How to use まで ( = made)

「ここまでかわいい先生はいないでしょ。」

= Koko made kawaii sensei wa inai desho.

= I bet you can’t find this cute teacher.

 

Hi everyone!

I’m your guest teacher Suzu. 小さい頃、かわいかったでしょ〜。( = Chiisai koro, kawaikatta deshou.) See how adorable I was when I was a kitten?

Today we are going to study how to use まで ( = made). 

(The kanji is= まで= made but I will use hiragana in this lesson.)

This lesson should cover from JLPT N4 level to N1 level.

So pick the level that best fits your ability.

******

 :w: Usage Summary:

1. indicating a time period: 

(1) until certain period of time/until someone does something

(a) noun (time related word) + まで *( = made): until certain time

(b) verb  dictionary form + まで ( = made): until one does ~ / until something happens

(2) by/before  ~ 

までには ( = madeni) / までには ( = made niwa): (to do something) by certain period of time /by the time or before someone does something/something happens

(a) noun (time related word) + までに ( = madeni) or までには ( = made niwa): by ~

(b) verb dictionary form (present) + までに ( = madeni) or までには ( = made niwa) : by the time/before ~

2. indicating a place: to somewhere

* (place) + まで ( = made): up to, to ~

3. an indirect object marker:

(1) someone / certain place / organization / entity + まで ( = made) + verb

= to contact / to report/to call + someone/ certain place / organization / entity

(2) (noun) + にまで ( = ni made) : some action is done even  to someone / group / organization / entity

4. indicating certain categories, ages, groups of people, species

5. even

(1) noun + まで ( = made) = even /also

(2) ここ・そこ・あそこ( koko・soko・asoko) + まで ( = made):  to this / that extent, this much, that much

(3) V ( verb te-form) + まで ( = made): to do something even doing something/ to go  so far as  ~

6. Vまでだ  ( = made da ) /Vまでのことだ ( = made no koto da)

just / only: (When something happen):  just do/did something and nothing else.

(a) with present tense:

*  verb dictionary form +  までだ ( = made da) / までです( = made desu)

*  verb dictionary form +  までのことだ ( = made no koto da) / までのことです ( = made no koto desu)

(b) with past tense:

* verb past tense + V までだ (= made da) / Vまでです( = made desu)

* verb past tense + V までのことだ ( = made no koto da)  / までのことです ( = made no koto desu.)

7. それまで/これまで ( = sore made/ kore made) + ( = da) / です( = desu)

8. Vまでもない ( = made mo nai): not even worth doing something / no need to do something

9. Formal writing: 〜まで ( = made) / までに ( = madeni)

 

******

We can better understand the usage by looking at some example sentences:

1.  indicating a time period

(1) until ~ : until certain time

(a) noun (time related word) + まで ( = made): until / to ~

Ex. 月曜日から土曜日まで仕事です。

= Getsuyoubi kara doyoubi made shigoto desu.

= I work from Monday to Saturday.

Ex. 昼休みは12時から1時までです。

= Hiruyasumi wa juuniji kara ichiji made desu.

= The lunch break is from twelve to one.

Ex. 郵便局は何時から何時まで開いていますか?

= Yuubinkyoku wa nanji kara nanji made aite imasu ka?

= What times does the post office open?

Ex.

A: 「銀行は何時までやっていますか?」

= Ginkou wa nanji made yatte imasu ka?

= How late does the bank open?/ What time does the bank close?

B:「窓口は午後3時までです。」

= Madoguchi wa gogo sanji made desu.

= The counter is open until 3pm.

Ex. までありがとう。

= ima made arigaotu.

= Thank you for everything (you’ve done for me until now.)

Ex. ここまでがんばったんだからやめないで。

= Koko made ganbattan dakara yamenai de.

= Don’t quit. You’ve worked so hard and come so far.

Ex. これまで我慢していたけれどももう限界だ。

= Koremade gaman shite ita keredomo mou genkai da.

= I’ve been putting up with it until now but I can’t stand it anymore.

Ex. (casual)

A:「日本にいつまでいるの?」

= Nihon ni itsumade iru no?

= Until when are you going to stay in Japan?

B:「来年の春までだよ。」

= Rainen no haru made dayo.

= Until next spring.

Ex. (casual)

A:「休みはいつまで?」

=  Yasumi wa itsu made?

= When does your vacation end? /How long is your vacation?

B:「明日まで

= Ashita made.

= Until tomorrow.

When you emphasize the time, you add ( = wa)

Ex. 明日まで休みです。

= Ashita made wa yasumi desu.

= I am on vacation until tomorrow. (But I have to go back to work the day after tomorrow.)

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

(b) verb  dictionary form +まで ( = made): until one does ~ /until something happens

Ex. 大学生になるまで親元で生活をします。

= Daigakusei ni naru made oyamoto de seikatsu wo shimasu.

= I am going to live with my parents until I go to university.

Ex. 試験に合格するまでがんばります。

= Shiken ni goukaku suru made ganbarimasu.

= (literal meaning) I’ll do my best until I pass the exam.

= I’ll do my best to pass the exam.

Ex. 日本語が話せるようになるまで国に帰らない。

= Nihongo ga hanaseru you ni naru made kuni ni kaeranai.

= I won’t go back to my country until I am able to speak Japanese.

Ex. 彼女が許してくれるまで謝り続けます。

= Kanojo ga yurushite kureru made ayamari tsuzukemasu.

= I‘m going to keep apologizing until she forgives me.

Ex. 子供が幼稚園に入るまで仕事は休みます。

= Kodomo ga youchien ni hairu made shigoto wa yasumimasu.

= I am going to take a break from work until my child goes to kindergarten.

Ex.  日本では20歳になるまでお酒を飲んではいけません。

= Nihon dewa hatachi ni narumade wa osake wo nonde wa ikemasen.

= You are not allowed to drink until you’re 20 in Japan.

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

(2) by/before

までに ( = made ni) / までに ( = made niwa):by certain period of time /by the time or before someone does something/something happens

(a) noun (time related word) + までに ( = made ni) or までに ( = made niwa): by ~ 

Note: You use ( = wa) to emphasizing the time limit.

Ex. 明日までにレポートを提出してください。

= Ashita made ni repooto wo teishutsu shite kudasai.

= Please turn in your paper by tomorrow.

Ex. (casual)

A:「何時までに駅に着いていないといけない? 」

= Nanji made ni eki ni tsuite inai to ikenai?

= By what time should I be at the station?

B:「遅くとも9時までに来て。」

= Osokutomo kuji made niwa kite.

= Be there by nine at the latest.

Ex. Maggie: 6月末までには新しいレッスンを作ります。

= Rokugatsu sue made niwa atarashii ressun wo tsukurimasu.

= I will make a new lesson by the end of June.

(b) verb dictionary form (present) + までに ( = made ni) or までに ( = made niwa): by the time/before ~

Ex. 子供たちが帰るまでには家に着いていないといけない。

= Kodomotachi ga kaeru made niwa ie ni tsuite inai to ikenai.

= I have to be home before my children come back.

Ex. 本格的に暑くなるまでにはエアコンが欲しい。

= Honkakuteki ni atsuku naru made niwa eakon ga hoshii.

= Before it gets really hot, I would like to get an air conditioner.

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

2.  indicating a place: to somewhere

* (place) + まで ( = made): up to, to ~

Ex. 大阪から東京まで新幹線でいくらかかりますか?

= Oosaka kara Toukyou made shinkansen de ikura kakarimasu ka?

= How much does it cost to (go to) Tokyo from Osaka by shinkansen (bullet train).

Ex. 家から学校まで自転車で20分だ。

= ie kara gakkou made jitensha de nijuppun da.

= It takes 20 minutes from my house to school.

(In a taxi)

Ex.

タクシー 運転手:「どちらまで? 」

= Takushii untenshu: Dochira made?

Taxi driver = Where to?

客:「品川駅までお願いします。 」

= Kyaku: Shinagawaeki made onegai shimasu.

Passenger: To Shinagawa Station, please.

Ex. 品川駅までどうやって行ったらいいですか?

= Shinagawaeki made douyatte ittara ii desu ka?

= How can I get to Shinagawa Station?

Note: You use ( = wa) to show the contrast

品川駅までどうやって行ったらいいですか?

= Shinagawaeki made wa douyatte ittara ii desu ka?

I know how to get to the other places but how do I get to Shinagawa station?

I am specifically asking for directions to Shinagawa station.

Ex. 渋谷まではここから30分かかりますよ。

= Shibuya made wa koko kara sanjuppun kakarimasu yo.

= It will take 30 minutes to get to Shibuya from here.

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

3. an indirect object marker:

(a)  someone / certain place / organization / entity + まで ( = made) + verb

= to contact/to report/to call  + someone/ certain place / organization / entity

You use まで ( = made) instead of ( = ni) in formal speech/writing.

Ex. 不審物を見つけたらただちに警察までご連絡ください。

= Fushinbutsu wo mitsuketara tadachi ni keisastsu made gorenraku kudasai.

= If you see a suspicious object, contact police immediately.

Ex. ご質問がありましたらこちらまでご連絡ください。

= Goshitsumon ga arimashitara kochira made gorenraku kudasai.

= Please contact us if you have any questions.

Ex. お手数ですが本社までお電話ください。

= Otesuu desu ga honsha made odenwa kuasai.

= I apologize for the inconvenience you but please call the head office.

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

(b)  (noun) + にまで ( = ni made) : some action is done even  to someone / group / organization / entity

Ex. 鍵をなくして交番にまで行ったのにポケットに入っていた。

= Kagi wo nakushite kouban ni made itta noni poketto ni haitte ita.

= I thought I lost my key, and I even went to the police station but it was in my pocket all along.

Ex. 自分のことで親にまで迷惑をかけたくない。

= Jibun no koto de oya ni made meiwaku wo kaketaku nai.

= I don’t want my personal matters to go so far as to trouble my parents.

Ex. 母は、会社にまで電話をしてくる。

= Haha wa, kaisha ni made denwa wo shite kuru.

= My mom even called me at the office.

Ex. 彼に二人の写真をインスタグラムにまで投稿された。

= Kare ni futari no shashin wo insutaguramu ni made toukou sareta.

= He uploaded our picture even on Instagram.

(The literal translation: Our picture was uploaded by him even on Instagram. By using the past tense, the speaker can express one’s annoyed feelings.)

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

4.  indicating certain category, age, group of people, species

Ex. このゲームは子供から大人まで楽しめます。

= Kono geemu wa kodomo kara otona made tanoshimemasu.

= Anyone from children to adults can enjoy this game.

Ex. 3歳から5歳までのクラス

= Sansai kara gosai made no kurasu.

= The class from three to five year’s old.

Ex. 高校生まで親のことを「パパ、ママ」と呼んでいた。

= Koukousei made oya no koto wo “papa, mama” to yonde ita.

= I called my parents, Papa and Mama, until I was a high school student.

Ex. 30歳までに結婚したいと思っていた。

= Sanjussai made ni kekkon shitai to omotte ita.

= I wanted to get married before I turned 30.

Ex. このペットホテルは小型犬から大型犬まで泊まることができます。

= Kono petto hoteru wa kogataken kara oogataken made tomaru koto ga dekimasu.

= Dogs from small to large sizes can stay at this pet hotel.

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

5. even

(1) noun + まで ( = made) = even ~  / also

Ex. 彼女は歌もうまいしピアノも弾ける。その上作曲までできるらしい。

= Kanojo wa utamo umaishi piano mo hikeru. Sonoue sakkyoku made dekiru rashii.

= She can sing well and play the piano. On top of that I heard she can even compose the music.

Ex. 周りの人まで巻き込んで彼と喧嘩はしたくない。

= Mawari no hito made makikonde kare to kenka wa shitaku nai.

= I don’t want to end up involving people around us by fighting with him.

Ex. もう、泣かないで。私まで悲しくなるよ。(casual)

= Mou, nakanai de. Watashi made kanashiku naru yo.

= Don’t cry anymore. That makes me feel sad, too.

Ex. 彼と結婚するの?おめでとう!私まで嬉しくなってきた。

= Kare to kekkon suru no? Omedetou! Watashi made ureshiku natte kita.

= Are you getting married to him? Congrats! That makes me happy, too.

Ex. このエビフライは尻尾まで食べられます。

= Kono ebifurai wa shippo made taberaremasu.

= You can even eat this deep-fried shrimp’s tail.

Ex. 怒った顔までかわいいね。(casual)

= Okotta kao made kawaii ne.

= Even your angry face is cute.

Ex. この話は映画にまでなった。

= Kono hanashi wa eiga ni made natta.

= This story was even made into a movie.

Ex. えっ?お母さんまでそんなことを言うの?

= Eh? Okaasan made sonna koto wo iu no?

= What? Even you say things like that, Mom?

(It implies that the speaker thought their mother would be the last person who would say something like that.)

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

(2) ここそこあそこ( koko・soko・asoko) + まで ( = made): to this/that extent, this much, that much

From the picture above:

「ここまでかわいい先生はいないでしょ。」

= Koko made kawaii sensei wa inai desho.

= I bet you can’t find a teacher this cute.

Ex.

A: 「息子がゲームばかりやっているから携帯を取り上げたの。」

= Musuko ga geemu bakari yatte iru kara keitai wo toriageta no.

= My son was always playing games so I took away his cellphone.

B:「そこまでしなくてもいいのに。」

= Soko made shinakutemo iinoni.

= You don’t have to go that far.

Ex. お客さんが来るからと言ってあそこまできれいにしなくてもいいのに。

= Okyakusan ga kuru kara to itte asoko made kirei ni shinakutemo ii noni.

= Even though we have a guest, you don’t need to clean up that much.

Ex. 彼がここまでがんばるとは思わなかった。

= Kare ga koko made ganbaru towa omowanakatta.

= I had no idea he would try this hard.

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

(3) V ( verb te-form) + まで ( = made): to do something even doing something/ to go so far as ~

Ex. 家族を犠牲にしてまで出世したいの?

= Kazoku wo gisei ni shite made shusse shitai no?

= Do you want to get promoted even if it meant sacrificing your family?

Ex. 人にお金を借りてまで車を買いたいとは思わない。

= Hito ni okane wo karite made kuruma wo kaitai towa omowanai.

= I wouldn’t go so far as to borrow money to buy a car.

Ex. あの映画は、お金を払ってまで観なくてもいい。

= Ano eiga wa, okane wo haratte made minakute mo ii.

= It is not worth paying money to see the movie. 

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

6. Vまで ( = made da ) /Vまでのことだ ( = made no koto da)

just / only: (When something happen): just do/did something and nothing else.

(1) with present tense:

*  verb dictionary form +  まで  ( = made da) / までです ( = made desu)

*  verb dictionary form +  までのことだ ( = made no koto da) /までのことです( = made no koto desu)

To tell someone what you would/will do in certain situation./ There is no more to do other than ~

It is often used in the conditional form  〜たら ( = tara) / ( = ba) / 〜ても ( = temo) / 〜ときは ( = tokiwa),etc.

Ex. 飲み会がつまらなかったらすぐに帰ってくるまでだ。/ 帰ってくるまでのことだ。

= Nomikai ga tsumaranakattara sugu ni kaette kuru made da./ kaette kurumade no kotoda.

= If the drinking party is boring, I’ll just leave there (and go home). That’s all.

Ex. 彼がまた浮気をしたら別れるまでだ。/別れるまでのことだ。

= Kare ga mata uwaki wo shitara wakareru made da. / wakareru made no koto da.

= If he cheats on me again, I just break up with him. That’s all.

Ex. 先生に聞かれたら本当のことを話すまでだ。/話すまでのことだ。

= Sensei ni kikaretara hontou no koto wo hanasu made da. / hanasu made no koto da.

= If my teacher asks me, I just tell him/her the truth. That’s all.

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

(2) with past tense:

* verb past tense + まで ( = made da) / までです( = made desu)

* verb past tense + までのことだ ( = made no koto da) /までのことです ( = made no koto desu)

When you explain why you did something.: I just did something. That’s all. / There is no more intentions other than this.

Ex. 当然のことをしたまでのことだ。

= Touzen no koto wo shita made no koto da.

= I just did the right thing.

Ex. 上司に言われた通りにやったまでのことです。

= Joushi ni iwareta toori ni yatta made no koto desu.

= I just did exactly what my boss told me.

Ex.  (casual)

「私が太ったっていうの?ひどい!」

= Watashi ga futottatte iu no ? Hidoi!

= Are you tell me I got fat? How dare you!

「事実を言ったまでのことだよ。」

= Jijitsu wo itta made no koto dayo.

= I just told you the truth.

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

7. それまでこれまで ( = sore made / kore made) + ( = da) / です( = desu)

* 〜 たら ( = ~ tara/ba) +それまで ( = sore made da) / それまでです ( = sore made desu)

If someone does something,  everything will be in vain. /it’s over. / There is no use for ~

Ex. 彼女が僕に気がないと言われたらそれまでだ。

= Kanojo ga boku ni ki ga nai to iwaretara sore made da.

= If she says she is not into me, that’s an end to the matter.

Ex. 日本語をここであきらめたらもうそれまでですよ。

= Nihongo wo koko de akirametara mou soremade desu yo.

= If you give up on your Japanese now, everything will have been in vain.

Ex. 一度罪をおかしたらそれまでだ。

= Ichido tsumi wo okashitara soremade da.

= Once you commit a crime, it’s over.

Ex. 文句を言われたら言い返すまでだ。

= Monku wo iwaretara iikaesu made da.

= If they complain, I just talk back to them. That’s all.

* これ ( = kore) + まで ( = made) + ( = da)/ です ( = desu): It’s over.

Ex.僕の人生はもうこれまでだ!

= Boku no jinsei wa mou koremade da!

= I’m through. My life is over.

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

8. Vまでもない ( = made mo nai): not even worth doing something/ no need to do something

When you talk about something obvious. It is not necessary to do anything.

Ex. 彼女が僕のことをどう思っているかなんて聞くまでもないよ。明らかに嫌われているんだから。

= Kanojo ga boku no koto wo dou omotte iru ka nante kiku made mo naiyo. Akiraka ni kirawarete irun dakara.

= I don’t even have to ask how she feels.  She obviously hates me.

Ex. JLPTN4は簡単だから試験を受けるまでもないと思っていたら落ちてしまった。

= JLPT N4 wa kantan dakara shiken wo ukeru mademo nai to omotte itara ochite shimatta.

= I thought JLPT N4 was so easy that I didn’t have to bother taking it, but I failed.

Ex. 地図をみるまでもない。

= Chizu wo miru made mo nai.

= (It is easy to get there) There is no need to check the map.

Ex. 電子レンジの取説*なんて読むまでもないよ。

= Denshirenji no toritsetsu nante yomu made mo naiyo.

= I don’t even have to bother reading the instruction manual for the microwave oven.

Note: A casual way to say 取扱説明書 ( = とりあつかいせつめいしょ) = toriatsukai setsumeisho = instruction manual

Ex. 彼は言うまでもなくダンスも上手い。

= Kare wa iumade mo naku dansu mo umai.

= Needless to say, he is also good at dancing.

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

9. Formal writing: ~ まで ( = made) / まで ( = madeni)

* You finish the formal letter or email with まで ( = made) to conclude your text.

So you write some information that you want to tell someone and then conclude the letter with

ご連絡させていただきます。( = gorenraku sasete itadakimasu) /ご連絡いたします。( = gorenraku itashimasu.)

ご連絡まで( = gorenraku made.)

So instead of saying

Vさせていただきます。( = sasete itadakimasu) = Please allow me to do ~ / Please let me do ~

or

Vいたします。( = itasimasu)  = I do something (honorific expression)

you just finish the sentence with まで ( = made)

Ex. ご参考まで

= Gosankou made

= This (above mentioned matter)  is just for your reference.

Ex. まずはご報告まで

= Mazu wa gohoukoku made.

= This was just quick note/announcement.

Ex. 取り急ぎご報告まで

= Toriisogi gohoukoku made.

= This is just a short note to inform you.

Ex. 取り急ぎ確認まで

= Toriisogi kakunin made.

= I just wanted to confirm/make sure

Ex. ご挨拶まで

= Goaisatsu made

= (the literal meaning) I just wanted to greet you.

Note: 挨拶= aisatsu means  to greet someone” but in this case, to express one’s gratitude, feelings of sincerity

So it is like the salutations such as  “Best regards. / Sincerely” in English.

**

* まで( = madeni)

Note: You use 参考まで ( = sankou made) with ( = ni)

ご参考まで

= Gosankou made ni…

= For your information …

Ex. 当社の製品は他社のものより1割安くなっております。ご参考までに。

= Tousha no seihin wa tasha no mono yori ichiwari yasuku natte orimasu. Gosankou madeni.

= Our products are 10 pct cheaper than other companies’ products. Just for your information.

You can start the sentence with ご参考まで ( = gosankou madeni)

Ex. ご参考までに当社の製品は他社のものより1割安くなっております。

= Gosankou madeni tousha no seihin wa tasha no mono yori ichiwari yasuku natte orimasu.

= Just for your information, our products are 10% cheaper than other companies’ products.

:purple: (⬅︎ Jump to the summary above) 

*****

マギー先生より= Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

スズ先生ありがとう!= Suzu Sensei arigatou! = Thank you, Suzu-Sensei!

私もかわいいけどスズ先生には負けます。

= Watashi mo kawaii kedo Suzu Sensei niwa makemasu.

= I know I am cute, too, but I can’t hold a candle to her!

***

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Audio Files for this lesson

:rrrr:   Part 1 (introduction part)  Click here.

:rrrr:   Part 2 (#1~#4) Click here.

 

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10 Comments

  1. Sensei. What is the difference between the following?

    月がきれい
    月はきれい

    I’m always confused about the particle “ga” in this context. But when we tell something about what we see or what has happened/is happening, do we use が?

    1. Dwi

      Hi Dwi,
      When you talk about the general idea that the moon is beautiful, you say 月はきれい
      When you talk about the moon you are looking at now and emphasize the fact how beautiful “the moon” is, you say 月がきれい

  2. こんにちは、マギー先生!
    ちょっと質問がありますが…

    6.Vまでだ/Vまでのことだ
    代わりに「Vだけだ」を使うことができますか。例えば:
    先生に聞かれたら本当のことを話すまでだ。➝先生に聞かれたら本当のことを話すだけだ。
    違いがありますか。

    1. こんにちは!!
      いい質問ですね。
      本当のことを話すだけだ
      も同じように使えます。

      この文章の場合、あまり違いはありませんが、「までだ」の方が強い意志が伝わります。
      基本的に、
      だけ  他に選択肢がない
      まで 自分が決めたこと・意志が強調される
      という違いがあります。

  3. こんなに素晴らしい「まで」の説明を見らせていただき、大変ありがとうございました!先生のおかげ様で、何年もの疑いところ一瞬で分かっておりました。先生のサイトがあるのは幸いのです!

    ご挨拶までwww

    1. www お役に立てて嬉しいです。
      難しい文章がんばりましたね。
      (説明を読ませていただき/説明をしていただき, →わかりました。 あるのは→あって →幸いです)

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