風邪 (=kaze) Cold Related Lesson!

December 10, 2009 in Japanese culture, Vocabulary

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cold

 

:maggie-small: 「風邪の季節だからマスクをしなくっちゃ…」

(=Kaze no kisetu dakara masuku wo shinakuccha)
“It is cold season so I think I should wear a mask.”

:roll: 「頭につけてどうするのよ!」

(=Atama ni tsukete dousuru no yo!)
“What’s the point of wearing that on top of your head?”

:maggie-small: 「こう?」

(=Kou?)
“How about like this?”

:-| 「それじゃ、意味がないじゃない!」

(=Soreja, imi ga naijanai!)
It is meaningless.

“What is the point of wearing the mask that way?”

:maggie-small:「ねえ、ご飯はどうやって食べるの?」

(=Nee gohan wa douyatet taberu no?)
“How am I supposed to eat with this?”

:-x 「まだ鼻が隠れてないし…」

(=Mada hana ga kakurete nai shi..)
“You haven’t covered your nose yet!”

:maggie-small: 「銀行強盗みたいじゃない?」

(=Ginkou goutou mitai janai?)
“Don’t I look like a bank robber?”

:u:

It’s winter and is getting very cold in Japan.

We hear a lot of people talk about 風邪 (=kaze), cold, in our daily conversations.

Japanese people often talk about weather as a conversation starter.

Ex. 「今日は暑いですね

(=Kyouwa atsui desune.)

“It’s hot today, isn’t it?”

寒くなって来ましたね。

(=Samuku natte kimashitane.)

“It is getting colder, isn’t it?”

In winter, we often mention 風邪 (=kaze), cold, when we say good-bye. How? We’ll see in today’s lesson!

We are going to check the KANJIS first!!


kaze/ kaza / fuu

Ex.今日は風が強い

(=Kyou wa kaze ga tsuyoi)
“It’s windy today.”

Ex.風向きが変わる

(=Kaza muki ga kawaru)
change the direction of wind

Ex.風速50 m

(=fuusoku gojuu meetoru)
wind speed of 50 m/s

Ex.風紀が乱れる

(=fuuki ga midareru.)

(st is) corrupting public morals


 

ja (ze) / ya

邪魔 (=jama) obstacles 〜する(~=~suru : to bother someone/something)

Ex.「お魔します。」

(=Ojama shimasu!)

 (We say this when we come into someone’s house or office.) means ” Allow me to let myself into your house/office, etc.”

Ex.「邪魔をしないで下さい。」

(=Jama wo shinai de kudasai.)
“Don’t bother me!”

無邪気 (=mujaki) =innocent

:rrrr:

風邪 (=kaze)  cold

The main verb to get/catch cold is ひく(引く) (=hiku)

Ex.風邪を引く (=kaze wo hiku) to have a cold, to catch a cold

 

:kkk: Culture Note :

In English you say “Keep warm!” to people in winter. Meanwhile, in Japan it is very common to say

「風邪を引かないで下さいね。」

(=Kaze wo hikanai de kudasai ne.)

“Don’t catch a cold!”

more casual

:rrrr: 「風邪ひかないでね!」

(=Kaze wo hikanai de ne.)

or 風邪に気をつけて(下さい。)

(=Kaze ni ki wo tsukete (kudasai.))

“Please be careful to not catch a cold!”

to people when you say good-bye (or finish the email or letter.)

風邪を引きかける (=kaze wo hikikakeru) getting a cold, to be experiencing the beginning stages of a cold

Ex.風邪の引きかけに薬を飲んで治す。

(=Kaze no hikika ni kusuri wo nonde naosu.)

to cure the cold with medicine in its early stages.

風邪がうつる

(=kaze ga utsuru) 

to get a cold from someone

Ex. 1) 風邪をうつしたらいけないから今日は家にいます。(=kaze wo utsushitara ikenai kara kyou wa uchi (ie) ni imasu.)

“I will stay home because I don’t want to give my cold (to anybody).”

Ex. 2) 風邪をうつされるといけないから今日は家にいます。(=kaze wo utsusareru to ikenai kara kyou wa uchi (ie) ni imasu.)

“I will stay home because I don’t want to get a cold (from anybody).”

Grammar Note :

うつす (=utsusu) to give, to transmit うつされる(=utsu sareru) passive form to be given, to pick up

Ex.誰に風邪をうつされたかわからない。

(=Dare ni kaze wo utsusaretaka wakaranai.)

=誰に風邪をもらったかわからない。

(=Dare ni kaze wo moratta ka wakaranai.)

I don’t know who gave me a cold.

風邪が流行る (=kaze ga hayaru) = 風邪が流行する。(=kaze ga ryuukou suru.)
cold is prevalent

Ex. 今年の冬は風邪が流行っています。(流行しています。)(=kotoshi no fuyu wa kaze ga hayatte imasu.) (ryuukou shite imasu.)

The cold is spreading this year.

:ii:(=kusuri) <Medicine>

風邪薬 (=kaze gusuri) cold medicine

薬を飲む。(=kusuri wo nomu.) to take a medicine

Ex.「薬何か、飲んだ?(飲みましたか?)」(=kusuri nanka nonda? (nomimashitaka?) “Did you take any medicine?”

薬が効く(=Kusuri ga kiku) The medicine works.

Ex.風邪の初期には生姜湯が効きます。
(=Kaze no shoki niwa shougayu ga kikimasu.)

Shogayu (hot ginger drink) is effective to cure colds in their early stages.

Culture note : 生姜湯 (=shougayu) and 卵酒 (Tamago zake, Hot Japanese sake with eggs and sugar) are traditional cold home remedies in Japan.

うがい薬 (=ugai gusuri) a liquid medicine to mix with water for gargle

のど飴 (=nodoame) throat drop, a candy to ease sorethroat

マスク (=masuku) a mask (please check the Maggie’s pictures.)

:s: Culture note :

Those who have never been to Japan might be spooked out to see all the people wearing masks in public. Even before the swine flu emerged, Japanese people have worn these white masks in the winter to prevent from catching cold (or not giving others their colds.)

<風邪の予防 (=kaze no yobou) How to prevent from catching a cold! >

人混みに出る時はマスクを着用すること。

(=Hitogomi ni deru toki wa masuku wo chakuyou suru koto.)

When you go out in a crowded area, be sure to wear a mask.

帰宅したら手洗いとうがいをすること。

(=Kitaku shitara tearai to ugai wo suru koto.)When you come back home, wash your hands and gargle!

We have been taught to wash our hands and gargle in the winter to avoid catching colds at school and at home.


ワクチン(=wakuchin) vaccine

予防接種 (=yobou sesshu) vaccine, inoculation

Ex.予防接種を打つ(=yobou sesshu wo utsu) to inoculate

cf. 注射を打つ。(=chuusha wo utsu) to get a shot

薬局 (=yakkyoku) pharmacy

処方箋 (=shohousen) prescription

抗生物質 (=kousei busshitsu) antibiotic

タミフル (=tamifuru) Tamiful

:k: <What kind of 風邪 (=kaze) cold do you have?>

:u:

鼻風邪 (=hanakaze) a head cold

胃腸風邪 (=ichou kaze) the stomach flu

軽い風邪 (=karui kaze) a light cold, a head cold

風邪気味(=kaze gimi) a touch of cold

Ex. なんか風邪気味です。

(Nanka kazegimi desu.)

“I think I have a touch of cold.”

重い風邪 (=omoi kaze) a heavy cold

ひどい風邪 (=hidoi kaze) a bad cold

しつこい風邪 (=shitukoi kaze) a persistent cold

:ee: 症状 (=shoujou) symptoms

「どんな症状ですか?」

(=Donna shoujou desu ka?)

“What are the symptoms?”

「症状を聞かせて下さい。」

(=Shoujou wo kikasete kudasai.)

“Let me hear what kind of symptoms you have.”

Here are some cold symptoms!

:u:

発熱 (=Hatsunetsu) fever heat

熱が出る。 (=Netsu ga deru.) to have a fever

高熱が出る。(=Kounetsu ga deru.)or 高い熱が出る。(=Takai netsu ga deru.) to have a high fever

平熱 (=heinetsu) average(normal) a temperature

Ex. 平熱に下がる

(=heinetsu ni sagaru.) 

a fever goes down

熱を計る(=netsu wo hakaru.) to take temperature

Ex.「(お)熱はありますか?」

(=(O)netsu wa arimasuka?)

“Do you have a fever?”


「まだ計っていないのでわかりません。」

(=Mada hakatte inaino de wakarimasen.)

“I have’t taken it yet so I don’t know..”

はい、微熱があります。

(=Hai binetsu ga arimasu.)

“Yes, I have a slight fever.”

熱が39度も出た。

(=Netsu ga sanjuuku do mo deta.)

I have a fever of 39 degree.

熱にうなされる。

(=Netsu ni unasareru.)

to suffer from fever

悪寒がする。

(=okan ga suru.)

to have shakes, to feel a chill

寒気がする。

(=Samuke ga suru.)

to have a chill

熱っぽい

(=Netsuppoi)

feverish

嘔吐する

(=outo suru) 

to vomit, throw up

吐く

(=haku)

to throw up

吐き気

(=hakike)

nausea

Ex.吐き気がする。

(=hakike ga suru)

to feel nauseous

下痢 (=geri) diarrhea

Ex.下痢になる

(=geri ni naru.) 

to get diarrhea

Ex.下痢をしている

(=geri wo shieiru.)

to have diarrhea

(=seki) cough

Ex.「咳が止まりません。」(=Seki ga tomarimasen.) “I can’t stop coughing!”

くしゃみ (=kushami) a sneeze

Ex.くしゃみが出る

(=kushami ga deru.)

to sneeze

Ex.「くしゃみが止まりません。」

(=Kushami ga tomarimasen.)

“I can’t stop sneezing!”

鼻水 (=hanamizu) a runny nose

Ex.鼻水が出る。(=hanamizu ga deru.) to have a runny nose

鼻をかむ (=hana wo kamu.) to blow one’s nose

頭痛 (=zutsuu) a headache

Ex. 頭痛がする(します)

(=Zutsuu ga suru (shimasu.))
My head hurts. / I have a headache.

Ex. 頭が痛い(です)

(=Atama ga itai (desu.))

My head hurts.

I have a headache.

Ex. 頭がずきずきする。

(=Atama ga zukizuki suru.)

more polite

:rrrr: ずきずきします

(=zukizuki shimasu.)

My head is throbbing.

Ex. 体中が痛い(です。)(=Karadajuu ga itai (more polite) desu.))

My whole body hurts.

(=kin) germs

Ex.菌が入る (=kin ga hairu) to get germs in one’s body

免疫(=meneki) immune

免疫がある (=meneki) to be immune to ~

免疫がない(=men eki) not to be immune to ~

免疫力 (=men eki ryoku) immune strength

免疫力が低下している (=meneki ryoku ga teika shiteiru) to have a weakened immune system

免疫力が上がる(=meneki ryoku ga agaru) to improve immunity

流感 (=ryuukan) influenza, flu

インフルエンザ (=infuruenza) influenza, flu

A型インフルエンザ (=eigata infuruenza) type A influenza

新型インフルエンザ (=shingata infuruenza) new influenza

:r: How do you say to people who have got cold?

「お大事に!」

(=”Odaijini!”) 

“Take care!”

:rrrr: (more polite)

「お大事にして下さい。」

(=”Odaijini shite kudasai!”)

“Please take care!”

:rrrr: (more polite)

「どうか、お大事にして下さい。」

(=”Douka odaijini shite kudasai!”)

“Please take care of yourself!”

:rrrr: (more polite)

「どうか、くれぐれもお大事になさって下さい。」

(=”Douka kureguremo odaijini nasatte kudasai!”)

“Please take care!”

「早く治してね。」

(=”Hayaku naoshite ne!”)

“Get well soon!”

:rrrr:(more polite)

「早く治して下さい。」

(=”Hayaku naoshite kudasai!”)

“Please get well soon!”

:rrrr:(more polite) 一日も早い御快(or 回)復を心からお祈りしております。

(=”Ichinichi mo hayai gokaifuku wo kokoro kara negatte imasu.”) “I

I sincerely hope that you get well as soon as possible. (Written form.)

Note :recovery” has two forms of kanjis.

1) 回復 (=kaifuku) Recovery from disease and also be used for other things, functions, etc.

Ex. 景気の回復 (=keiki no kaifuku) economic rebound

2) 快復(=kaifuku) We use it when we refer the recovery from a long lasting disease.

:kkk: To fix or to cure?

Also there are two kanjis for naosu!

A) 直す

and

B) 治す

We always use B) 治す to cure disease or body.

治す (=naosu) to cure, heal, shake off (transitive verb)

治る(=naoru) to be cured (intransitive verb)

Ex. 風邪が治った (=kaze ga naotta.)

I am over my cold.

(=naosu) to fix (transitive verb)

(=naoru) to be fixed (intransitive verb)

:P <From Maggie’s comic! >

Did you get the conversation in the pictures above? This is one of example conversation of 「ボケと ツッコミ“boke to tsukkomi” ( :rrrr: Check my 笑い Warai lesson) Maggie is ボケ(=boke) here.

Let me explain one thing here.

「まだ鼻が隠れてないし…」(=Mada hana ga kakurete nai shi..)
“You haven’t covered your nose yet!”

:ee: Note : There is a tendency to finish a sentence with (=shi) among young people. (Also there is a dialect to finish the sentence with like in Kansai area. It is grammatically incorrect but they say that anyway.

Usually (-shi) is used as “and” to list things or descriptions.

(Regular usage) Ex. 彼女、可愛いし、優しいね。(=Kanojo kawaii shi yasashii ne.) ”She is cute and sweet.”

:u:

(Collquial expressions!)

Ex. 「あなた何て好きじゃないし!

(=Anata nante sukija nai shi! ) ”I don’t like you! ”

correct forms : 好きじゃない(=sukijanai) or 好きではありません。(sukidewa arimasen.)

Ex. 「どれだけ勉強してもわからないし!(=Doredake benkyou shitemo wakaranai shi! ) ”No matter how much I study, I don’t understand! ”

correct forms : わからない。(=wakaranai) or わかりません。(wakarimasen


frenchbulldog マギー先生より (Maggie-sensei yori) From Maggie sensei

やっぱりマスクをすると息苦しいです。(=Yappari masuku wo suruto ikigurushii desu.)

As I expected, wearing a mask is suffocating!

風邪を引いている人は、私に近づかないでね。(=Kaze wo hiite iru hito wa watshi ni chikazukanai de ne.)

If you have a cold, stay away from me, OK?