Verb present tense /adjective + ことがある (=koto ga aru) 

January 1, 2014 in Beginners, Grammar


kotogaaru2
「お正月でも仕事をすることがあります。」
 
= Oshougatsu demo shigoto wo suru koto ga arimasu.
 
= I sometimes even work on New Year’s Day.
 
 

みなさん、明けましておめでとうございます。 :l:

= Minasan, akemashite omedetou gozaimasu!!

= Happy New Year, everyone!!!

新しい年がみなさんにとって最高の年となります様に! !onpu!

= Atarashii toshi ga minasan ni totte saikou no toshi to narimasu you ni!

= I hope this new year will be the best year for all of you!

So today’s lesson will be our 初レッスン (= Hatsu ressun ) The first lesson of the year.

:rrrr: You will hear or see a lot of words with  (=hatsu) this month.

:pinkcandy2: 初日の出 (=hatsu hinode) = the first sunrise of the new year

!purplecandy! 初雪 (=hatsuyuki) the first snow of the season

!candy! 初夢 (=hatsuyume) the first dream of the new year

etc.

In our previous lesson, we learned (verb past tense) ~たことがある (=~ta koto ga aru) = have ever done/been, have experienced something.

Today we will study (verb present form /adj +) ことがある (=koto ga aru)

*******

!star! How to form a sentence :

verb (present plain form ) / i-adjective (plain form) / na-adjective ~な (=na)  + ことがある (=koto ga aru)

(polite form)

:u:

verb (present plain form ) / i-adjective (plain form) / na-adjective ~な (=na) + ことがあります (=koto ga arimasu)

verb:

:ee: 話す (=hanasu ) to speak + ことがある (=koto ga aru)

:rrrr:  話すことがある (=hanasu koto ga aru) sometimes speak(s)

negative form

:rrrr:  話さないことがある (=hanasanai koto ga aru) sometimes not to speak

(more polite)

話す (=hanasu ) to speak +ことがあります (=koto ga arimasu)

:rrrr: 話すことがあります (=hanasu koto ga arimasu.) sometimes speak(s)

negative form :

:rrrr: 話さないことがあります (=hanasanai koto ga arimasu.) sometimes not to speak

i-adjective:

!yflower!  遅い (=osoi) slow + ことがある (=koto ga aru)

:rrrr: 遅いことがある (=osoi koto ga aru) sometimes S is slow

negative form:

:rrrr: 遅くないことがある (=osoku nai koto ga aru) sometimes S is not slow

(more polite)

遅い (=osoi)  slow +ことがあります (=koto ga arimasu)

:rrrr: 遅いことがありますsometimes S is slow

= Osoi koto ga arimasu.

= Sometimes it is slow.

negative form :

:rrrr: 遅くないことがあります sometimes S is not slow

= osoku nai koto ga arimasu.

na-adjective:

:s:  静かな (=shizukana) quite + ことがある (=koto ga aru)

:rrrr: 静かなことがある sometimes S is quiet

=shizukana koto ga aru

negative form:

:rrrr: 静かでないことがあるsometimes S is not quiet

=shizuka de nai koto ga aru

(more casual)

:rrrr: 静かじゃないことがある(=shizuka ja nai koto ga aru) sometimes S is not quiet

(more polite)

静かな(=shizukana) +ことがあります(=koto ga arimasu)

:rrrr: 静かなことがありますsometimes S is quiet

=Shizuka na koto ga arimasu.

negative

:rrrr: 静かではないことがありますsometimes S is not quiet

= Shizuka dewa nai koto ga arimasu.

Polite (a little more casual)

:rrrr: 静かじゃないことがありますsometimes S is not quiet

= Shizuka janai koto ga arimasu.

!Anapple! Note:

First,  this form:

!star! verb (present plain form ) / i-adjective (plain form) / na-adjective ~(=na)   +ことがある(=koto ga aru)

is also used when you want to say

:rrrr: “to have something/things (to)~ ” “there is/are things to ~ “

Ex. 話したいことがあるあります

= Hanashitai koto ga aru/ arimasu.

= I have something to tell you.

Ex. いつかいいことがあるよ。

= Itsuka iikoto ga aruyo.

= Something good will come someday. 

Ex. 気になることがあります

= Kini naru koto ga arimasu.

= I have some concerns.

Ex. 面白いことがあります

= Omoshiroi koto ga arimasu.

= There is something interesting.

Ex. 年末はいっぱいやることがあります

= Nenmatsu wa ippai yaru koto ga ippai arimasu.

= There are so many things to do at the end of the year.

Ex. あなたに隠していることがあります

= Anatani kakushite iru koto ga arimasu.

= I am keeping a secret from you.

But in this lesson, we will focus on the usage,

:u:

!star! when you are talking about the possibilities,  when we are talking about possibility or when something happens regardless our will.

there are times when ~ / sometimes ~/ occasionally ~

Let’s look at these example sentences.

:u:

Ex. インターネットの速度が遅いことがあります

= Intaanetto no sokudo ga osoi koto ga arimasu.

= There are times when my Internet speed is slow.

Ex. 彼は2、3日お風呂にはいらないことがある

= Kare wa nisan, nichi ofuro ni hairanai koto ga aru.

= There are times when he doesn’t take a bath for a couple of days.

Ex. 5月でも寒いことがある

= Gogatsu demo samui koto ga aru.

= There are times when it is cold even in May.

Ex. 祖母に無性に会いたくなることがある

= Sobo ni mushou ni aitaku naru koto ga aru

= Sometimes I miss my grandma so badly.

Ex. 職場で誰とも話さないことがある

= Shokuba de daretomo hanasai koto ga aru.

= There are times when I don’t speak to anybody at work.

Ex. 彼はこの頃、ぼうっとしていることがある

= Kare wa konogoro boutto shiteiru koto ga aru.

= He has been getting spaced out recently.

Ex. 時々、何もかも忘れてどこか遠くへ行きたくなることがある

= Tokidoki, nanimo kamo wasurete dokoka tooku he ikitaku naru koto ga aru.

= Once in a while, I feel like forgetting everything and going somewhere far away.

Note: The particle (=ga) and(=wa)

You use (=wa) when you want to show contrast 

Ex. お酒は基本的に飲みませんが (A) 、付き合いで少し飲むことあります(B)

= Osake wa kihonteki ni nomimasen ga, tsukiai de sukoshi nomukoto wa arimasu.

= I basically don’t drink alcohol, but occasionally I drink for social reasons.

In this case, it shows the contrast between (A) and (B)

Ex. 彼は私の誕生日を忘れることがあります

= Kare wa watashi no tanjoubi wo wasureru koto ga arimasu.

= My boyfriend sometimes forgets about my birthday.

Note: If you switch the particle が (=ga) with も (=mo) you can add the nuance of “even” or “also”

:u:

Ex. 彼は私の誕生日を忘れることあります

= Kare wa watashi no tanjoubi wo wasureru koto mo arimasu.

= My boyfriend sometimes forgets even my birthday.

So it implies he does something else besides forgetting this person’s birthday.

:pika: negative form : Something won’t happen (denying the possibility) ・It is impossible to…

*~ことはない ( = koto wa nai)

*〜ことない ( = koto ga nai)

more polite

:u:

*~ことはありません ( = koto wa arimasen.)

*~ことありません ( = koto ga arimasen.)

or

~ことはないです ( = koto wa nai desu.)

〜ことないです (= koto ga nai desu.)

Note: The difference between が (=ga) and は(=ha) is very complicated. But  you use が  ( = ga) when you emphasize the subject which comes before (=ga)

Ex. 彼は疲れることない

= Kare wa tsukareru koto ga nai.

= He never gets tired.

Ex. 12月に台風が来ることはありません

= Juunigatsu ni taifuu ga kuru koto wa arimasen.

= We never have typhoons in December.

Ex. タイマーを使えば電気を消し忘れたか心配をすることはありません

= Taimaa wo tsukaeba denki wo keshiwasuretaka shinpai wo suru koto wa arimasen.

= If you use the timer, you will never have to worry about whether you have turned off the light or not.

maggie-senseiマギー先生よ = Maggie sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

私は、宿題を忘れた生徒さんを噛むことはありませんが、宿題をした生徒さんの顔を舐めることあります:)

= Watashi wa shukudai wo wasureta seito san wo kamu koto wa arimasen ga,  shukudai wo shita seito san no kao wo nameru koto wa arimasu.

= I’ve never bitten students who haven’t done their homework, but I sometimes lick the faces of  students who have done their homework.