ことになる/する ( = koto ni naru/suru ) & ようになる/する( = you ni naru/suru)

Kitty「これから毎日、みんなに宿題を出すことにします。」

= Kore kara mainichi, minna ni shukudai wo dasu koto ni shimasu.

= I am going to give you homework everyday from now on.

「忘れると大変なことになりますよ。」

= Wasureru to taihen na koto ni narimasu yo.

= If you forget, you will be in a big trouble, OK?

 

Nero「日本語がわかるようになるには、こんな風にゴロゴロしていないで毎日、勉強するようにしてね。」

= Nihongo ga wakaru you ni naru niwa, konna fuu ni gorogoro shite inai de mainichi, benkyou suru you ni shite ne.

= In order to be able to understand Japanese, don’t just lie around being lazy like this everyday. Try and study. 

 

Smaug「このレッスン、みんな私が作ったことにしてね。」

= Kono ressun, minna watashi ga tsukutta koto ni shite ne.

= Let’s say I made this entire lesson.  

 


Hi everyone, 

First, thank you so much for sending us all the precious pictures. It may take some time but we will try to get to all of them. Please be patient.  !CHECKHEART! 

Today, we have three lovely guest teachers today, Kitty, Smaug, Nero Sensei.

We will study the difference between: 

* ことにする ( = koto ni suru) to decide (not) to ~  (focusing on one’s decision) / to pretend something happened/didn’t happen

* ことになる ( = koto ni naru) to end up ~ing (focusing on the consequences/results) 

* ようになる ( = you ni naru)  it will be ~ / to become ~   (focusing on some change)

* ようにする ( = you ni suru)  to try to ~  (focusing on one’s effort)

Let’s look at these one by one

ことにする ( = koto ni suru): when you decide something / to pretend

 :s: How to form:

 :rrrr: verb (dictionary form) + ことにする ( = koto ni suru)

1) to decide (not) to do something (focusing on one’s decision) 

Ex. 少し太ったから毎朝、ジョギングをすることにした

= Sukoshi futotta kara maiasa, jogingu suru koto ni shita.

= Since I put some weight, I decided to jog every morning.

Ex. 明日から毎日、漢字を100ずつ覚えることにした

= Ashita kara mainichi, kanji wo hyaku zutsu oboeru koto ni shita.

= I decided to learn 100 kanji per day starting tomorrow.

Ex. 結局、日本には行かないことにした

= Kekkyoku, nihon niwa ikanai koto ni shita.

= I decided not to go to Japan after all. 

Ex.「カレシ元気?」 

= Kareshi genki ?

= How’s your boyfriend? 

「うん….もう会わないことにしたんだ。」

= Un…mou awanai koto ni shitanda….

= Yeah…we decided not to see each other anymore, you know.

Ex. 今日から毎日、マギー先生のサイトにくることにしました

= Kyou kara mainichi, Maggie Sensei no saito ni kuru koto ni shimashita.

= I decided to visit Maggie Sensei’s site everyday starting today. 

Ex. お金がないから新しいiPadは今は買わないことにしました

= Okane ga nai kara atarashii iPad wa ima wa kawanai koto ni shimashita.

= Since I don’t have money, I decided not to buy a new iPad now.

Ex. やっぱり私も一緒に東京に行くことにした

= Yappari watashi mo isshoni toukyou ni iku koto ni shita.

= I changed my mind. I will go to Tokyo with you.

2) to pretend that something happened/didn’t happen, someone did/didn’t do something

 :l: How to form the sentences:

 :rrrr: verb (present/past tense) +  ことにする ( = koto ni suru)

Ex. 聞かなかったことにするよ。

= Kikanakatta koto ni suru yo.

= I’ll just pretend I didn’t hear that. 

Ex. マギーが猫とデートしているのをみかけたが、何も見なかったことにしよう

= Maggie ga neko to deeto shiteiru no wo mikaketa ga, nani mo minakatta koto ni sshiyou.

= I happened to see Maggie was dating a cat but I’ll just pretend I didn’t see anything.

From Maggie:

うん、何も見なかったことにして:) 

= Un, nanimo minakatta koto ni shite.

 = Right. Let’s say you didn’t see anything. 

Ex. この話はなかったことにしてください。

= Kono hanashi wa nakatta koto ni shite kudasai.

= Please just forget about it. (Let’s pretend it didn’t happen) 

 :n: verbことにしている  ( = koto ni shiteiru) to have a policy to/not to do something / to make a habit of doing something/to make a rule of doing something) 

Let’s compare the following sentences:

Ex. 毎週、金曜日はジムに行くことにしている

= Maishuu, kin’youbi wa jimu ni iku koto ni shiteiru.

= I make a habit of going to the gym every Friday.

Note: talking about one’s habits/rules.

Ex. 毎週、金曜日はジムに行くようにしている

= Maishuu, kin’you bi wa jimu ni iku you ni shiteiru.

= I try to go to the gym every Friday. 

Note: talking about one’s intention/efforts. (*I will explain more later.)

So verb (volitional) + ことにしている  ( = koto ni shiteiru) is used when you make a habit of doing something.

Ex. たくさん食べた次の日はダイエットをすることにしている

= Takusan tabeta tsugi no hi wa daietto wo surukoto ni shiteiru.

= I make a habit of going on a diet the day after I eat a lot.

ことになる ( = koto ni naru) : to end up ~ing/  to tell the fact which has been decided, you don’t control the situation but things happen.  (focusing on the consequences/results)

1) to tell the fact which has been decided, when you tell what you are going to do/what is going to happen after you decide.

It may be easier to compare the sentences with ことにする ( = koto ni suru) to see the difference.

Ex. A-1)来月、結婚することにしました

= Raigetsu, kekkon surukoto ni shimashita.

= I decided to get married next month.

Note: The speaker decided to get married

Ex. A-2) 来月、結婚することになりました

= Raigetsu, kekkon suru koto ni narimashita.

= I am going to get married next month.

Note: The speaker is just stating the fact that he/she is going to get married. 

Ex. B-1)日本には行かないことにしました

= Nihon niwa ikanai koto ni shimashita.

= I decided not to go to Japan.

Note: The speaker decided not to go to Japan

Ex. B-2) 日本には行かないことになりました

= Nihon niwa ikanai koto ni narimashita.

= I ended up not going to Japan.

Note: The reason why the speaker is not going to Japan is not necessarily the speaker’s decision. Maybe something happened. We can’t tell the reason from this sentence.  

Ex.9月から北海道に引っ越すことになった

= Kugatsu kara hokkaidou ni hikkousu koto ni natta.

= I’m going to move to Hokkaido from September. 

Note: The most commonly used translation could be 

“I’m going to/It is going to be ~ “

but you don’t use ことになる ( = koto ni naru) for something minor for the speakers.

It has to be something that it requires some sort of decision in the process.

For example you don’t say:

今から朝食を食べることになりました

= Ima kara choushoku wo taberu koto ni narimashita.

= I am going to eat breakfast now.

You just say

今から、朝食を食べます。

= Ima kara choushoku wo tabemasu.

2)  to end up ~ing (talking about the possible consequences) / it will lead to certain consequences/ It means ~

Ex. このままほっておくと大変なことになるよ。

= Kono mama hotte okuto taihenna koto ni naru yo.

= If you leave it like this, it will cause a big problem.

Ex. 彼の曖昧な態度が彼女を傷つけることにならないか心配だ。

= Kare no aimai na taido ga kanojo wo kizutsukeru koto ni naranai ka shinpai da.

= I am worried that his wishy-washy attitude may end up hurting her.

Ex. 欲しいものを買い物かごにいれても購入ボタンを押さなければ、正式な注文をしたことにならない

= Hoshii mono wo kaimono kago ni iretemo kounyuu botan wo osanakereba, seishikina chuumon wo shita koto ni naranai.

= Even if you put what you want in a shopping cart, it doesn’t mean you actually purchased unless you press the “purchase” button.

ことになっている ( = koto ni natte iru) to be supposed to be ~, to be made for 

:ee:How to form:

 :rrrr: verb (dictionary form) / noun  + ことになっている ( = koto ni natte iru) 

Ex. 荷物は午前中に届くことになっている。

= Nimotsu wa gozenchuu ni todoku koto ni natte iru.

= The packages should be delivered in the morning. 

Ex. お店に直接行くことになっています

= Omise ni chokusetsu ikukoto ni natte imasu.

= We are supposed to go to the restaurant (store, bar) directly.

Ex.「明日、暇?」

= Ashita hima?

= Are you free tomorrow?

「ごめん。明日は、実家に行くことになっているんだ。」

= Gomen, ashita wa, jikka ni iku koto ni natte irun da.

= Sorry. I am supposed to go to my parents’ house tomorrow.

Ex. 明日、ニューヨークへ出発することになっています

= Ashita, nyuuyooku e shuppatsu suru koto ni natteimasu.

= I am supposed to leave for N.Y.C.  tomorrow.

Ex. 彼に今日会うことになっていたが、ドタキャン*された。

= Kare ni kyou au koto ni natte ita ga dotakyan sareta.

= I was supposed to see him today but he cancelled on me at the last minute.

Note:*ドタキャン( = dotakyan) very colloquial 

ようにする ( = you ni suru) to try to do something, to make an effort to do something, keep in mind (focusing on one’e efforts)

 :purple: How to form: 

 :rrrr: verb (volitional verb) + ようにする  ( = you ni suru) / ようにしている ( = you ni shiteiru) 

1) to keep in mind, to try (not) to do something 

Ex. 「マギー先生、またスペルが間違っていますよ。」

= Maggie sensei, mata superu ga machigatte imasu yo.

= Maggie Sensei, there is a typo again.

Maggie「これからもっと気をつけるようにします。」

= Korekara motto ki wo tsukeru you ni shimasu.

= I will try to be more careful from now on.

Ex. 彼は最近、忙しそうだからあまり邪魔しないようにしている

= Kare wa saikin, isogashisou dakara amari jama shinai you ni shiteimasu.

= Since he seems to be busy lately, I try not to bother him so much. 

You often see ようにしてください( = you ni shite kudasai) in a warning sign. 

Ex. 線路内に入らないようにしてください

= Senro nai ni hairanai you ni shite kudasai.

= Please do not go onto the train tracks.

Ex. お釣りのないようにしてください

= Otsuri no naiyou ni shite kudasai.

(Literal meaning: Please prepare your small change so that we don’t need to give you change)

= Please prepare small change. 

When you tell someone to do/not to do something, you often finish the sentence with ように ( = youni)

Ex. 宿題を忘れないように

= Shukudai wo wasure nai you ni.

= Do not forget your homework. (Try not to forget your homework)

2) (to try) to make it a habit

Ex. 毎日、1万歩は歩くようにしていている

= Mainichi, ichimanbo wa aruku you ni shiteiru.

= I try to walk at least 10,000 steps a day.

Ex. 喫煙席のある喫茶店には行かないようにしている

= Kitsuen seki no aru kissaten niwa ikanai you ni shiteiru.

= I do my best not to go to cafeterias where there are smoking sections.

Ex. できるだけ脂っぽいものは食べないようにしています

= Dekirudake aburappoi mono wa tabenai you ni shiteimasu.

= I try to avoid eating greasy food as much as possible. 

ようになる  ( = you ni naru) 

Note: I explained the usage a bit in my よう ( = you) lesson. 

1)  to come to be able to do something / will be able to do something  (focusing on the change of one’s ability or possibilities) 

 :w: How to form:

 :rrrr: verb (potential form) + ようになる ( = you ni naru) 

Ex. やっと、自転車に乗れるようになった

= Yatto, jitensha ni noreru you ni natta.

= I can finally ride a bike.

Ex. 人前で歌えるようになるまで一人カラオケで練習しておくね。

= Hitomae de utaeru you ni naru made hitori karaoke de renshuu shite oku ne.

= Until I can comfortably sing in public, I will practice Karaoke by myself. 

Ex. マギー先生のように日本語が話せるようになるには4年はかかる。

= Maggie sensei no you ni nihongo ga hanaseru you ni naru niwa  yonen wa kakaru.

= In order to be able to speak Japanese like Maggie Sensei, you will need at least four years. 

Ex. うちの子、やっとハイハイできるようになりました

= Uchino ko, yatto haihai dekiru you ni narimashita.

= My baby has finally started to crawl.

Ex. やっと暑い夏が終わり毎晩よく寝られるようになった

= Yatto atsui natsu ga owari maiban yoku nerareru you ni natta.

= The long hot summer is finally over and I come to able to sleep well every night.

2) to describe certain change / to become~ , it has  come to the point,  to grow. (It implies gradual change. The result could be either positive or negative.)

Ex. 息子は6歳になってもっと手伝うようになった

= Musuko wa rokusai ni natte motto tetsudau you ni natta.

= My son became 6 years old and has come to help me more.

Ex. 最近、揚げ物を食べたると胃がもたれるようになった

= Saikin, agemono wo taberu to iga motareru you ni natta.

= My stomach feels bloated after eating fried foods. 

Ex.テレビで「NARUTO」を見てから日本に興味を持つようになった

= Terebi de “Naruto” wo mite kara nihon ni kyoumi wo motsu you ni natta.

= I’ve started to be interested in Japan since I saw Naruto on TV.

*******

マギー先生より = Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

ありがとう、 Kitty, Smaug, Nero先生!

= Arigatou, Kitty, Smaug, Nero Sensei!

= Thank you, Kitty, Smaug, Nero Sensei!

私は9月の始めに夏休みを取ることにしました

= Watashi wa kugatsu no hajime ni natsuyasumi wo toru koto ni shimashita.

= I decided to take a summer vacation in the beginning of September. 

その間、みんなはちゃんと毎日このサイトにくるようにしてね。

= Sono aida, minna wa chanto mainichi kono saito ni kuru you ni shitene.

= You have to try to visit this site everyday during that time, OK?




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22 Comments

    1. Hi Lucas
      Thank you for your suggestion. Though my lessons are not to study for JLPT, I have never clasified by its level.
      But I will try to add more tags based on the level in future. :)

  1. thanks for this lesson Maggie sensei ! You know, I visit your website almost every day, it’s excellent !
    ありがとうございます !

    あのう… May I ask you some help ? I’ve started to tweet in Japanese and communicate with Japanese people. Even though I make some mistakes, I enjoy it a lot !
    Well, I was talking about Ainu language with one of my followers and told her I discovered that people thanks to Murakami’s books.
    her answer was as follows :
    “村上春樹を読んでるのね!アイヌ語は文字で残らない言語だから、むずかしい。ルーさんが興味を持ってるのがすごいよ.”
    I understand it, except for the first part : is she saying she’s glad to hear I read Murakami or does that mean she’s reading Murakami’s novels too ? Or maybe is she correcting me ? Would you mind helping me ? ^^

    I’m really to bother you, that’s okay if you have no time to answer !
    Again, thanks for your website ! ^^

    1. Hi ルー
      I’m happy to hear you visit here almost every day!
      I don’t do the translation here but just this time. :)
      She is impressed to hear you read Haruki Murakami’s novels and you are interested in Ainu language.
      It is a difficult language because there is no existence of written record.

      1. thank you maggie sensei !! This is so kind of you !! (I won’t bother you with translation anymore, I promise ^^)
        どうもありがとうございます!

  2. agree with Alain, each research for japanese grammar -good and usefull- explanations on google, always back my eyes to your site, your work is very precious for lot of japanese learners there’s no doubt!

  3. Ex. 彼の曖昧な態度が彼女を傷つけることにならないか心配だ。

    = Kare no aimai na taido ga kanojo wo kizutsukeru koto ni naranai ka shinpai da.

    = I am worried that his wishy-washy attitude may end up hurting her.

    I’m confused about the using of ka in ( naranai ka shinpai )

    the sentence is affirmative why it bacame negative?

    I know my question is simple but I got confused suddenly..

    1. @roro

      You can say “affirmative form + か+ 心配だ”

      1) ~が傷つけることになるか心配だ  worry that ~ will end up hurting her (worry about the consequences)
      2) 〜が傷つけることにならないか心配だ。worry that ~ may end up hurting her (worry about the possibilities more)

      b) is more hypothetical

      ****
      I will make a lesson on か some time.

  4. Maggie sensei, I have a question about this sentence from the lesson.

    マギー先生のように日本語が話せるようになるには4年はかかる。

    = In order to be able to speak Japanese like Maggie Sensei, you will need at least two four years.

    Is the ‘two four years’ a typo? Doesn’t 4年 mean four years?

  5. Many thanks for this lesson, Maggie-Sensei! Very informative and helpful as usual.

    I have a question regarding the term “volitional” that you used in your explanation:

    ## So verb (volitional) + ことにしている ( = koto ni shiteiru) is used when you make a habit of doing something.
    Ex. たくさん食べた次の日はダイエットをすることにしている。

    verb (volitional verb) + ようにする ( = you ni suru) / ようにしている ( = you ni shiteiru)
    これからもっと気をつけるようにします。##

    I thought that “volitional verb” in Japanese means the “う” or “よう” form. Eg: しよう (for する) and つけよう (for つける). But in your example sentences, the dictionary form of the verb and not the volitional form of the verb is used?

    1. @Yan

      Hi Yan

      What I meant by “volitional verb” is not a “volitional form” ~う・よう
      ダイエットをする →ダイエットをすることにしている
      食べる→食べることにしている
      運動をする→運動をすることにしている
      電話をする→電話をすることにしている

      These verbs requires the doer’s will. You do all the action intentionally)
      But for example, you can’t controle verbs such as ある, 雨が降る、出会う, with your will.

      You don’t say
      X電話があるようにしている。
      X雨が降るようにしている
      Xいい人に出会うようにしている

      or potential form

      X 話せることにしている

  6. thank you maggie sensei ^^
    you can’t imagine how happy I’m witn this new lesson.. I keep checking your page everyday for new lesssons :)

    do you know where I can find the full list of all levels of kanji?

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