Request lesson : How and when to use はず(=hazu)

November 14, 2012 in Beginners, Grammar, Sentence pattern

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「今年の秋までにはカレができるはずだったのに…」

= Kotoshi no aki made niwa kare ga dekiru hazu datta noni…

= I was supposed to be able to get a boyfriend by this autumn…

Hi, everyone! Today’s lesson is my Twitter follower, David and Facebook fan(!?) mew. They both asked me to make a lesson on how and when to use はず(= hazu). I was going to make a mini lesson on Facebook, but it got longer than I expected so here it is.

You might think the usage of はず(=hazu) is easy, 易しいはず= Yasashii hazu  = It should be easy! !onpu!

Still the difference of two past tense forms and negative forms might  confuse you.  Hopefully this lesson will clear things up.

:u:

!star! = はず = hazu

to be supposed to do/be, when you expect  something, It is certain ~/  must ~ / should~


 

!CHECKHEART! Verbs :

:u:

!star! verb (plain form ) + はず (= hazu) +  (=da)/ です(=desu) *  (です(=desu) is a polite form.)

to be supposed to be/do, / I expect ~ /  things should work as you have expected.

Ex. このおもちゃは電池を入れたら動くはずです。

= Kono omocha wa denchi wo iretara ugoku hazu desu.

= This toy is supposed to move when you put in batteries.

Ex. マギーは今、家にいるはずだ。

= Maggie wa ima ie ni iru hazu da.

= Maggie should be home now.

Ex. これだけ勉強すれば誰でも試験に受かるはずだ。

= Koredake benkyou sureba daredemo shiken ni ukaru hazu da.

= Anybody would pass the exam if they studied this much.

Ex. 明日、荷物が届くはずだ。

= Ashita nimotsu ga todoku hazuda.

The package is supposed to be delivered tomorrow. / I expect the package will be delivered tomorrow.

Ex. 彼女も会議に出席するはずです。

= Kanojo mo kaigi ni shusseki suru hazu desu.

= She, too, is supposed to attend the meeting./ I expect she will also attend the meeting tomorrow.

Ex. もうすぐタクシーが来るはずです。

= Mousugu takushii ga kuru hazu desu.

= The taxi should come soon. / I expect the taxi will be here soon.

Ex. あのお店はそこそこ儲かっているはずだ。

= Ano omise wa sokosoko moukatte iru hazu da.

= That place (store, restaurant, bar) must be making some (modest) money.

Ex.このサイトに毎日来たら、1年後には日本語がかなり上達しているはずです。 :)

= Kono saito ni mainichi kitara ichinengo ni wa nihongo ga kanari joutatsu shiteiru hazu desu.

= If you come to this site everyday,  your Japanese should improve a lot.

When things don’t work out as we have expected, we use

:rrrr: はずなのに = hazu nanoni = It is supposed to be ~ but…

Go check  the function of のに in this lesson.

Ex. 新聞は毎朝6:00までには配達されるはずなのに今日はまだ来ていない。

= Shinbun wa maiasa rokuji ni haitatsu sareru hazu nanoni kyou wa mada kite inai.

= They are supposed to deliver the newspapers by 6:00 every morning but they haven’t delivered it yet today.

:i: Variation : なんだけど(=nandakedo), なのだが (=nanodaga), なのですが(=nanodesu ga), etc.

Ex. もうそろそろ彼から電話があるはずなんだけど…

= Mou sororo kare kara denwa ga aru hazu nan dakedo…

= He should call me at any minute, but … (I expect he will call me at any minute.) but…


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!star!Verb Negative Form 1) :

:u:

verb (plain negative form ) + はず (= hazu) + (=da)/ です(=desu) *  (です(=desu) is a polite form.)

: to expect something/someone doesn’t do something/isn’t ~

Ex. マギーは今、家にいないはずだ。

= Maggie wa ima ie ni inai hazu da.

= Maggie shouldn’t be home now./ Maggie is not supposed to be home now.

Ex.あのゲームはアメリカでは売っていないはずだ。

= Ano geimu wa america dewa  utte inai hazu da.

= The game is not supposed to be sold in the U.S.

Ex. 彼女はまだ20歳にはなっていないはずだ。

= Kanojo wa mada hatachi (or nijussai) ni wa natte inai hazu da.

= I don’t think she can be 20 years old yet. / She can’t be 2o years old yet.

Ex. こんな難しい問題は彼には解けないはずだ。

= Konna muzukashii mondai wa kare ni wa tokenai hazu da.

= He should not be able to solve such a difficult problem.


Ex. 誰も私たちの居場所を知らないはずなのだが。

= Dare mo watashitachi no ibasho wo shiranai hazu nano daga…

= Nobody is supposed to know where we are but…


**************************

!star! Verb Negative Form 2) :

:u:

verb (plain form ) + はず/(=~ hazu ga/wa ) + ない(=nai) / ありません(=arimasen)        →* ありません(=arimasen) is more polite

= There is no way that someone/something does/is ~

Ex. 彼女があんな男を好きになるはずがない。

= Kanojo ga anna otoko wo suki ni naru hazu ga nai.

= There is no way that she would like that kind of man.

Ex. 理想の彼なんているはずがない。

= Risou no kare nante iru hazu ga nai.

= There is no such thing as an ideal boyfriend.

Ex. そんなやり方でうまくいくはずがありません。

= Sonna yarikata de umaku iku hazu ga arimasen.

= It would never work like that. / Things shouldn’t work that way.

Note : はずが(は)ない (=hazu ga (wa) nai)  is similar to わけがない(=wake ga nai)/ わけはない(=wake wa nai) Go check this lesson


!star! Verb Double negative :

:u:

Ex. マギーがそのことを知らないはずがない。

= Maggie ga sono koto wo shiranai hazu ga nai.

= There is no way that Maggie doesn’t know that.

:rrrr:  (the same thing)

マギーはもちろんそのことを知っているはずだ。

= Maggie wa mochiron sono koto wo shitte iru hazu da.

= It is obvious that Maggie knows that.


*************************

!star!Verb Past Tense  1)

:u:

verb past tense (plain form) + はず(=hazu) +  (=da)/ です(=desu)

When you are sure something had happened in past / you or someone did something. /I expect something happened/ I expect  someone did something.

Ex. 昨日、彼はここに来たはずだ。

= Kinou kare wa koko ni kita hazu da.

= He must have come here yesterday.

Ex. もうみんな寝たはずなのに一階で物音がする。

= Mou minna neta hazu nanoni ikkai de monooto ga suru.

= Everybody should have gone to bed already, but I hear something downstairs.

Ex. 忙しいからって電話ぐらいかけることが出来たはずでしょ! (female /casual speech)

= Isogashii karatte denwa gurai kakeru koto ga dekita hazu desho!

= Even though you were busy, you could have at least called me.

Ex. 勉強しないと試験には受からないとわかっていたはずだ。

= Benkyou shinai to shiken niwa ukaranai to wakatte ita hazu da.

= You should have known you would fail you didn’t study.

Ex. ここに財布を置いておいたはずなのにない。

= Koko ni saifu wo oite oita hazu nanoni nai.

= I thought I have put my wallet, here but it is gone.

Ex. 傘を持ってきたはずなんだけど。

= Kasa wo motte kita hazunan dakedo…

= I thought I brought an umbrella but…

Ex.死んだはずの彼に会ったという人がいる。

= Shinda hazu no kare ni atta toiu hito ga iru.

= There are people who said they had seen him — and he’s supposed to be dead. / There are people who have seen (the supposedly dead) him.

Ex. この話はマギーは知らなかったはずだ。

= Kono hanashi wa Maggie wa shiranakatta hazu da.

= I am sure Maggie didn’t know about this.

Ex. あの人のことはもう忘れたはずなのに…

= Anohito no koto wa mou wasureta hazu nanoni…

= I thought I’d already forgotten about him/her but…

!star! Verb  Past Tense  2)

:u:

verb present tense (plain form ) + はず(=hazu) + だった(=datta)/ でした(=deshita) * でした(=deshitaI is more polite

= was supposed/expected to have done something/been ~

It is used when the things didn’t turn out to be what you had expected. You can tell the speaker is expressing the feelings of regret, unsatisfied feelings, etc.

Ex. 彼とは昨日、会うはずだった

= Kare towa kinou au hazu datta.

= I was supposed to see him yesterday.

Ex. 全てうまく行くはずだったのに…

= Subete umaku iku hazu datta noni…

= Everything should have gone well.

Ex. このまま行けば大金持ちになるはずだったのに…

= Kono mama ikeba ooganemochi ni naru hazu datta noni..

= If things had worked out , I would supposedly have become a millionaire

:u:

!star! Verb past tense 2)  – negative form :

verb present tense (plain form ) + はず(=hazu) +では(=dewa) +なかった(nakatta)/ありませんでした(=arimasen deshita)。

I was not supposed to do something (expressing the feeling of regret, Disappointment or dissatisfaction)

Note : では(=dewa) : casual wayじゃ(=ja) or じゃあ(=jaa)

Ex. こんな所に来るはずではなかった。

= Konna tokoro ni kuru hazu dewa nakatta.

= I was not going to come this kind of place. / I wasn’t going to come to a place like this.

:rrrr: (more casual)

Ex. こんな所に来るはずじゃ(あ)なかった。

= Konna tokoro ni kuru hazu ja(a) nakatta.


Note :  In case you get confused… Here is the difference.

:r:

a) マギーは3時に着くはずだ。

= Maggie wa sanji ni tsuku hazu da

= Maggie is supposed to arrive at 3 o’clock.

b) マギーは3時に着いたはずだ。

= Maggie wa sanji ni tsuita hazu da.

= I expect Maggie arrived at 3:00

c) マギーは3時に着くはずだった

= Maggie wa sanji ni tsuku hazu datta.

= Maggie was supposed to arrive at 3:00. (but she didn’t)


:maggie-small: From the picture above :

「今年の秋までにはカレができるはずだったのに…」

= Kotoshi no aki made niwa kare ga dekiru hazu datta noni…

= I was supposed to be able to get a boyfriend by this autumn…

〜までには= ~ made niwa = by (the time)

カレ= = kare (Or 彼氏= カレシ= kareshi) = boyfriend

カレができる= kare ga dekiru = to have a boyfriend / to be able to get a boyfriend

(present plain form) + はずだった(=hazutatta) = was supposed to ~(things didn’t work out as I planned.)

のに(=noni) = but…. (expressing my disappointment.)

!to right! Note : The difference between はず(=hazu) and  (~に)違いない(= (~ ni) chigainai)

The translation could be the same,

:rrrr: It must be Maggie Sensei who ate my snack.

d) 私のおやつを食べたのはマギー先生に違いない

= Watashi no oyatsu wo tabeta no wa Maggie sensei ni chigainai.

e) 私のおやつを食べたのはマギー先生のはずだ。

= Watashi no oyatsu wo tabeta no wa Maggie sensei no hazu da.

:rrrr: 違いない(=chinagainai)  : when you guess something by intuitive assumption,

:rrrr: はず(=hazu) is based on more logical assumption or reliable information.

*************************

!CHECKHEART! Adjectives :

:u:

i-adjective + はず (= hazu) +  (=da)/ です(=desu)

* 美味しい(=oishii) delicious + はず (= hazu) + (=da)/ です(=desu)

:rrrr: 美味しいはず(=oishii hazu da) /美味しいはずです(=oishii hazu desu.) = It should be delicious

Ex. 彼女の作ったものなら何でも美味しいはずだ。

= Kanojo no tsukutta mono nara nandemo oishii hazuda.

= Everything she makes must be delicious./ I expect everything she makes is delicious.

Ex. あのドレスは高価なはずだ。

= Ano doresu wa kouka na hazu da.

= That dress must be expensive.

Ex. マギーの妹ならかわいいはずです。

= Maggie no imouto nara kawaii hazu desu.

= If she is Maggie’s younger sister, she must be cute

na-adjective + (=na) + はず (= hazu) +  (=da)/ です(=desu)

*簡単な(=kantanna) easy  + はず (= hazu) +  (=da)/ です(=desu)

簡単なはず(=kantanna hazu da) / 簡単なはずです。(= kantanna hazu desu.) = should be easy

Ex.  明日の試験は簡単なはずだ。

= Ashita no shiken wa kantanna hazu da.

= (I expect ) The exam tomorrow should be (or is supposed to be) easy.

Ex. マギー先生は仕事中はもっと真面目なはずだ。

= Maggie Sensei wa shigoto chuu wa motto majime na hazu da.

= I expect Maggie Sensei is more serious when she works. / Maggie Sensei should be more serious when she works.

Ex. 便利なはずのスマホが時々すごく不便に感じる。

= Benrina hazu no sumaho ga tokidoki sugoku fuben ni kanjiru.

= Smartphone is supposed to be convenient, but I sometime feel it is very inconvenient to use.

**************************

!star!Adjective Negative Form :

:u:

There are two negative forms.

1) adjective plain form + はずが/はない(=~ hazu ga/wa nai) /ありません(=arimasen) ありません(=arimasen) is more polite

There is no way that ~

Ex. マギーの料理が美味しいはずがない。

= Maggie no ryouri ga oishii hazu ga nai.

= There is no way that Maggie’s cooking is delicious. / Maggie’s cooking can’t be delicious. / I expect Maggie’s cooking can’t be good.

2) adjective negative form + はず (= hazu) +  (=da)/ です(=desu)

Ex. マギーの料理は美味しくないはずだ。

= Maggie no ryouri  wa oishiku nai hazu da.

= Maggie’s cooking is supposed to be bad. (not delicious) / I am sure that  Maggie’s cooking is bad.

:rrrr: The difference between 1) and 2)

1) You are denying the fact “マギーの料理が美味しい”= Maggie no ryouri ga oishii = Maggie’s cooking is good

2) You are sure about the fact “マギーの料理は美味しくない= Maggie no ryouri wa oishiku nai = Maggie’s cooking is not delicious

!star! Adjectives double negative :

Ex. 私の料理が美味しくないはずはない。

= Watashi no ryouri ga oishiku nai hazu wa nai.

= There is no way that my cooking is not good.

:rrrr: But it is more common to say…

私の料理は美味しいはずだ!

= Watashi no ryouri wa oishii hazu da.

= My cooking should be good!

or

私の料理がまずいはずはない。

= Watashi no ryouri ga mazui hazu wa nai.

= My cooking can’t be bad.


**********************

!star!Adjectives Past tense 1) :

:u:

adjectives past tense plain form + はず(=hazu) + (=da)/です(=desu) = It must have been ~ / It should have been

When you are sure someone/something was ~ in past. /It/Someone was expected to be ~  in past

a) i-adjective ~ かったはず= ~ katta hazu

Ex. 今でもこんなにかわいいのだから小さい頃、マギーはもっとかわいかったはずだ。 :)

= Ima demo konnani kawaiino dakara chiisai koro Maggie wa motto kawaikatta hazu da.

= Since Maggie  is this cute now, she must have been much cuter  when she was little.

b) na-adjective : ~だったはず= ~ datta hazu

Ex. 彼女のウェディングドレス姿は素敵だったはずだ。

= Kanojo no uedingu doresu  sugata wa suteki datta hazu da.

= She must have been beautiful in a wedding dress.

Ex. 昨日は平日だったから静かだったはずだ。

= Kinou wa heijitsu datta kara shizuka datta hazuda.

= Since it was a weekday yesterday, it must have been very quiet.


!star!Adjectives Past tense 2) :

adjective present tenseはず(=hazu) +だった(=datta) / でした(=deshita)

~ was supposed to be ~

Ex. 自分にとって特別なはずだった人が嫌いになってきた。

= Jibun ni totte tokubetu na hazu datta hito ga kirai ni natte kita.

= I’ve come to dislike someone who was supposed to be special for me.

********************

!CHECKHEART!   Nouns :

:u:

noun + (=no) + はず(=hazu) + (=da)/ です(=desu)


Ex. 試験は明日のはずだ。

= Shiken wa ashita no hazu da.

= The exam should be tomorrow.

Ex. 彼が探していたのはこの本のはずだ。

= Kare ga sagashite ita no wa kono hon no hazu da.

= The book he was looking for should be this one.

Ex. 確かにこの道のはずだが…

= Tashika ni kono michi no hazu da ga…

= I’m certain to take this street but.. (It should be this street but..)

!star!Past tense with a noun 1)

:u:

noun + だった(=datta) + はず(=hazu) + (=da)/ です(=desu)

~ was supposed to have done something /  It must have been ~

Ex. 5年前、彼はまだ小学生だったはずだ。

=  Gonen mae kare wa mada shougakusei datta hazuda.

= He must have been an elementary student five yeas ago.

Ex.あの人の家はこの辺だったはずだ。

= Anohito no ie wa kono hen datta hazuda.

= I think  his (her) house was around here.

Ex. あの頃の家賃は7万円だったはずです。

= Anokoro no yachin wa nanaman-en datta hazu desu.

= I think the rent at that time must have been 70,000 yen.


!star!Past tense with a noun 2)

:u:

noun + (=no) + はず(=hazu) + だっ(=datta)/ でした(=deshita)

It was expected that ~  / ~ was supposed to do something / be ~

You use this form when things didn’t work out as you planned and you wonder why or express your complains, regrets or unsatisfactory feelings.

Ex. 今度飼うのは猫のはずだったが犬を飼うことになった。

= Kondo kau no wa neko no hazu datta ga inu wo kau koto ni natta.

= We were supposed to have a cat as a pet this time but we ended up having a dog.

Ex. 明日は休日のはずでしたが仕事をしなくてはいけなくなりました。

= Ashita wa kyuujitu no hazu deshita ga shigoto wo shinakute wa ikenaku narimashita.

= It was supposed to be my day off tomorrow, but I’ll have to work after all.

Ex.  彼とは友達のはずだったのにだんだん好きになってきた。

= Kare to wa tomodachi no hazu datta noni dandan suki ni natte kita.

= We were supposed to be (just) friends, but I’ve begun to like him.

!CHECKHEART! adnominal adjective :

:u:

Ex. こんなはずではなかった。

= Konna hazu de wa nakatta

= This isn’t supposed to be happening.

:rrrr: Note : Again, colloquial Japanese では(= dewa) →じゃ(あ)= ja (a)

こんなはずじゃなかった。

= Konna hazuja nakatta.

Ex. 「コンサートは6時に始まるんだっけ?」(casual)

= Konsaato wa rokuji ni hajimarun dakke?

= The concert will start at 6:00, right?

「そのはずだけど…」

= Sono hazu dakedo..

= It should (start at 6:00) but..

マギー先生より= Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

ああ、こんな長いレッスンになるはずじゃなかったんだけど…
= Aah, konna nagai ressun ni naru hazu ja nakattan dakedo…

= Ah… it wasn’t supposed to be this long a lesson but…

でもこれでみんな、「はず」の使い方がわかったはずだよね。

= Demo kore de minna “Hazu” no tsukai kataga wakatta hazu dayone.

= But I bet you all know how to use “hazu” now.