敬語 ( = けいご= keigo) Honorific Form

お疲れになりましたか?ゆっくりおやすみください。
 
= Otsukare ni narimashita ka? Yukkuri oyasumi kudasai.
 
= Are you tired? Sleep well.
 

 

 
Hi everyone! Those cute guest teachers, Phineas and Parker are back.
 
We just studied 謙譲語 (けんじょうご = kenjougo), humble form, the other day.
Now it is time to study more about 敬語 ( = keigo), honorific expressions.
I made an introductory 敬語 lesson many years ago.
We will focus on the verb form today.
 
*****
Hello again. We are Phineas and Parker.
 
As you studied in the previous lesson, when you talk about your own actions, you use “humble form”.
When you talk about the action of someone “superior” (again, “superior” here means your boss, older people, customers, clients, etc.) or their family, you use honorific form to show your respect.
 
I doubt you’ll use this form so often in your daily life unless you work for a Japanese company. However you will hear this form a lot at stores, banks, restaurants or on the train — basically anywhere you could be considered a customer.
 
There are many special honorific verb forms just like humble forms.
Let’s start with the basic one first.
 
1) (ら)れる = (ra)reru
 
How to form:
 
It is the same form as the passive or potential form.
 
* Group 1 verb (u-verb):
 
Ex. 行く = いく= iku = to go
 
(1) Make a negative form ~ない ( = nai)
 
行かない = いかない = ikanai = not to go
 
(2) delete ない ( = nai)
 
行か = いか = ika
 
(3) add れる( = reru)
 
行かれる ( = ikareru)
 
 
Ex. どちらまで行かれますか?
 
= Dochira made ikaremasu ka?
 
= Where are you going?
 
 
*Group 2 verb (ru-verb)
 
治る = なおる = naoru = to be cured/healed
 
(1) Make a negative form ~ない ( = nai)
 
治らない = なおらない = naoranai = not to be cured/healed
 
(2) delete ない ( = nai) and add れる ( = reru)
 
治られる = なおられる= naorareru
 
 
Ex. 風邪はもう治られましたか?
 
= Kaze wa mou naoraremashita ka?
 
= Have you gotten over from your cold now?
 
*帰る= かえる = kaeru = to return, to go home
 
帰らない = かえらない= kaeranai = not to return/ go home
 
帰ら= かえら = kaera + れる ( = reru)
 
帰られる = かえられる= kaerareru
 
Ex. 鈴木さんは先ほど帰られました。
 
= Suzuki san wa sakihodo kaeraremashita.
 
= Mr./Ms. Suzuki just left (or went home).
 
 
*irregular verbs:
 
* する ( = suru) to doされる( = sareru)
 
 
Ex. お仕事は何をされているのですか?
 
= Oshigoto wa nani wo sarete iru no desu ka?
 
= What do you do for living?
 
 
* 来る = くる ( = kuru) to come来られる = こられる = korareru
 
Ex. 部長が来られたら教えてください。
 
= Buchou ga koraretara oshiete kudasai.
 
= Please let me know when the manager gets here.
 
 
Note: The compound words which combine two verbs
 
* ~て来る ( = てくる= tekuru)
 
~て来られる ( = てこらられる = te korareru)
 
* ~て行く ( = ~ teiku)
 
~て行かれる ( = ていかれる = te ikareru)
 
Ex. お客様が持って行かれました。
 
= Okyakusama ga motte ikaremashita.
 
= The guests took (something) with them.
 
(*more polite 持っていらっしゃいました = motte irasshaimashita.)
 
Ex. お客様が持って来られました。
 
= Okyakusama ga motte koraremashita.
 
= The guests brought (something).
 
 
 :u: More polite:
 
2-A) ( = o) + verb masu-stem + になる ( = ni naru)
 
* 使う= つかう = tsukau = to use
 
masu stem of 使う( = つかい = tsukaiu) to use
 
使い ( = つかい= tsukai)
 
( = o) + 使い ( = tsukai) + になる ( = ni naru)
 
お使いになる = otsukai ni naru
 
Note: You can’t make this form with する ( = suru) to do / 見る ( = miru) to see,watch, look / 着る ( = kiru) to wear, put on/ 行く( = iku) to go/ 来る ( = kuru) to come
 
Ex. お箸はお使いになりますか?
 
= Ohashi wa otsukai ni narimasu ka?
 
= Would you like to use chopsticks?
 
Ex. 田中さんは今、新聞をお読みになっています。
 
= Tanaka-san wa ima, shinbun wo oyomi ni natteimasu.
 
=Mr./Ms.  Tanaka is reading newspaper now.
 
 
2-B) ( = go) + verb noun form (Chinese origin word) + になる ( = ni naru)
 
 
* 利用 ( = riyou ) using/usage
 
ご利用 = goriyou
 
Ex. ホテルに滞在中、スパがご利用になれます。
 
= Hoteru ni taizaichuu, supa ga goriyou ni naremasu.
 
= While you’re staying at the hotel, you can use the spa.
 
 
Note-1) Be careful with 二重敬語 ( = nijuu keigo), double honorific expression.
 
Don’t use 1) and 2) together. That will be considered as 二重敬語 ( = nijuu keigo ), double honorific expression.
 
You say:
 
1) 使われる = tsukawareru = someone uses
 
or
 
2) お使いになる = otsukai ni naru = someone uses
 
But you don’t say:
 
X お使いになられる = otsukai ni narareru
 
Note-2) When you offer someone something or ask someone to do something, you say:
 
( = o) + verb masu stem + ください ( = kudasai)
or
( = go) + verb noun form + ください ( = kudasai)
 
You see this form a lot in instructional manuals.
 
Ex. こちらにお名前をお書きください。
 
= Kochira ni onamae wo okaki kudasai.
 
= Please write your name here.
 
or
 
こちらにお名前をご記入ください。
 
= Kochirani onamae go gokinyuu kudasai.
 
= Please write your name here.
 
Ex. 緊急時は階段をお使いください。
 
= Kinkyuuji wa kaidan wo otsukai kudasai.
 
= Please use stairs in case of emergency.
 
or
 
緊急時は階段をご利用ください。
 
= Kinkyuuji wa kaidan wo goriyou kudasai.
 
= Please use stairs in case of emergency.
 
Note-3) When you ask someone superior to do something, using いただけますか ( = itadakemasu ka) or いただけますでしょうか ( = itadakemasu deshou ka) are much more polite than ご~てください ( = o / go ~ kudasai).
As you may remember from previous lesson, you use いただく ( = itadaku) as a humble form for もらう ( = morau) to receive a favor from someone.
 
 
Ex. ここに名前を書いてください。
 
= Koko ni namae wo kaite kudasai.
 
= Please write your name here.
 
more polite
 
こちらにお名前をお書きください。
 
= Kochira ni onamae wo okaki kudasai.
 
= Please write your name here.
 
more polite
 
こちらにお名前をお書きいただけますか?
 
= Kochira ni onamae wo okaki itadakemasu ka?
 
= Will you write your name here please?
 
more polite
 
こちらにお名前をお書きいただけますでしょうか。
 
= Kochira ni onamae wo okaki itadakemasu deshouka?
 
= Would you mind writing your name here, please?
 
 
Note: Which one to use ( = o)  or  ( = go)
 
There are exceptions but you use ( = o) for Japanese origin words with kun-reading and ( = go) for Chinese origin word with on-reading.
 
****
Some verbs have their own specific humble verb form. Here are some examples:
 
*する = suru = to do
 
なさる = nasaru
 
なさいます = nasaimasu
 
It is more polite than される ( = sareru)
 
Ex. 日本語を勉強(を)されているそうですね。
 
= Nihongo wo benkyou (wo) sarerte iru sou desu ne.
 
= I heard you are studying Japanese.
 
(more polite)
 
Ex.日本語を勉強なさっているそうですね。。
 
= Nihongo wo benkyou (wo) nasatte iru sou desune.
 
= I heard you are studying Japanese.
 
 
Ex. どうぞごゆっくりお買い物をなさってください。
 
= Douzo goyukkuri okaimono wo nasatte kudasai.
 
= Please take your time and enjoy your shopping.
 
To a sick person:
 
Ex. どうぞお大事になさってください。
 
= Douzo odaiji ni nasatte kudasai.
 
= Please take care of yourself.
 
**
 
* いる = iru = to be / to have
 
いらっしゃる = irassharu
 
いらっしゃいます = irasshaimasu
 
おいでになる= oide ninaru
 
おいでになります = oide ni narimasu
 
Ex. お子さんはいらっしゃいますか?
 
= Okosan wa irasshaimasu ka?
 
= Do you have any children?
 
Ex. 明日はお宅においでになりますか?
 
= Ashita wa otaku ni oide ni narimasu ka?
 
= Are you going to be home tomorrow?
 
Note:
 
verb ( = te) /  ( = de) +いる( = teiru)
→ verb ( = te) / ( = de) + いらっしゃる( = irassharu)
 
adjective + ( = te) / ( = de) + いらっしゃる ( = irassharu)
 
Ex. お元気でいらっしゃいますか?
 
= Ogenki de irasshaimasu ka?
 
= How are you? / How have you been? / Have you been well?
 
*来る = くる = kuru = to come
 
いらっしゃる = irassharu
 
いらっしゃいます = irasshaimasu
 
おいでになる = oide ninaru
 
おいでになります = oide ni narimasu
 
お見えになる = omie ni naru ( to show up / to come to see someone)
 
お見えになります = omie ni narimasu
 
お越しになる = okoshi ni naru ( to come / to come all the way
 
お越しになります = okoshi ni narimasu
 
Ex. 今日はお車でいらっしゃいましたか?
 
= Kyou wa okuruma de irasshaimashita ka?
 
= Did you drive here today?
 
Ex. お近くにおいでになることがありましたらご連絡ください。
 
= Ochikaku ni oide ni naru koto ga arimashitara gorenraku kudasai.
 
= Please let me know when you get here.
 
Ex. 川口様がお見えになりました。
 
= Kawaguchi sama ga omie ni narimashita.
 
= Mr/Ms. Kawaguchi just came/arrived.
 
Talking to customers:
 
Ex. お車でお越しのお客様はいらっしゃいますか?
 
= Okurumade okoshi no okyakusama wa irasshaimasu ka?
 
= Did anybody come here by car?
 
Note: When you modify a noun:
 
お越しの/ お見えの ( = okoshi no / omie no) + noun
 
おいでになったいらっしゃった ( = oide ni natta/ irasshatta) + noun
 
* 行く = いく= iku = to go
 
いらっしゃる = irassharu
 
いらっしゃいます = irasshaimasu
 
おいでになる = oide ninaru
 
おいでになります = oide ni narimasu
 
Ex. 今度の日曜日はどちらにいらっしゃいますか?
 
= Kondo no nichiyoubi wa dochira ni irasshai masu ka?
 
= Where are you going next Sunday?
 
Ex. 京都にはもうおいでになりましたか?
 
= Kyouto ni wa mou oide ni narimashita ka?
 
= Have you been to Kyoto already?
 
***
 
* 見る = みる = miru = to see / to watch / to look
 
ご覧になる = ごらんになる= goran ni naru
 
ご覧になります = ごらんになります = goran ni narimasu
 
Ex. 新商品をご覧になりますか?
 
= Shinseihin wo goran ni narimasu ka?
 
= Would you like to see the new product?
 
 
* 言う = いう= iu = to say, tell
 
おっしゃる = ossharu
 
おっしゃいます = osshaimasu
 
Ex. 今、なんとおっしゃいましたか?
 
= Ima, nanto osshaimashita ka?
 
= What did you just say?
 
Note: You sometimes use 敬語 ( = keigo) ,honorific for, sarcastically.
  
Ex. おっしゃる意味がわかりません。
 
= Ossharu imi ga wakarimasen.
 
= I don’t get what you are trying to say.
 
 
* 食べる = たべる= taberu = to eat
 
* 飲む = のむ= nomu = to drink
 
召し上がる = めしあがる= meshiagaru
 
召し上がります = meshiagaru
 
After serving a food:
 
Ex. どうぞお召し上がりください。
 
= Douzo omeshiagari kudasai.
 
= Please help yourself/enjoy your meal.
 
 
* (Vくれる = (v-te) kureru = to give something to someone/to do something for someone
 
→(Vくださる = V-te kudasaru
 
→(Vくださいます = V-te kudasaimasu
 
 
Ex. マギー先生がおもちゃをくださいました。
 
= Maggie Sensei ga omocha wo kudasaimashita.
 
= Maggie Sensei gave me a toy.
 
 
Someone does something for you.
 
Ex. 留守の間、加藤さんが猫を預かってくださいます。
 
= Rusu no aida, Katou san ga neko wo azukatte kudasaimasu.
 
= While I am away,Mr./Ms. Kato will keep my cat for me.
 
 
Note: If you see from your point of view as a receiver, you use humble form,
 
* (Vもらう = (v-te) morau = to receive
 
→(Vいただく = V-te kudasaru
 
→(Vいただきます = V-te kudasaimasu
 
 
(honorific form)
 
Ex. 竹中さんが家まで車で送ってくださった。
 
= Takenaka san ga ie made kuruma de okutte kudasatta.
 
= Mr.Takenaka took me home by his car.
 
(humble form)
 
Ex. 竹中さんに家まで車で送っていただいた。
 
= Takenaka san ni ie made kuruma de okutte itadaita.
 
(literal meaning) I received a favor from Mr./Ms.  Takanaka of taking me home by his car.
 
= Mr./Ms.  Takenaka took me home by his car.
 
*っている= しっている = shiru = to know
 
ご存じです = ごぞんじです= gozonjji desu
 
Ex. 中村さんをご存じですか?
 
= Nakamura san wo gozonji desu ka?
 
= Do you knowMr./Ms.  Nakamura?
 
 
*寝る = ねる= neru = to sleep
 
お休みになる = oyasumi ni naru
 
Ex. 昨夜は、ゆっくりお休みになれましたか?
 
= Sakuya wa yukkuri oyasumi ni naremashita ka?
 
= Could you sleep well last night?
 
Note: なれる= nareru = is a potential form of なる( = naru)
  
* 着る = きる = kiru = to wear
 
お召しになる = おめしになる = omeshi ni naru
 
お召しになります = おめしになります = omeshi ni narimasu
 
Ex. 「どちらが佐藤さんですか?」
 
= Dochiraga Satou-san desu ka?
 
= Which one isMr./Ms.  Sato?
 
「白いコートをお召しになっている方です。」
 
= Shiroi kooto wo omeshi ni natte iru kata desu.
 
= The person who is wearing a white coat.
 
 
Note:
 
You also use 召す ( = mesu) for catching cold
 
風邪を召される
 
= kaze wo mesareru
 
(more formal)
 
風邪をお召しになる
 
= Kaze wo omeshi ni naru
 
Ex. 風邪を召されませんようお気をつけください。
 
= Kaze wo mesaremasen you okiwo tsuke kudasai.
 
= Please be careful not to catch a cold.
 
 *****
So how was it? Difficult?
Now you know both honorific and humble forms.
Just be careful not to mix them up.
Actually there are “picky” Japanese people who love to correct our mistakes.
 
Remember when you talk about your own action, you use humble form and when you refer to someone superior’s action, you use honorific form.
 
がんばって!= Ganbatte! = Good luck!
  
*****
マギー先生より = Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei
 
Phineas先生、Parker先生、ありがとうございました。
 
= Phineas Sensei, Parker Sensei arigatou gozaimashita.
 
= Thank you very much, Phineas and Parker.
 
 
お目覚めになりましたらミルクをお持ちいたします。
 
= Omezame ni narimashitara miruku wo omochi itashimasu.
 
= When you are awake, I will bring you some milk. 
 
*****

My supporters on Patreon can access an audio file for this lesson on my Patreon page and some mini lessons and quiz.

Audio File for this lesson

:rrrr:   Part 1 Click here.

:rrrr:   Part 2 Click here.

:rrrr: Quiz  Click here

I REALLY appreciate your support!  サポートありがとう! !CHECKHEART! 

Become a Patron!




You may also like

2 Comments

  1. 先生の授業が非常に好きでございます!毎日拝見できるなら、幸いだと思いております。心よりありがとうございます!!!!!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *