is making the subordinate go pick him up.

            What are your thoughts on the last two examples?

          4. Hello Maggie Sensei.

            It is possible to structure a sentence of something like:

            “I wanted my parents to let me learn how to swim” ..

            Would/could it look like this:


          5. Thank you Maggie Sensei.

            How would I say “Despite I am a full-time work, up until recently, I was not allowed to live by myself. I want to say “up until recently” because for the longest time up until a point recently, I was not allowed doing this. But this has recently changed now.

            Is this correct? –> 会社員なのに、最近まで、両親は一人暮らしをさせてくれませんでした。

          6. Hi Maggie Sensei.
            Thank you for your previous response.
            I am just trying to get my head around forming causative-passive forms.

            So for 歌う–> 歌わせられる and 歌わされる mean the same thing?

            And using either is OK ?

            Is there anything different in written form or speech form?

          7. Hello again, Maggie Sensei.

            Just thinking of more examples:

            So, if I want to say my parents forced me to learn the piano, it could be either the following:

            1) 子供の頃、私は親にピアノを習わされました。
            2) 子供の頃、私は親にピアノを習わせられました。

            Genki seems to emphasis on the (1) while some JLPT books mention both (1) and (2).

          8. Hi Jen

            There are two versions for causative form.

            causative form: 歌わせる→passive causative: 歌わせられる
            shorter version 歌す→passive causative:歌わされる

            causative form:習わせる→passive causative:習わせられる
            shorter version: 習わす→passive causative:習わされる

            They mean the same. Shorter version is more conversational.

            Some textbooks/teachers don’t teach the shorter version because it is more conversational (or it is considered to be a dialect in certain area).
            But you do hear a lot in conversation so I think it is useful to learn that form as well.

          9. Thank you Maggie Sensei for explaining this. I really really appreciate it!

            I really love your way of explaining things. You give us all the different or potential contexts to use the grammar and a bit of background on how the grammar or word is formed. It really helps me understand the grammar point better.


  7. Hello Maggie sensei,

    So there are two ways to form the causative passive verbs.
    Is it true that I can use both of them?

    For example,
    In my understanding, I think I can use all of them. But I’m not sure…

    For 歌う



    Thanks my Lady

    1. Yes, that’s right.
      Think the original verb form is different.
      歌う and 歌わす
      走る and 走らす
      座る and 座らす

      (さ)せる →(さ) せられる

  8. Hi Maggie!! Love you!

    So if I understand everything correctly when it’s about me (私は・私に) させる means I am forcing the person to do something and させられる means I am being forced. Is There ever a situation in which that isn’t true?

    Also, if I want to say John made Susie clean her room which is better?
    1) スージーさんはジョンさんに部屋を掃除させられました。

    It’s really hard to know when to use the passive form since in English we rarely use it when speaking and therefore it’s not how I think and because of that I forget this grammar exists haha.

    1. Hello A.man!

      Yes, that’s right! You got the idea. :)
      1) スージーさんはジョンさんに部屋を掃除させられました。(or 部屋の掃除をさせられました) 
      2)ジョンさんはスージーさんを部屋が掃除させました。→ ジョンさんはスージーさんに部屋を(or 部屋の)掃除をさせました。

      1) focusing on Susie
      2) focusing on John

      You use the causative passive form when you assume the receiver of the action is not happy. Thus you can express one’s annoyed feelings.


  9. Hi!
    Thank you for another great lesson!
    For the sake of learning and wanting to understand the subject to the roots, I wanted to clear up something.

    Technically, could the sentence:

    also translate into:
    (I /he/she) might be forced to marry (him/her) by her.?
    As in not to be forced to marry her, but rather forced to marry someone by her?
    Since に is used to indicate by whom the action is performed, in the case of using the potential form(if I understood correctly).

    Thank you so much in advance for your help!
    Wishing you and Maggie above a wonderful day!

    1. Hi Valentina,

      also translate into:
      (I /he/she) might be forced to marry (him/her) by her.?

      Yes, that’s possible.
      It looks complicated so let’s change 彼女 to 母

      I might be forced to marry (him/her) by my mother.

      1. It’s so interesting to see how many possible interpretations there are 😁

        Thank you for replying! ! I feel reassured 😊

        Have a nice day!

    2. *彼にこの仕事をやらせます。

      = ”I will force him do this work.”

      Hi i just want to clear also if this sentence really means to force him to do this work or to make him do this work? Since it is in a “semasu” form? Thanks.

  10. こんにちは🌞マッギ先生,
    I am always confused by the subject and object use in Japanese as I also need to consider the particle and verb as well, just like in these two sentences:

    why に is used but not がin (1)? and have you written any article for this topic? Thank you very much indeed!

    1. こんにちは、Anpanman!

      2) is easy to understand
      Subject+ が+ object+ を+ Vてあげる

      Let me change the sentence a little.
      Subject + が + indirect object + に+ directo object+ を+ Vてあげる

      This に is to indicate “indirect object”, to whom

      Now when you use Vてもらう or (〜を)もらう, you use either 1) から or 2) に

      1) 女子学生から宿題を見せてもらう
      2) 女子学生に宿題を見せてもらう

      In this case に indicate the doer of action, which is to show her homework

      I also have あげる・もらう lesson so please go check.

      1. 本当にありがとうございました😊
        Now I have a clear understanding about this topic. But I have a question of another topic 通じてand通して, hope Maggie sensei could teach me too 🙏🏾

        The textbook says they share the same meaning but they cannot be used interchangeably sometimes, like:


        The textbook suggests “通じて“ as the answer only. I am confused.

  11. Maggie sensei,

    So, させる( = saseru) could also means “to let someone do something.” and could also means “to force someone to do something.

    How about the emotion of させられる。Is it neutron like させる or it is used only when we are forced which is unhappy situation.

    Ukemi form is easy to see the unhappy emotion, like

    But m y question is what is the emotion if we replace ukemi by causative passive here


    Does it sentence mean “I was allowed to go camping” in some situation, sensei?

    1. 母にキャンプに行かせられた。
      = I was forced to go camping by my mother.
      (My mother made me go camping.)
      So it shows the emotion that “I didn’t want to go but there was no choice. ”

      If you are allowed to do something by someone, you say

  12. Maggie sensei.

    Thank you for the great lesson.

    Before, when I read your lesson about 受身, I found a very very great way to change Verb dictionary form to 受身form. That is changing to verb dictionary form to ない、then add れる。

    For example, いくー>いかない →いかれる。
    Which is
    very easy to remember.

    I’d like to ask whether I can apply this rule to form the causative. In detail, changing the verb dictionary to ない、then add せる。
    For ex, いく ->いかないー>いかせる。

    I wonder if this rule is also possible to apply without no exception.

    Thanks Maggie sensei for always helping us.

    1. Actually I have been thinking about making a new lesson on this form and already prepared the conjugation chart.

      u-verb 聞く = きく= kiku
      1) Make a negative form
      聞かない = きかない= kikanai
      2) delete ない and add せる 
      聞かせる =きかせる= kikaseru

      ru-verb 食べる = たべる = taberu

      1) Make a negative form
      食べない=たべない= tabenai

      2) delete ない and add させる
      食べさせる = たべさせる = tabesaseru

      irregular verbs
      くる →こさせる
      する →させる

  13. Hi Maggie-sensei! I just want to ask, what should I say when I want to say that someone has allowed me to do something? For example, to be forced to get married is 結婚させられた。But if I want to say that I was allowed to get married, what should I say?

    I also want to ask, what should I use when I want to tell someone not to use keigo with me because it makes me feel old?

    Thank you in advance, I love your lessons!

    1. Hello Allie

      1) You can say
      結婚させてくれた (the person allowed me to get married) / 結婚させてもらった (I was allowed to get married.)

      2) There are many ways to say that but how about
      = Keigo wo yamete motto kigaru ni hanasanai?

  14. Hello Maggie!

    The question for today is, why used Steiner言わせぬ instead of 言わぬ?




    Maybe this (~とは言わせない) is a special pattern?
    It sounds like “don’t tell me you forgot it!” or better “how dare you forget me!”
    Could you tell me, what it literary means? (Maybe => I will not let you say “I forgot”?)


    1. 明けましておめでとう!! 2018年もいい年にしましょう! 
      Yes, your translation is right.
      Here’s the difference
      言わぬ = 言わない = I won’t say ~
      言わせぬ = 言わせない = “I won’t let you say ~” → Don’t tell me ~ “

      1. I think I got the picture… Let’s change 言う into some different verb.
        Would this sentence be OK?
        まったそのようなばかげた考えを思いつかせぬぞ! (Please, don’t came up with such ridiculous ideas again!)

        1. Nice try. It’s grammatically correct but 思いつく is something that you can’t control so you can’t say “I won’t let you come up with ~ “

          1. (I noticed it a few seconds after I posted this ^ ^)
            Thank you very much for clarifying this as well.
            Have a great day, Maggie!

  15. Hello!! I was doing a homestay in Japan and trying to clean up a small corner of the kitchen because I spilled shoyu,and the host dad said in english “make me come” when he wanted to go in the space where I was at and clean it for me. Is that because he was thinking 来させて, which would more naturally translate to “let me go”? Thank you!

    1. Ah OK, it’s because the idea of Japanese “come and go” are different from English “come and go”.
      As you guessed what your host father meant was “Let me take care of it.” (so please move and make a space for me.)

  16. thankyou this is what i needed.

    I have to admit there really is ALOT to absorb, but it’s good. so i will practice these examples for as long as it takes.

    I take my hat off to the masters of second language.

  17. Hello!

    Does it translate to “He distances himself from her to confirm her feelings to him by observing the changes in her mood.” or “He distances himself from her and by observing the changes in her mood makes her recognize her own feelings”? I’m having trouble understanding the object of 認識させる. And how will the translation change if instead of 認識させる it ends with 認識する?

    Thanks in advance

    1. @Pol

      It is hard to tell by just one sentence and the key can be hidden in the previous sentence but
      I would use 認識する・ or 認識しようとする in that sentence.
      Unless the object of 認識する is 彼自身 himself. “let himself recognize her feelings”

      (起き→the kanji should be 置き)

      1. Here’s the whole thing to make it more clear. It’s a brief summary of the light novel.

        八幡(Hachiman)は雪乃(Yukino)の気持ちがどうなのか見るため、陽乃(Haruno)と偽デートすることで揺さぶりをかける。 八幡は由比ヶ浜(Yuigahama)との距離を近づけ、雪乃に揺さぶりをかける。由比ヶ浜はその行動に気がつくも、気がつかないフリをする。 八幡は雪乃との距離を起き、雪乃の感情の変化を観察することで雪乃自身の気持ちを認識させる。 雪乃が八幡に自分の気持ちを告白するが、八幡は本当のシンジツなど存在しないと雪乃を拒否する。 高校卒業まで話が流れて行くで今回は終わり。

        1. Ah, OK then the object is 雪乃
          So he is trying to make her realize her own feelings towards him by keeping a distance from her and observing the change of her feelings.

    2. Dear Maggie sensei,

      Thank you so much for your useful lessons ^^
      I am currently studying 受け身・使役・使役受け身 and stumbled across an issue common to both, and am struggling to unravel the differences.
      1. 受け身

      Here, why can you not use 思い出している?I don’t understand why it is in passive form… I read your passive form lesson and it mentioned this kind of form when expressing negative emotions, but surely this sentence is positive? THe other sentences in my book are also positively inclined, such as 歌には何とも言えない優しいさが感じられる。


      By seeing the beautiful flowers, the tourists were allowed? to have fun?
      I know this form is meant to express feelings that are occuring, but what is the difference in using this v something like ている?

      Also how would you translate 彼の行動人がっかりられた(I was made to feel disappointed by him)・がっかりさせた(I was forced to feel disappointed by him? ・がっかりさせられた(I was made †o feel disappointed by him? the same translation as the first one?)?

      Sorry for all of the questions but I am having a very hard time keeping this all straight…

      1. Hi Karo,

        1. First, 思い出される is not a passive form so it has nothing to do with positive or negative.
        You use れる・られる for 1) honorific 2) potential and 3) 自発, spontaneous form as well and 思い出される (to come into one’s mind) is spontaneous form.

        思い出される to come into one’s mind
        思われる to seems / to appear / to think
        感じられる to feel  (Note: It also has a potential form. to be able to feel)
        悔(く)やまれる to regret
        案じられる to be anxious
        見える・聞こえる are also spontaneous forms.

        All these are spontaneous forms.

        You can rephrase it with 思い出す


        And 感じる
        You can’t tell the big difference between these sentences but particle changes, が&を.
        Technically 自発 verbs are used to when you do something naturally without any control. (spontaneously)

        You can see the difference more with
        見る and 見える

        You see things / look at something/someone with your will →見る Ex. 先生を見る = to look at the teacher.
        You see things naturally without any control →見える Ex. 山が見える = You see the mountain.

        2. Not “allowed.” The flowers are the cause of the joy of the tourists.
        The beautiful flowers make the tourist happy.
        →The beautiful flowers please the tourist.

        彼の行動人がっかりられた →I think this sentence has typos…

        彼の行動は私をがっかりさせた。 (causative)
        His behavior made me disappointed. (So his behavior is the cause of my disappointment.)

        →passive causative (from my point of view)
        = I was disappointed by his behavior.

        The translation can be the same because passive form is sometimes not natural in English.

    3. Thank you so much for this. We covered saseru, saseraru then saseru+mora/kuru in class today and I was pretty lost but this clears a lot up.

  18. I wrote 作らせられる for making causative passive form of 作るbut a japanese friend said that it’s not correct. It should be 作らされる.
    I just found out from your site that -saseru or -aseru has shorter version, and that is -sasu or -su.
    My question is if i’m still using 作らせられる, would that be considered as something incorrect?
    Because i was taught that RU verbs such as kaeru, shiru, tsukuru, etc has causative passive as 作らせられる.

    1. @Sandra

      Both of them are correct.
      作る= tsukuru
      causative forms
      1) 作らせる = tsukuraseru
      2) 作らす= tsukurasu (shortened form)

      passive causative forms
      1) 作らせられる
      2) 作らされる (shortened form)

  19. You said haisha de ichijikan mo matasareta.._you changed se to sa and removed ra?

    And can you explain the cojugation here?
    Hen na hito dato omowaretakunai. Can you try explain why thats passive?

    Chotto magiwarashiin desu.

    1. @Rodney

      First, this lesson will be gone eventually. (I will remake it with more detailed explanation)

      Some verbs have two causative forms. (long forms and shorter forms)
      * 泣く ( = naku) to cry →泣かせる ( = nakaseru ) → passive causatie 泣かせられる ( = nakaserareru)
      * 泣かす ( = nakasu ) (shorter version) This form already means “to make someone cry” → passive causative 泣かされる ( = nakasareru)

      待つ ( = matsu) →causative 待たせる *→ passive causative 待たせられる( = mataserareru)

      待たす ( = matasu) (shorter version) The verb form already has causative nuance “to make someone wait” →待たされる (= matasareru)

      = Hen na hito dato omowaretakunai
      Check my 受け身 lesson.
      This type of passive form expresses one’s negative feelings. (fear, annoyance or disappointment)

  20. Hello Maggie – Sensei,

    I don’t understand the use of the particle “ni” in your following example :

    I might be forced to marry my girlfriend.

    Doesn’t “kanojo ni kekkon saserareru” mean that the girlfriend is forced to get married, instead of I am forced to get married?

    Can I say “watashi ni kanojo to kekkon saserareru” to mean “I am forced to marry my girlfriend”?

    1. Oops, I think I’ve realised my mistake : saserareru is causative – passive, not causative!

      I understand now, the person is made (by the girlfriend =kanojo ni) to marry her. Is that correct?

        1. maggie sensei.. that lesson was kinda hard for me.. though this i got an idea,, and recovered my mistakes..thankx a lot

    2. Thank you very much maggie san.._.This is my least favorite verb form._..Yuh i never heard of matasu or that stuff yut.

  21. Hi,can you help me?
    What does 写真 シェアされました mean? I’d say its “the picture was shared,published”. Is this line in the passive voice? 写真にシェアされました sounds like “something was shared by the picture” and 写真は自分にシェアされました “the picture was shared by me”. These last 2 lines seem to be in the causative-passive form,yet I’m unsure about the first one.

    1. @david

      Hi David,
      You sometimes drop a particle. I don’t know the context but from just that the line, I think it means 写真はシェアされました。 The picture was shared. (passive form) (It doesn’t say by whom)

  22. If I have to say Smith forced me giving Erika my hat,shall I say
    (俺は)スミスから|に (俺の)帽子をエリカにあげされた\あげさせられた?

    1. @Vinicius

      The verb “あげる/to give” itself shows one’s willingness (to give something for someone/ Verb causative form て+あげる。 = to let someone do something) so it will be strange to say あげさせられた.

  23. PS:
    Perharps I made a mistake on my last message.

    Teacher let someone ask lots of questions.

    According to your lesson I guess this line would actually mean “Teacher let ME ask many queries” .

    However 先生が誰かに質問をたくさん聞かせてくれた。
    Sounds more like “Sensei let someone do many questions as a favor for me”(For this case I’d use 聞かせてあげてくれた instead,though)

    than “Sensei let someone do many questions”. I think “sensei let someone do many queries” would be 先生が\は誰かに質問をたくさん聞かせてあげた。

    1. @Vinicius

      I think I answered this question in my last comment.
      If the teacher is the speaker, you can say 私は生徒にたくさん質問をさせてあげた。 but you can’t say 先生が〜あげた

  24. I’m a bit confused on せてくれる\せてあげる.
    I took the “kureru,morau and ageru” lesson from you already,so I know that shitekureru and shitemoraeru\morau means “to do for me\to do as a favor to me”,whereas shiteageru means “to do (something) as a favor to somebody else”.
    Yet I found on another website that together with させて\せて, both kureru and ageru becomes “allow to do”.

    “Causative verb: Context will usually tell you what is being meant, but for our purposes we will assume that when the verb is used with 「あげる」 and 「くれる」(ください) it means “to let someone do” while it means, “to make someone do” when used without these”.

    There an example on that site
    Teacher let (someone) ask lots of questions.

    Is this wrong?

    According to your lesson I guess this line would mean “Teacher let ME ask many queries”.

    For “teacher let someone ask lots of questions” I’d use 聞かせてあげた instead.

    As like 内緒の話聞かせてあげる。
    I’ll let you hear a secret story\I’ll tell you a secret story

    1. @Vinicius
      means “The teacher let someone ask many questions.”
      If the speaker is talking about the teacher, it could be
      “The teacher let me ask many questions.” as well. It could be just the speaker when she/he asked the questions
      (You can also say
      = The teacher let the students/me ask many questions.


      For “teacher let someone ask lots of questions” I’d use 聞かせてあげた instead.
      →You can’t use あげる when you are talking about the other people. You use あげる/あげた when you talk about yourself.

      1. why this sentence is not like this. because this is the third person point of view..


        1. Is that a question?
          is not natural because you are talking about the third person, teacher.

          1. hello again Maggie sensei.

            Because from the previous lesson, my understanding was あげるandくれる used when we are talking about ourself.

            So if we are talking about other person as in third person view we can also useくれる?

            Thank you for your answer

          2. That’s right. You don’t use あげる/くれる when you talk about the third person. (Unless you are referring to your family.)

  25. Thankyou for mking things so much clearer
    One question, how do you say “I want you to make him do it”, or is it just “make him”

    1. @Ted


      The most natural way to say that is to omit あなた ( = you)


      1. Thankyou.
        So it’s not possible to use the-tai ending? Maybe that would just complicate things?
        I’m thinking of other verbs like…
        I want you to make him go..
        i want you to make me happy…
        or even
        I want to be taken
        I want to be told
        I want to be cured

        also, what’s the difference between wanting and needing?

        Thanks again.

        1. @Ted

          The basic difference between たい and ほしい is
          you use たい to express your own desire and

          食べたい = I want to eat.
          買いたい = I want to buy

          You can’t use Vたい to express the third person’s desire because you don’t know how much other people want to do.

          X 彼はアイスクリームを食べたい
          X 彼は車を買いたい。

          Now when you want someone to do something you can say either ほしい or たい
          Someone に食べてほしい = I want someone to eat.
          Someone に買ってほしい = I want someone to buy
          Someone AにSomeoneBを家に帰らせてほしい = I want A to make B go home.

          Someoneに食べてもらいたい = I would like someone to eat ~ .
          someoneに買ってもらいたい。 = I would like someone to buy ~ .
          Someone AにSomeoneBを家に帰らせてもらいたい = I would like A to make B go home.

          てもらいたい sounds more polite and expresses the speaker’s request.

  26. Hi, everyone, and Maggie.

    I’ve just found a sentence that sais:
    (nanimo watashi ni sore wo akirameru you ni kyousei suru koto ga dekinai)
    -> Nothing can force me to give it up.

    So, you can say it with ように and with こと also.
    Thanks Maggie, you are the best (and cutest)

    1. @Robert

      Yes, you can both use ように and こと. When you use こと, you need an object marker を

      V+ ことを強いる・強制する・強要する

  27. Hi, Maggie.

    I appriciate your lessons so much, you help me a lot, so that’s why I’ve decided since you seem like you like wasting your time on us, I have a question.

    So I’ve just come across this verb 強いる (shiiru), wich means: to force someone, And I’d like to ask you if there is an opportunity to say that someone forces someone to do something with this verb.

    Like: マッギを眠らせた。[Maggi wo nemuraseta] (I’ve forced Maggie to sleep)
    and then, マッギにねむることをしいた。
    thanks for your answer in advance. :D

    1. @robert horvath

      Hi robert,
      Good question. You also use 強いる to make /force someone do something.
      The difference:
      You usually use it with a noun or nominalized verb.
      Also 強いる is much stronger than させる.
      or お酒を飲むことを強いる

      Another difference:
      Someoneにお酒を飲ませた= It is clear that you made that person drink alcohol.
      Someoneにお酒を強いた。/お酒を飲むことを強いた。 You forced someone to drink but the person may not drink alcohol.
      It focuses on your action, trying to make someone drink alcohol.

      As for your sentence, 眠る is fall asleep so 寝る is better.
      So マギーを寝させた
      マギーに寝ることを強いた might work out.

      1. Another thing.
        Is there some verb that sais ‘let someone do something’, instead of させる/あせる
        just like in the case of 強いる and させる?

        1. @ROBERT

          It is similar to 強いる but there are words such as
          They are much stronger.

  28. どうも!


    I`ll force my subordinate to do this obligation
    My boss gave me this obligation

    By whom were you made to come here todayは
    Who forced you to come here today と同様ですかね?



    1. PS
      My boss gave me this obligation (that I dont want to do)

      部上じゃなくて上司です 笑笑

    2. @Vinicius


      You don’t usually use “passive/causative passive forms” in English as much as in Japanese so the translation is sometimes strange.

      So By whom were you made to come here today is “Who forced you to come here today” in English. Therefore you can say

      As for your sentences,
      I`ll force my subordinate to do this obligation
      My boss gave me this obligation

      任せる has a meaning of “to let someone do ” so it’s not necessary “forcing” but you got the pattern right.

  29. Hello, Maggie Sensei!

    I have a question about this sentence:
    (あいつはyou lie – I included this for context; “you lie” was in English)
    I’m mostly confused because according to the definition of 落雷, with する it means either “to strike (lightning)” or “to be struck by lightning.” I thought “to be struck by lightning” was more probable here, and then there would basically be a double passive; canceling those out it would mean: “Who struck (him) with lightning?” But if you take it through the other definition, it would mean: “Who was struck with lightning?”
    I can’t decide which one it is! Please help!
    Thank you!

    1. @Smoothie Made of Fruit

      落雷 means “thunderbolt”
      You don’t usually say Someoneに落雷された because you can’t control thunder.
      However there is an expression in Japanese
      雷を落とす= to scold someone in a harsh way/ to speak someone in an angry way / to give someone hell/ to chew someone out

      誰に雷を落とされた= passive form (You do say this expression)
      →誰に落雷された=unusual expression but you can figure out the meaning (Who chewed him out that much?)

  30. さすが、マギー先生!
    昔々, I had a Japanese girlfriend who would often tell me
    「ね、なんか食べさして」 which I have come to find out is a form of “食べさせて”
    I always took it to mean “feed me” and we would happily go off to eat somewhere, but according to the passive pattern it means “let me eat something”. Is this the same as “feed me”?

    In another example,
    「パパ、本を聞かせてちょうだい」= Papa, read me a book [let me be read to](aloud)

    Maggie-sensei, have you ever asked Yukari sensei to pet you a little bit?

    Am I interpreting/using “させる” correctly?

    1. @moonkow

      なんか食べさせて changes the meaning depending on the context.
      Feed me something or Let me eat.

      Yes, your translation is right.

      Haha, cute!
      That would be

      (If you say ナデナデさせてちょうだい means “Let me pet you, Yukari” )

      I may take down this lesson eventually and repost it with more information in future. :)

      1. だって、ゆかり先生でもたまにナデナデが要るんだと思いますよね。
        (Yukari sensei needs an occasional nadenade sometimes too.)



  31. Hello Maggie!
    During my journey with 日本語 I came across a very interesting archaic causative pattern; it’s …をして~しめる.
    I’d like you to check, if the sentences are correctly translated.

    1. わが意思を、速やかに民をして知らしめよ。 => Inform the nation about our intension as soon as possible!
    2. 自らをして悟らしめよ。 => Enlighten me / us! (Make me /us understand!)

    The 3rd sentence is a ことわざ, and here I need also your help, please.
    3. 死せる孔明、生ける仲達をして走らしむ。


    1. @天人

      Hello 天人

      You are studying 漢文?

      1. OK
      2. I think it means “Enlighten yourself.”
      3. It is an old saying.
      孔明 is dead but he made 仲達 who is still alive run (away).
      There is a little history behind this saying but basically it means
      an influential person still influences people even if they are dead.

      1. As always I’m grateful for your help, Maggieさん :qq:
        No, I’m not studying 漢文, but you are right, this pattern derives from 漢文訓読調.
        Now I can continue my journey. Maybe some day it leads me to China (to 漢文).
        Who knows, who knows…

  32. Hi Maggie-sensei,

    I have a question but not sure where to put it. Because the sentence contains させる, so I post it here.

    I came across this sentence in Hiragana Times.
    The English text was:
    Winners will be selected by lottery and receive gifts directly.

    I do not understand the second sentence 結果は発送をもってかえさせていただきます in particular, the words をもって and かえさせていただきます. I do know させていただきます but not かえ. And I am not sure if it should be かえる or かえす since it is not written in kanji.

    I googled and found this is a common phrase like 賞品の発送をもってかえさせていただきます in lucky draw, etc.
    In this website, some mentioned it loosely translates to “winners will be notified by post”

    1. @Chang

      Hi Chang,
      Vさせていただきます is a polite way to say “to take the liberty of doing something”
      In this case the verb is 代える →代えさせていただきます

      When a company gives away prizes, they usually announce the names of the winners on their homepage, in newspaper,
      or magazines. But instead of doing that , they will show the result by sending the prize to the winners directly.

      The direct translation is
      As for the result, we take the liberty of substituting the mean of showing the result for sending the prize to the winners.

      〜をもって with 〜 / by mean of ~
      代える= change/ substitute

  33. How would you say an agent caused something to happen rather than forced me to do something? I was trying to say that a product made my skin peel, but from what I understand the endings here would mean “the product made peel my skin,” which is pretty gory.

    1. @Saugiu

      Hello Saugiu
      In that case in stead of using a causative verb, you can just use (cause + Noun+Adj+の+で・せいで・V+ たら, etc.)to indicate the cause.
      Ex. この製品で皮が剥けた。
      Ex. この製品のせいで皮が剥けた。(stronger than で)
      Ex. この製品を使っていたら皮が剥けた。

  34. In the sentence format where A makes B do X, it’s
    A wa B (ni/wo*) [causative verb]
    For example A wa B ni nattou wo tabesasemasu.

    I’ve learned that the particle used (ni/wo) depends on whether the verb is transitive or intransitive.

    Benkyou wo shimasu for example seems to count as transitive as benkyou is the object, which we can tell because of the particle wo after benkyou, while shimasu is the transitive verb, as seen in the example:
    Seito ni benkyou (wo) saseru.

    But if the “wo” is removed, does it still work that way, or “benkyou shimasu” becomes a verb instead of just the shimasu, which means it becomes an intransitive verb, and the particle used after B becomes wo instead of ni?

    The example seems to imply that the wo can be removed without consequence, which means “Seito ni benkyou sareru” is correct and “Seito wo benkyou sareru” is wrong, but I have to ask this to make sure.

    1. @Verdusk

      Hello Verdusk,
      Great question. 
      I should add more explanation. But I’ve been thinking about renewing the whole lesson. So please wait.

      to make students study

      * Seito ni benkyou wo saseru (benkyou is an object of an action, verb: suru)
      * Seito wo benkyou saseru (seito is an object, verb: benkyou-suru )

      are grammatically correct.
      benkyou suru is a special verb. It is a transitive verb

      Ex. Nihongo wo benkyo suru

      Note: * Seito wo benkyou saseru
      When it is obvious what to study for the speaker or listener, you sometimes say
      *Seito ni ( ~~ wo ) benkyou saseru.
      omitting ( ~~ wo)

  35. i dont get how korosareru….follows under these meanings? whats the direct translation of korosareru? completly stuck on this >.<

    1. nvrm i did some research……its a passive verb isnt it? watashi wa kanojo no tabemono wo taberareta…….is that correct?

  36. Hello! First off, I just want to say thanks for creating this website because it’s been super helpful and goes into a good amount of detail! I have been having trouble with causative tense lately in Japanese. I can’t figure out if I’m using it correctly in a few sentences I’ve come up with for practice…can you help out? am I using the correct particles for these?

    Don’t make Katsuya feel lonely.
    My mom is making me study English.
    Takuya forced me to sing.
    Please let me look for Katsuya.
    Please let me see the dog before I leave.
    Takuya let me talk to Akira.

    1. @Tempura

      Hi Tempura,
      Your particles are fines.


      Takuya let me talk to Akira.
      You can also use 彰と

      My mom is making me study English.
      Takuya forced me to sing.

      You can switch the order and start with 私は

      * 帰る前に、ワンちゃんを見させてください。
      Please let me see the dog before I leave.
      Grammatically correct. But I would say we use “show me” 見せてください in conversation more.

  37. こんにちはマッギ先生、
    この授業をありがとうございます!!! ;8) ;8) ;8)
    『Aという人 は Bという人 に 食べさせる』と『Aという人 は Bという人 を 食べさせる』はどう違いますか?私には、両方を英語に訳すと『A let/made B eat』と言います。
    二つ目は、『犬を散歩させる』と『犬に散歩をさせる』どう違いますか?『take the dog for a walk』という意味として両方使えますか?最初の文の方がいい気がしますけど、理由は分からないです!

    1. @Johnny


      A lets B eat / A feeds B *= Aは、Bに食べさせる
      A makes B eat = Aは、Bを食べさせる

      A lets B eat a banana. = AはBにバナナを食べさせる。
      A makes B eat a banana = AはBにバナナを食べさせる

      * Note: 「〜させる」はmake/let someone do somethingですが、
      “A makes / lets B eat”
      に、もう一つ意味が加わります。”A feeds B ”


  38. Hi Sensei,

    I have been watching anime lately and I notice some characters like to use the word ” korosareru ” when they are in trouble. As I know, causative passive is the subject being forced to do something. How is that applicable to korosareru??? :cry:

      1. Thanks Sensei! I figured out the mistake. The causative passive form for korosu is actually korosaserareru. You have pointed it out. Thanks again. But there is another case though. I learned that serareru can be colloquial which is sareru~ But I cant seem to find the word korosasareru on the net which I think might be wrong. Please help ;(

          1. But Sensei is there any colloquial form for “korosaserareru”? As said, I read some verbs were shorten from serareru to sareru for godan verbs though. For example kakaserareru become kakasareru. Can korosaserareru becomes korosasareru?

  39. Oh my goodness it’s so long.. I should have just emailed that… That’s embarrassing… Please, delete that if you can…!!! 8-O

    1. @Brews
      OK, I did. :)
      But there is no email that you can ask me a question…
      If you can, try to make one or two question at a time. I can help you.

  40. 大学の授業ではどうして、たべさせられましたの「せ」があるのに、

    1. 返事が遅れてごめんなさい。

      1) 食べる taberu
      2) delete “る= ru”
      → 食べ tabe
      3) add させる saseru
      → 食べさせる (使役)Causative form

      Passive causative form
      食べさせられる tabesaserareru (使役受身)Passive causative form


      1) 読む yomu

      2-A) delete “u” and add “-aseru”
      →読ませる yomaseru (使役)Causative form
      →読ませられる (使役受身)Passive causative form

      2-B) 読ます yomasu (使役)Causative form
      →読まされる yomasareru (使役受身)Passive causative form

  41. 先生~、質問攻めにしてもいいですか。

    1. Concerning the form 書かす. You said that only some verbs have short forms like 書かす. Most of these Verbs like 泣かす, 飲ます, 待たす seem to be regular vocabulary and can be found in any dictionary, but I can’t find 書かす in any regular reference book or website. Is this form really grammatically correct, like JLPT proof, or is it just conversational or slang?

    2. In the case of 待たせる and 待たす, I noticed that the short form is mostly used in passive voice (though it could be the irregular causative-passive form of 待つ too, which then seems to be prefered to the regular causative-passive), while the regular causative form is mostly used in active voice. i.E.

    “彼は私に待たされる。 He was kept waiting.” seems to be prefered to “彼は私に待たせられた。”
    “私は彼を待たせた。 I made him wait.” I don’t think I ever saw “私は彼を待たした。”

    Is my observation correct that the short and regular causative forms are used differently and are not always interchangeable?

    3. Can you combine the potential form with passive, causative or causative-passive? It does not make much sense in my language, but in english some people think it would be possible to say things like: “He made me able to swim.” or “I was made being able to swim.” In my understanding, this is terrible english and nobody would talk like that, but it seems gramatically possible. Also, my learning programm, which recognizes conjugations, says that 泳げさせられる is a correct potential-causative-passive verb. (It does not recognize 書かす though. :) )So, is that really possible in Japanese?


    1. @Zetsuboumanadeshi

      www 質問攻め〜♪

      1. Hmm I don’t use the grammar books and I don’t know where you have searched but let me check…
      OK, check these pages.


      2. Yes, your observation is correct. This is a really interesting and complicated thing and I bet many Japanese teachers have trouble teaching. お

      You use 待たせる more than 待たす
      待たす < 待たせる

      but when it becomes causative passive form you use 待たされる more.


      And though 待たした is not so common, we hear/see people use. I think it also has something to do with dialects.


      3. Japanese causative form is used when someone force someone to do something.

      He made me able to swim.” or “I was made being able to swim.

      This “made” is not “forced”
      If it is something favorable, we use してくれる (passive してもらう)form.
      彼は(or が)私を泳げるようにしてくれた。

  42. In your example, 「(2)マックスはマギーに泣かされた。」 shouldn’t the verb be, 泣かせられた ?
    I’m a little confused by all the さs and せs and られるs… :cryingboy:

    Or is this like a more casual way of saying it?

    1. @Tom

      I made this lesson a few years ago and I know I should add more information but I have been procrastinating. Sorry.
      There are two forms for certain verbs.
      飲む→(causative form) 飲ませる or 飲ます
      →(passive causative) 飲まされる/飲ませられる

      書く→(causative form) 書かせる or 書かす
      →(passive causative)書かされる or 書かせられる

      泣く→(causative form)泣かせる or 泣かす
      →(passive causative)泣かされる/泣かせられる
      So both 泣かされた/泣かせられた are fine.

  43. Hi Maggie sensei, for this sentence “watashi ga rensai no geemu wo sasete moratte imasu.” Would the proper translation be…” I was allowed to have the game series”, “I was asked to have the game series” or “I was able to have the game series” thanks in advance!

    1. @Courtney

      I don’t understand well how the game site works but if the writer is a creator of a game,
      Sasete moratteiru is a humble way to say “to do something” but when you translate it, just “I am the one who has been creating a series of the game.”

  44. I am confused right now.

    If it is 飲ませられる (=nomaserareru)

    Why does it become 飲まされた? shouldn’t it be 飲ませられた?

    1. @reid

      Good question!
      飲む has two forms. 飲ます・飲ませる like 書く (書かせる・書かす)
      I added it in the lesson. Please check it again.

      1. Oh, I get it. Are there many of verbs with two forms like 飲む? And is there any difference, like one is more polite or something?

        I really wish japanese didn’t have so many of these little details, and exceptions and tricks that confuse so easily. Well, I guess that is part of what makes the language so interesting.

        1. @reid

          Not so many of the exceptions. Don’t worry. They(書かす/飲ます)are more literal.

          I really wish japanese didn’t have so many of these little details
          →I totally agree with you. If so, the length of my lesson would be much shorter. :)

  45. こんにちはマギー先生!

    1. @Lava

      となるので「彼女が私を無理にブライドメイドにした=She forced me to be her braidmaid 」というニュアンスが入ります。

      I made him clean the room

      He was forced to clean the room by me.

      (As you can see, you use “に” for someone who makes you do something and someone who is forced to do something.)

      I made HIM clean the room.
      He was forced to clean the room BY ME.

      (「を」is used for t what you made someone do/ what someone made you do)


      1) 先生( )生徒( )文( )書かせる
      2) 生徒( )先生( )文( )書かされる

      3) お母さん( )手伝い( )させられる
      4) お母さん( )子供( )手伝い( )させる

      1. 説明してくれてありがとうございました!
        1) 先生(は)生徒(に)文(を)書かせる
        2) 生徒(は)先生(に)文(を)書かされる

        3) お母さん(に)手伝い(を)させられる
        4) お母さん(は)子供(に)手伝い(を)させる

        でも、なんで「マギーはマックスを泣かせた。」と「子供をキャンプに行かせる。」には「に」ではなくて「を」が使われていますかな?The above sentences and these two sentences both seem to be “made to do”.

        1. @Lava

          ★他動詞(transitive verb) You need を



          ★自動詞 (intransitive verb) You don’t need を

          *マックスが泣く (Original Sentence)

          *子供が(キャンプに this に is a direction marker)行く


          Exceptions : 待つ (他動詞=transitive verb)


          1. 詳しい説明本当にありがとう!
            大体分かったような気がします! :-P

  46. Hello

    I have a question about させる and させられる
    What is the difference between

    彼にこの仕事をやらされた and 彼にこの仕事をやらさせられた

    does the above carry the same meaning as “I was forced to do this work by him” ?


  47. Konbanwa, sensei

    It’s me again ehehehe

    I want to ask, why Japanese language sometimes use double negative words to make a positive meaning?

    like this one


    that’s actually mean,”I must let Ruu take a walk, you know!” or “I must walk Ruu, you know!” right? Maggie-sensei.

    why the speaker don’t just say


    1. @Just a novel lover’s

      The sentence
      Let’s break it down.

      First do you understand the meaning of this sentence?


      It means “I have to walk Ruu”
      Now the casual contraction of なければいけない is
      The meaning is the same, I have to walk Ruu

      Now the ending part し implies “also”
      I also have to walk Ruu.
      And the last casual suffix な is to stress the speaker’s point.
      (So your translation “you know” is good.)

      just means “I am also going to walk Ruu, you know.” and it doesn’t have a meaning of “must/ have to”.

      Hope this helps.

    2. I see… thank you sensei for helping me, it’s really help on reconstructing my logic

      seriously, because I’m asking sensei about this double negative words I rechecked my translation on my favorite’s novel and I found a critical miss (fufufu… now my doubt about his gender are up by 80%)

      dakara hontouni arigato gozaimasu sensei ^^

  48. Konnichiwa, Maggie-sensei

    Shitsumon ga arimasu

    How would you translate a causative form verb with nasai end?

    For example,

    If I want to say something like, “complete the translation of that book” and I want to be firm and polite I know I must use nasai at the end of the verb but someone told me that I should use owarasenasai and that made me think a lot but with no results.

    So, for my sentence… which one is more suitable?

    Sono hon no honyaku wo owarasenasai

    Sono hon no honyaku wo owarinasai

    And how would you use nasai with causative and passive forms.

    Some examples would be good.

    Thanks in advance.

    Note: Sorry, I cant type in japanese with my celphone at this moment

    1. @Freddy



      終わる(=owaru) is a intransitive and a transitive verb
      You use it as a transitive verb when you finish something on time or as you planned.

      When someome tries to finish something, you use either

      1) 終える= oeru 
      2) 終わらせる= owaraseru

      So your sentence
      Sono hon no honyaku wo owarasenasai →OK

      Sono hon no honyaku wo owarinasai→終えなさい(=oenasai) is better


      Q: And how would you use nasai with causative and passive forms?
      Some examples would be good.

      Let me see….


      Ex. 彼に自分の荷物を持たせなさい。
      = Kare ni jibun no nimotsu wo motasenasai.
      = Make him carry his own luggage.

      Ex. もっと子供を遊ばせなさい。
      = Motto kodomo wo asobasenasai.
      = Let your children play more.

      passive form is not that common but

      Ex. 親は子供をもっと叱りなさい。そして子供は親にもっと叱られなさい。
      = Oyawa kodomo wo motto shikarinasai. Soshite kodomo wa oyani motto shikararenasai.
      = Parents should scold children. And children should be scolded by their parents more.

      Hope this helps.

      1. Thanks for your reply and sorry for not giving a response earlier.

        I wanted to make sure that I had studied enough to come back here again and ask with more details.

        At this very moment, I understand more the usage of this form “causative”. However, there are still several doubts in my mind regarding to this.

        According to what I looked up and to your explanation, the causative forms can have the following meanings

        – Make/ Have someone do
        – Let someone do

        I have noticed something peculiar, and it’s that when a verb is intransitive you can turn into a transitive verb by using the causative form, just like “OWARU”.

        Why does this happen?

        Nevertheless, in the case of owaru, it seems to have the following behavior:

        – Owaru: to come to an end
        – Owaraseru: to finish something (because someone tries to finish it).

        In the example “その本の翻訳を終わらせなさい”

        What I meant was “complete/finish the translation of that book.”

        But since owaraseru is causative then this makes me feel that the sentence written above says something like:

        “Make yourself finish the translation of that book”

        But “make someone itself do something” sounds weird to me…It’s kind of implicit.

        For example:

        私の宿題を終わらせたい = I want to finish my homework.
        まず最初に宿題を終わらせなくちゃ = We must finish our homework first

        However, to me these sentences are something like:

        – I want to make myself finish my homework.
        – We must make ourselves finish our homework first

        No one says, “I want to make myself do something”, at least in a cases similar to these ones.

        However, it looks like In Japanese this is normal.

        In the translation, obviously we just ignore the causative part “make ourselves/myself do something” because is implicit.

        Why does this happen? I don’t really know what is the reason for this.

        Another thing is make me thing a lot is about the real usages of verbs that have both transitive and intransitive forms.

        Example: Owaru is both, transitive and intransitive verb.

        And both cases the meaning doesn’t change but it’s seem to be that the usage is different according to the form of the verb (vt/vi)

        – Owaru transitive form: When finish something on time or as you planned
        – Owaru intransitive form: Not sure how to explain the usage with this form.

        So, when a verb is transitive you use for some specific cases and when is intransitive you use it for another cases.

        Does this always happen with verbs that have these two forms (transitive/intransitive)?

        For now that would be all.

        Again thanks for your reply.

        1. @Freddy

          Hello Freddy

          Q when a verb is intransitive you can turn into a transitive verb by using the causative form, just like “OWARU”.Why does this happen?

          Let me see if I understand your question here.

          花が咲く(flower blooms) intransitive
          →花を咲かせる(transitive verb) to make the flower bloom transitive
          (Yes, as you said you can make intransitive verb to transitive verb by using the causative form)


          As I said 終える is a very special verb which can be used both for intransitive and transitive.

          仕事が終わる (the work finishes) intransitive
          仕事を終わる。(you finish working) transitive (This doesn’t have a meaning of causative)

          Let’s compare the following examples.
          Ex. 1) Freddyの仕事は5時に終わった。(intransitive) (just describing what time your work finished.)
          Ex. 2) Freddyは5時に仕事を終わった。 (transitive) (as you planned/just describing what time you finished working.)
          Ex. 3) Freddyは5時に仕事を終えた。(transitive/ causative) (involving your will)
          Ex.4) Freddyは5時に仕事を終わらせた。(transitive/ causative)(involving your strong will. implying there is a reason why you finished your work at five.)

          I think you should separate 終わる from other verbs.
          There are not many verbs which can be used for both intransitive and transitive.
          Other verb like 終わる is

          Ex. 開く(=hiraku) ドアを開く(hiraku) transitive ・ドアが開く(hiraku) intransitive

          Q: 私の宿題を終わらせたい = I want to finish my homework.
          まず最初に宿題を終わらせなくちゃ = We must finish our homework first

          However, to me these sentences are something like:

          – I want to make myself finish my homework.
          – We must make ourselves finish our homework first

          →I know what you are trying to say here but these two sentence are causative.
          You want to finish the sentence. The object is homework. Not yourself.

  49. Hi there!

    I’m wondering about the sentence: “He made me look awsome”




  50. Can you explain when to use を and when to use に in causative? For example, I made my brother cook lunch.

    1. @Manaki91

      The basic patterns are

      ☆(someone)に(something)をさせる = to make someone do something

      Ex. マギーに部屋のそうじをさせる。
      = to make Maggie clean the room

      ☆(someone)に(something)をさせられる =(It is a passive form but we translate it as Someone made you do something)

      = Maggie makes me clean the room.

  51. I can’t understand why is it used 思い知らされ in passive form? As far as I can understand here the sound「音」 is making someone to realize something. And even if passive, why not それらの音に?
    Thank you in advance!

    1. Hello Darkakira

      思い知らせる means “to give someone a lesson / to show someone something”.

      1. おまえに思い知らせてやろうぜ! (= I’m gonna teach you a lesson!)
      2. 相手チームに思い知らせてやれよ。(= Let’s give them a lesson!)
      3. 人に身の程を思い知らせてやる。(= To show someone where his/her place is) [身の程=one’s position/standing/place]

      に used here tells us WHO will get the “free” lesson.
      を used here tells us WHAT 話し手 will show to his 相手.

      思い知らされる means “to made someone something to realize / to be reminded of something / to made someone aware of / to become aware of”.

      1. 自分の力の限界を思い知らされた。(= Someone become aware of his/her own limitations)

      “why not それらの音に?” because in this sentence 間接受身 is used: B が/は AにDをCされる.



  52. 今日はマギー先生。
    よ!このレッスンは優位木です。でも質問があります。日本語で「~to make you want to do something」なんといいますか?「~させたい」ですか?

    1. @ジャッシンデレラー
      I think there are many ways to say “~to make you want to do something” depending on the sentence but you can say
      but a lot of time we say it ~したくなる without using a causative verb.

      This commercial film makes me want to eat the ice cream.

      This site makes me want to study Japanese.

      (A little note for you : 優位木→有意義= yuuigi But you you meant to say “useful” 役に立ちました。is more natural. :) )

  53. *母はキャンプに行かせてくれた。
    (=Haha wa kyanpu ni ikasete moratta.)
    “My mom let me go camping.” (He is happy to get to go camping.)
    →You wrote kureta in kana but moratta in romaji. ( ´ ▽ ` )

  54. Please explain me that as 泣く is a first group verb so its causitive form is 泣かせる。For example,
    1)Mother made chid cry.
    2)Child was made cried by mother.
    Same should be applied for 書く as it is also the first group verb.
    1)To make children write.
    2)Children were forced to write.

    1. @shikha
      Yes, they are correct.
      Just one correction.

      1)To make children write.

  55. I’m still confused by this ~れる and ~される.

    弟 に お酒 を みんな 飲まれました.
    Is that right?

    And i have some questions:
    1. How to make ~される or ~される form of ~て しまう? Does it change to ~て しまわれる?
    2. Could this sentence: 前の人が立って, 映画 が 見えませんでした changed into 受け身? Considering 見える is tadoushi.

    Well, I’m still learning Japanese so maybe i’ve made some mistakes. Hope you can explain it clearly.

    Thank you :)

    1. @masihbelajar


      弟 に お酒 を みんな 飲まれました.
      Q1) Is that right?

      →Yes, it is correct.
      The direct translation is
      All the liquor (beer, or any alcoholic beverage) was drunk by my brother. It means, My brother drank all the liquor.
      Q2) And i have some questions:
      1. How to make ~される or ~される form of ~て しまう?


      →食べさせる to make someone eat

      →食べさせられる Someone is forced to eat something

      →食べさせられてしまう。Someone has been/was forced to eat something.

      Note : 〜てしまう : action is completed/ It implies more emotion (feelings)

      Q3) Does it change to ~て しまわれる?

      I can’t think of any at the moment.
      Q3) . Could this sentence: 前の人が立って, 映画 が 見えませんでした changed into 受け身?

      You can say
      前の人に立たれてしまい(or しまって)、映画が見えませんでした。

  56. Haha sorry i wright wrong!!!!
    書かされる-Incorrect for test
    書かせられる-Correct for test

    友達に日本語を書かされた-Incorrect for test
    友達に日本語を書かせられた-Correct for test

  57. Hello ViktorSAMA
    I have a few questions:

    書かされる-Correct for test
    書かせられる-Incorrect for test

    友達に日本語を書かされた-correct for test
    友達に日本語を書かせられた-incorret for test

    I hope you have time to Answer my questions. BTW i love your videos on Give me a Breakman too. Japanse for morons rock hehe. I am a big moron too HEHE宜しくお願いします

    1. @eienstudent

      I am not Victor… We are Maggie and Yukari. (Victor is helping us promoting this site.) so I don’t make the videos but will tell him your message. He will like that.
      Anyway, when you take an exam, 書かせられる is correct.
      書かされる is considered as さ入れ言葉 as I explained in the lesson and grammatically wrong.
      Though many of us use it in daily conversation.
      Please read “Note” in the lesson. I explained more about this さ入れ言葉

      1. そうですか、マッギエとゆかり、はこのホームページを作りました。知りませんでした!すみません。笑。


        1. @eienstudent


  58. I have no sentence, but an important question.

    The language phenomenom abotu the ra-nuki words and the sa-ire words.

    You mentioned it before, that if you attend a Japanese exam (perhaps oral exam), you should avoid using these features.

    But what about the official JLPT exam? Do you know something? Beacuase the exam was newly revised due to a better and more natural Japanese, so these two ra-nuki and sa-ire would be included.

    1. @Japanese Learner

      I would still avoid ra-nuki and sa-ire on JLPT exam.
      You should know the fact that people do use them nowadays but when it comes to exams (→any types!) or serious Japanese class, you’d better avoid using them.

  59. Hello, I have a question! Because ‘saseru’ can mean ‘to make’ or ‘to let,’ sometimes it can be confusing.

    「貴方はそんな約束 誰にもさせちゃだめよ」

    Does this mean ‘You shouldn’t make anyone make those kinds of promises’ or ‘You shouldn’t let anyone make those kinds of promises with you’ or something different? Thanks!

    1. @Kay

      You are right. させる can be “to make” or “to let”
      So, if you hear 「貴方はそんな約束 誰にもさせちゃだめよ」
      it could be both 1) ‘You shouldn’t make anyone make those kinds of promises’ and 2) ‘You shouldn’t let anyone make those kinds of promises with you’ .
      You have to know the context.

      1. Ahh, the context doesn’t make it exactly clear, unfortunately :( But thank you so much for clarifying!

        And thank you for your wonderful lessons!

        1. @Kay
          You’re welcome. If you find out about the whole context, just let me know. Usually we can tell which one they mean.
          Anyway, がんばって! !ochame!

  60. Chuken Hachikou story is soooo sad ;_; I could never watch the movie >.<

    ok, here we go:
    Tonight, a friend made me do her work.

        1. @Aki

          That’s right! Good job!

          Akiはマギー先生に例文を作らされた。 :)
          = Aki wa Maggie sensei ni reibun wo tsukrasareta.
          (例文= reibun = example sentences.)

  61. 昨日、ゲームのせいで遅く寝ました。


    1. @aaninoue8

      起こされました→Great! It’s correct!
      (But change 十時に起きるつもりけど→ 十時につもりだったけど)

  62. These suffixes are so difficult to conjugate.
    Having many problems to translate to japanese what i’m thinking to write.
    But here we go!




    1. @Rafael.
      Hahaha!! Good one!
      Almost! →書かされます。

      It is difficult. But I can correct you here or on twitter anytime.
      勉強にやらせていました。→ If you made someone study 勉強をやらせていました。
      If someone made you study →勉強をやらされていました。
      先生にこれをやらせた。will be 先生にこれをやらされた。


      1. I’m just a little confused. He wrote mainichi, Magii-sensei ni nihongo de kakasaserarerimasu. But you corrected him and said it should be, kakasaremasu? In your lesson didn’t you state they are the same, with kakasaserareru being the colloquial version of kakasareru?

        1. @Dcox3

          Hello! Oh, you have been checking the comment section? Aren’t all the people who come here great?
          Anyway I corrected 日本語で書かさせられ”り”ます。because of “り”. It must be typo, though.

  63. OMG..thank you so much Maggie-sensei^^
    Sure whenever you have time. In the mean time, I’ll try to catch up with your great lessons^^

  64. I know that usually CMS like to play with words and such.
    Ex: 0:33 どち?something…I know they use twins to sell products, 2:02 I have no idea what they’re selling メトロが心をつないでいく。??, 2:33, 2:46, 3:31 I understand what they’re talking most of it, but is that a cell phone CM?, 7:02 they talk really fast, 7:17…
    Actually I would love to understand all of them, but I don’t want to bother you too much. You don’t have to explain everything because it might be time consuming.
    Generally I find Japanese CM very very interesting in terms of ideas, language, and style^^
    So whenever you have time..Maggie-sensei^^

  65. I’ve been excellent, Maggie sensei^^ Just a little bit busy. Now I’m back^^ Thank you for asking.
    I have a proposal though. Today I was checking out Japanese commercials, which are all wonderful by the way^^.
    There are quite interesting expressions in these CMS that many times I couldn’t quite catch what they say, like this youtube link here http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RPB55fLQbsM
    I don’t know if you’ll be interested in teaching us some of these interesting expressions^^
    Ahhh..back to study your lessons now^^
    thank you much Maggie-sensei.

    1. @Top-san

      I think using Japanese commercials is a very good way to learn Japanese. I have used Boss’ commercials in this blog as well.
      As for the link you gave me, is there any specific expression that you want to learn or you didn’t get ? (Give me with the time, Ex. 2:05, etc.)

  66. Hi Maggie-sensei^^
    I was confused about what you say that you can put を after 結婚 but you don’t include it in this example.
    And is this 練習 or 勉強?Can you use any verb to make it a noun?

    Note : The same as 勉強 (=benkyou). You can put “を” after 練習 (=benkyou) as an object.

    結婚する (=kekkon suru) to get marry

    →結婚させる (=kekkon saseru) to make someone marry

    →結婚させられる (=kekkon saserareru) to be forced to marry

    (=Mou sanjussai ninatta node kanojo ni kekkon saserareru kamo shirenai.)
    Since she is 30 years old now, I might be forced to marry my girlfriend.

    1. Top-san
      お久しぶりです!!How have you been?
      Oh, I see your confusion. I should have added the same note to 結婚! 結婚 also can be a noun so we say 結婚をさせる。
      I will fix that right now.
      Thank you for pointing out!
      I always appreciate it!

  67. «Maybe it was a bad idea to mention here but I thought I wanted to introduce all types of Japanese you might hear in Japan.»

    Not at all! I found your site when I was looking exactly for this! I was constantly puzzled by the extra «sa», thinking it meant something else.


  68. Just one more question; Is it grammatically wrong to use the shorter causative, and causative-passive, versions of Godan verbs? Or is it only Ichidan verbs?

    1. @Sebastian
      Let’s take 書く here again.
      書く→書かす&書かせる They are both grammatically correct.
      書く→書かせられる is grammatically correct. 書かさせられる=kakasaserareru is grammatically wrong (さ入れ言葉)But again many people use it without knowing it is wrong. So I would avoid using it for the exam or in front of a strict Japanese teacher.
      Maybe it was a bad idea to mention here but I thought I wanted to introduce all types of Japanese you might hear in Japan.

  69. “Also we say 書かされる(=kakasareru) instead of 書かせられる(=kakaserareru) as
    a shorter form.
    (Cf. There is also a colloquial form for this. →書かさせられる(=Kakasaserareru) * See the remark below!)”

    Is it possible to use this form when conjugating Ichidan verbs. such as 食べる? I was reading “The Handbook of Japanese verns”, but I’m not sure if I can use that form with Ichidan verbs.



    1. @Sebastian

      Hello!  一段活用 「食べる」の使役の形は、 The causative form of 食べる will be
      And these are grammatically wrong
      So avoid using them in a class or exams. However, “some” people do use them in a daily conversation.

  70. Hello!

    I got here because I was searching the difference between “saseru” and “kureru”. I’m afraid I don’t understand the usage of both that well so could you explain the difference please? When would I use each of them?

    Thank you!

    1. @Jan
      Sorry! I was out of town and just saw your question. “saseru” is to make someone do something. 勉強させる=benkou saseru =to make someone study
      くれる=kureru=is to do something for someone.  これやってくれる?=Can you do it for me? I made あげる+くれる lesson so please go to that lesson and if you have a question, let me know, OK?

  71. Thank you this helped a lot!
    I always have problems with the causative so now I hope to understand it better thanks to you! ^^

    1. Doci-san,

      Thank you for your comment! I am glad to hear it helped! Try to make sentences! I can help you anytime! がんばってね!

  72. Maggie-sensei,

    Wow, such a long reply again, you are so helpful! And yes, that definetely answers both my questions! Some great examples too.

    Thanks again!

    1. ロブタさん

      どういたしまして!本当に長くなっちゃいましたよね!(Another “chau”!!)
      I think it is very important to learn from example sentences.

      Mata kitene!

  73. Maggie-sensei,

    Thank you so much for the very detailed reply! And I’m glad I had not just made a mistake with the grammar – so this ‘さ入れ言葉’ is a well-known phenomenon? I had never heard of this before! It doesn’t really make sense to me though – new speech patterns among young people tend to remove things rather than make the words longer right?! Although I suppose by adding ‘さ’ you don’t have to differentiate between words and only have to worry about conjugating ‘させる’ added to the stem.

    And I’m very sorry to make you think so hard in your break between lessons. I have two more very annoying questions through, but they are in no way urgent, so only answer them when you feel like it!

    First, I noticed in your ‘いる/ある’ lesson something again that has bothered me for a long time. Why is it sometimes ‘には’ rather than just ‘は’ in a sentence such as ‘マギーには才能が有ります’?

    Second, I have been watching Japanese drama for language practice recently, and some of the characters have the annoying habit of adding ‘ちゃった’ to phrases that are not ‘unfortunate’ as I had been lead to believe. Is this common?

    I promise, no more questions for a month!

    1. ロブタさん
      You’re right. We may not know the name as “saire kotoba” but it is a well-known phenomenon.
      Many Japanese people use this “sa”ire kotoba without thinking. I said especially among young people but even older people use it as well.
      Ex. 読む(=yomu)
      “Let me read it!” should be 「読ませて下さい。」(=yomasete kudasai.) But I bet many people say 「読まさせて下さい。」(=yomasasete kudasai.)

      Somehow the later sounds even more politer. Anyway, I think it is good to know.

      OK!! New questions!

      Let’s compare the following two sentences.

      Using “には” focuses on “Maggie” more.
      In this case, we can think “ni” as a location.

      1) Maggie has a talent.
      2) “There is a talent IN Maggie.” (Focusing on “the location” which is Maggie.)

      Other examples :

      3) 九州は温泉が一杯あります。(=Kyuushu wa onsen ga ippai arimasu.)
      4) 九州には温泉が一杯あります。(=Kyushuu niwa onsen ga ippai arimasu.)

      Both of them mean “There are lots of hot springs in Kyushuu.” and indicate the location, Kyushu, but the 4) emphasizes the location more while 3) could be just a statement or fact. 4) implies slightly more emotional attachment to Kyushuu, I think.

      Also compare “ni” and “niwa”

      5) 彼に言いたくありません。(=Kare ni iitaku arijmasen.) I don’t want to tell him.
      6) 彼には言いたくありません。(=Kare niwa iitaku arimasen.) I don’t want to tell HIM! (because I have a problem with him.)
      Again, 6) focuses on 彼 more.

      You can try to make sentences using “ni” and “niwa”. I can check them for you.

      The second question about “ちゃった”
      Yes! “ちゃった” is VERY common in a daily conversation.
      It is a colloquial way of saying 〜(し)てしまう。
      You’re right. There is a “unfortunate” meaning as follows.

      1.このカップを割ってしまいました。I accidentally broke this cup. (Oops! feeling)->colloquial : 割っちゃった。
      2.そんなことをやったら死んでしまいますよ。 If you do such a thing you are going to die.-> colloquial : 死んじゃうよ!
      3.困ってしまいます。 I will be in trouble ->colloquial :困っちゃう。(Komacchau)
      4.困ってしまいました。I am in trouble ->colloquial :困っちゃった。(Komacchatta)
      5. ちょっと太ってしまいました。I gained a bit of weight. -> colloquial : ちょっと太っちゃった。(Oh no!)

      It also means “some action has completed, done, finished”

      6.一人で仕事やっちゃいました。 I have finished work by myself.
      7.もう宿題終わっちゃったの?Did you already finish your homework?
      8. 簡単に試験に受かっちゃった!I passed the exam easily. (See this is not “unfortunate”!)

      Try to change the following sentences using ちゃう

      9.これを食べてしまったの(ですか)? “Did you eat it? (Accusing) 
      10.これを食べてしまっていい(ですか)? ”Can I eat it?” (Can I finish eating it?) 
      11.これを食べてしまいましょうか? ”Shall we eat this?” (=eat this up? finish it?)

      Answers :
      9-A) これ食べちゃったの?
      11-A) これ食べちゃおうか?

      It is kind of a cute ending but if you overuse it, you may sound a bit 軽い!

      Hope I answered your questions.
      You can ask me questions anytime! Matane!

  74. Maggie-sensei,

    I was just wondering – I know that for normal passive forms of verbs, you change the ending of ~る verbs to られる, so shouldn’t it be the same for passive causative? For example, why does 書く become かかさせられる rather than かかせられる?

    Also, in what situation is it OK to use the abbreviated form of the passive causative?


    1. ロブタさん
      The normal passive form of 書く is 書かれる (written)
      Ex. この手紙は1900年に書かれました。(This letter was written in 1900.)
      And its passive causative form is 書かせられる. But we say 書か”さ”せられる in modern Japanese. Grammatically it is wrong but we use it anyway. It is called さ入れ言葉. Maybe my explanation was not good enough so I added that information in the lesson.
      It has been annoyed many Japanese intellectuals as “ranuki kotoba” but I think it will be accepted as formal Japanese sooner or later.
      せられる or させられる…Which one do we use more frequently?? It depends on the verbs or people who use it. I would say we still use せられる more…
      As for your last question, abbreviated form is more colloquial. Again, it is grammatically wrong but people use it anyway.
      You can use the abbreviate form anytime in Japan. But avoid using it in a formal situation or Japanese exam.
      Did I answer your questions?
      Your questions made me think a lot!
      今回の質問で非常に頭を使わされました。Now I have to go play with a new toy!
      But thank you so much for your questions! :maggie-small:

  75. The dog’s promise shouldn’t be ‘inu no yakusuko’, instead of ‘yakusoku no inu’? ‘Yakusoku no inu’ sounds like ‘the dog of promise’.

    1. blkobsさん

      Thank you for your question. I took the both titles from the real movie but you are right. When I posted it, I thought the translation was a bit odd. 約束の犬 itself sounds strange even in Japanese but it should be translated “the dog of promise.” as you said.
      And 犬の約束 should be “The dog’s promise.” I think they have change the title just because there is a similar title. 犬と私の10の約束

  76. ユカリさん、こんにちは!





    1. Mikaさん、
      この場合の「夢」の動詞 は、「見る」です。(=Kono baai no “yume” no doushi wa “miru” desu.)
      In this case the verb for yume is “miru”
      ->夢を見る (=yume wo miru.)

      Also there are a lot of verbs for yume, such as 叶える(=kanaeru) to make it come true, 持つ(=motsu) to have,壊す(=kowasu) to ruin,etc. Maybe I will make a lesson someday.

      to make (or let) someone dream=「夢を見させる」(=yume wo misaseru)

      通常、夢をみるのはいいことなので、(=Tsuujyou Yume wo miru no wa iikoto nanode)
      させてくれる、させてもらうという形を取ることが多いです。(=”sasete kureru” “sasete morau” toiu katachi wo toru koto ga ooi desu.)

      (Usually to dream something is positive so, we use, ”sasete kureru” or “sasete morau” forms.)

      *~させてくれる(=~sasete kureru.) to let me dream of something
      *〜させてもらう (=~sasete morau.) get to dream of something. 

      夢を見せてくれた相手にはこう言います。(=Yume wo misete kureta aite niwa, kou iimasu.)
      To someone who gives you a chance to dream about something, you say:

      Ex. いい夢を見させてくれてありがとう!(=Ii yume wo misasete kurete arigatou)

      Ex. いい夢を見させてもらいました。ありがとう!(=Ii yume wo misasete moraimashita. Arigatou.) 

      「して(来て)くれる」のレッスンをチェックしてみて下さい。(=”~” no ressun wo chekku shitemite kudasai.) 
      Please check “shitekite kureru lesson”

      ** makes (or let ) ~ dream は、**は〜に夢を見させてくれる。(= ~ wa 〜 ni yume wo misasete kureru.)

      「日本の写真を見るのは私に日本に行くことを夢させます。(Your sentence)
      ->日本の写真を見ることは私に日本に行く夢を見させてくれます。(=Nihon no shashin wo miru kotowa watashi ni nihon ni iku yume wo misasete kuremasu.)
      ->(more natural) 日本の写真は私に日本に行く夢を見させてくれます。(=Nihon no shashin wa watashi ni nihon ni iku yume wo misasete kuremasu.)

      また挑戦してね!(=Mata chousen shitene!) Try again sometime!

  77. 私はマッギー先生に褒めさせられましたから、仕方がありませんね。さすがのマッギー先生だよね!

    1. Harin-san,

      あら、褒めさせちゃった?(笑)(=Oh, Did I make you praise me?)

      褒めさせられましたから->褒めさせられたので or 褒めさせられたから

      さすがのマッギー先生だよね-> さすがマギー先生だよね。

      You put “の” after “さすが” only in a negative sentence.
      さすがの〜も出来ない。〜しない=even ~ can’t
      Ex. さすがのマギー先生もわからない。(Even Maggie-sensei doesn’t understand.)


  78. 生きていくために仕事を持ってやらせます???????
    i know its probably wrong but how would you say in order to survive you must have a job or in this case is forced to have a job???

    1. derwbningen-san,

      Nice try!!
      In this case, I would say 「生きていくためには(何か)仕事を持たなければいけません。」
      I have to have a job in order to survive. It sounds more natural. But good point! させる、させられる needs a cause and it usually should be someone else besides some exceptions.
      Keep writing!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *