How to use 〜し ( = shi )



= Neko wa asonde kurenaishi,  Mama wa isogashii shi, kyou wa hitori de nani wo shiyou kana.

= Cats won’t play with me,  and Mom is busy… I wonder what should I do by myself today…

Hi everyone!

Today’s super cute guest teacher is 10-month-old Doberman Leelu Sensei. !CHECKHEART!

According to her mom, Leelu has 3 cat brothers who never want to play with her so she

would love a job where she can have fun and help people.

It looks like she’s perfect for “Team Maggie”! Thanks again to the many good-hearted dogs and cats who have supported us.

Today Leelu Sensei is going to teach you ( = shi ). Yep! That’s it! Just one letter, but it has a lot of functions. Ready???

zzz…. 😴

DSCN2615 (640x480)a (2)-1

Ohhh, wake up, Leelu Sensei! Time to work now!  !JYANE!



= Hajimemashite! Leelu desu.

= Nice to meet you! I’m Leelu.


= Nihongo wo hajimete oshiemasu ga isshoukenmei ganbarimasu.

= I will teach you Japanese for the first time, but I will do my best.

As Maggie sensei mentioned above, I will teach you how to use ( = shi).

⭐️ How to form :

🔸 verb plain form +  ( = shi )

Ex. する ( = suru) to do +  ( = shi )

:rrrr: する ( = surushi)

(negative form)

*しない( = shinai) not to do  +  ( = shi )

:rrrr: しない ( = shinaishi)

(present progressive)

*している( = shiteiru) is doing / have been doing +  ( = shi )

:rrrr: している( = shiteirushi)

(present progressive negative form)

*していない( = shiteinai) not doing/ not have done +  ( = shi )

:rrrr: していない ( = shiteinaishi )

(Past tense)

*した( = shita) did / have done ( = shi )

:rrrr: した ( = shitashi)

(Past tense negative form)

*しなかった ( = shinakatta ) didn’t do / haven’t done  ( = shi )

:rrrr: しなかった ( = shinakatta shi)

(present perfect/ past progressive )

*していた( = shiteita) was doing /have been doing +  ( = shi )

:rrrr: していたし( = shiteitashi)

(present perfect / past progressive negative form)

*していなかった ( = shiteinakatta ) was not doing / haven’t been doing +  ( = shi )

:rrrr: していなかった  ( = shiteinakattashi )

:ii: i-adjective  plain form + し ( = shi )

Ex. かわいい ( = kawaii ) cute  +  ( = shi )

:rrrr: かわいい ( = kawaiishi )

(negative form)

*かわいくない ( = kawaikunai ) not cute  +  ( = shi )

:rrrr: かわいくない ( = kawaikunaishi )

🔸na-adjective + ( = da ) +  ( = shi )

Ex. きれい ( = kirei ) beautiful ( = da ) +  ( = shi )

:rrrr: きれい ( = kirei dashi )

(negative form)

*きれいではない ( = kirei dewa nai) not beautiful  +  ( = shi )

:rrrr:きれいではない ( = kireidewa naishi)

(negative/casual form)

*きれいじゃない ( = kireijanai ) not beautiful ( = shi )

:rrrr:きれいじゃない( = kireijanai shi)

🔸noun + ( = da ) +  ( = shi )

Ex. ( = ame) rain ( = da ) +  ( = shi )

:rrrr: ( = ame dashi)

 (negative form )

* 雨ではない ( = ame dewa nai)  not rain(ing)  ( = shi )

:rrrr: 雨ではないし ( = ame dewa nai shi )

(negative / casual form)

*雨じゃない ( = ame ja naishi) not rain(ing)+  ( = shi )

:rrrr: 雨じゃない ( = ame janaishi)

🔸 Others :

With some  particles :

Ex. 〜から ( = kara ) + (=da) + (=shi)

:rrrr: 〜からだ (= kara dashi)

⭐️ When to use ( = shi )

1) “and”

When you list multiple verbs, nouns or adjectives.

You give one fact and add more information. (On top of that ~ )

(You can use just one ( = shi )  or multiple ( = shi ) in one sentence)

Ex.  マギーはかわいい、性格もいい。

= Maggie wa kawaiishi, seikaku mo ii.

= Maggie is cute and has a nice personality.

Note: Some of you may wonder what is the difference between ( = shi ) and ( = te )

Ex. マギーはかわいく性格もいい。

= Maggie wa kawaikute seikaku mo ii.

= Maggie is cute and also has a nice personality.

While ( = te ) specifies the mentioned qualities, ( = shi) implies there are also some other good qualities of Maggie.

(I bet you can think of many of them….  From Maggie.)  :)

Ex.  東京では秋葉原に行った、原宿にも行った。

= Toukyou dewa Akihabara ni ittashi, Harajuku nimo itta.

= I went to Akihabara and Harajuku as well. (among doing other things.)

Note : If you say

Ex. 秋葉原に行っ、原宿に行った。

= Akihabara ni itte, Harajuku ni itta.

= I went to Akihabara and then I went to Harajuku

You are  telling the order of the places you visited in Tokyo.

Ex. ラーメンは簡単にできる、安い美味しい。

= Raamen wa kantan ni dekirushi,  yasuishi oishii.

= Ramen is easy to cook, cheap, and delicious. (Also there are some other good quality ramen.)

As I mentioned above, you can use ( = shi ) more than one


Ex. 彼女は料理は上手い、性格はいいかわいい、理想の奥さんだ。

= Kanojo wa ryouri wa umaishi, seikaku wa iishi,  kawaiishi risou no okusanda.

= She cooks well, has a good personality, is cute… the ideal wife.

2) You can list two different things/ matters  to show the contrast

Ex. 遊びに行きたい、宿題はしなくてはいけないどうしよう。

= Asobini ikitaishi,  shukudai wa shinakutewa ikenaishi, doushiyou.

= I want to go out to play, but I have to do my homework. What am I going to do?

Ex. 彼は機嫌がいい時もある、悪い時もある。

= Kare wa kigen ga ii toki mo arushi, warui toki mo aru.

= Sometimes he’s in a good mood but sometimes in a bad mood.

3) Giving a reason and leading to the conclusion.

Ex.  雨が降っている、もう帰ります。

= Ame ga futte irushi,  mou kaerimasu.

= It’s raining so I will go home now.

Note: You can replace ( = shi) with から( = kara) / ので ( = node).  から( = kara) / ので ( = node) are also used to give a reason but ( = shi) sounds softer and more colloquial.

Listing some reasons and leading to the conclusion.


Ex. お金はない、暇もない、この夏は旅行に行くのはやめよう。

= Okane wa naishi, hima mo nai shi, kono natsu wa ryokou ni iku no wa yameyou.

= I don’t have money, and  I don’t have time… so  I am not going anywhere this summer.

Note : If there are more than one ( = shi), you can replace the last one with から( = kara) / ので ( = node)


Ex. お金はない、暇もないからので

= Okane wa naishi, hima mo nai kara / node….

Ex. 食べたばかりだ、まだ寝るには早すぎる。

= Tabeta bakari dashi,  mada neru niwa hayasugiru.

= I just ate so it is still too early to go to bed.

Ex. お忙しいようです、そろそろ失礼します。

= Oisogashii you desushi, sorosoro  shitsurei shimasu.

= You seem busy so if you’ll excuse me, I’m leaving now.

Ex. 就職無理だ、フリーターになろうかな。(casual)

= Shuushoku muridashi, furiitaa ni narou kana.

= It is impossible to get a job, so I guess I will live off a part-time job.

Sometimes we leave the sentence unfinished with (=shi)

Ex. だってマギーはつまらなそうだった

= Datte Maggie wa tsumaranasoudattashi…

= ‘Cause you (=Maggie) looked bored so…

Ex. 私の人生はこれからだ

= Watashi no jinsei wa korekaradashi…

= My life has just started so…

4) Also you finish the sentence with ( = shi) to make your point in colloquial Japanese.

Remember this picture of Katakana lesson?




= Nee Maggii,  

= Hey,   Maggii,  


= Watashi Maggie dashi….

= I am MAGGIE! (not Maggii)

Ex. そんなこと言ってない

= Sonna koto ittenaishi!

= I am not saying such a thing, you know.

Ex. あんな人のことは忘れた

= Anna hito no koto wa wasuretashi!

= I totally forgot about such a person, you know.

Ex. マギーにあげるなんて言ってない

= Maggie ni ageru nante itte naishi.

= There is no way that I will give it to Maggie!



= Sate, yatto ressun ga owattashi,  asobini ikou kana.

= Well, I finally finished the lesson, so I guess I go play now.


= Minna, ressun wo yonde kurete arigatou!

= Thank you for reading this lesson, everyone!

maggie-senseiマギー先生より = Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei


= Leelu Sensei, arigatou!

= Thank you, Leelu Sensei!


= Leelu Sensei wa wakaishi, kawaii shi,  atama mo iikara kitto moteru yone.

= You are young, cute and intelligent so I bet you are popular with the boys.


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  1. こんばんはマギ一先生、

    Does it sound weird to use different tenses in one sentence?

    Ex. trying to say: We went to the movies and shopping [and stuff], now we’re going to eat dinner.


    1. こんばんは、Terry
      OK, let me correct your sentence to make it sound a little more natural.
      映画を見に行ったし(Or 映画は見たし)、買い物もしたから、今から晩ごはんを食べに行こう。

      1. What does the から mean there? “Because” or “from” doesn’t seem to match…? 答えでありがとうございます。

        1. Hello again, Terry

          That から is a reason, so. (It implies the nuance “Since I have done things I wanted to do” + Now I am going to eat something)
          You can replace し with から to emphasize the reason.

          Since your original sentence may look like just listing three actions, it will be more clear to use から.
          However you can just use し in casual conversation.

          映画は見たし、買い物はしたし..(new sentence) ご飯でも食べに行こうかな。ご飯でも食べにいかない?

  2. Is the (noun)し(verb) construction common? I’ve come across the phrase 愛し創り上げる, which contextually I’m assuming means “lovingly create”/”create with love”, but I’m a bit confused about the grammar here.

    1. Hello FXJ

      It is hard to tell you by just the phrase without knowing the context but
      愛し(あいし) in that sentence means “愛して” love (something/someone) and create ~

      I think you know connecting verbs with te-form but you can also connect the verb with masu-stem
      愛します→(masu-stem) delete ます 愛し
      So it happened to be “し” but if it is a different verb, for example
      食べて寝る = eat and sleep
      食べ寝る (the masu-stem of 食べます is 食べ)

      FYI I have a lesson on this usage

  3. Your explanation and examples on 〜し and the difference between it to 〜くて・〜で has been the most comprehensible and exhaustive one I could find after reading through so many articles and forums! The comment thread of questions and answers here has been super helpful as well. Thank you very much for such a fantastic write up!

  4. Hello, Maggie Sensei.

    I have aa question about how し is working here. Please help me.


    Is し working alone in 発見もしづらい, or is it working in conjunction with もし.

    To me, it sounds as if it were working with も in the sentence

    Something like “Even if there were 化石, because of being small the discovery is, too, difficult.

    Would my translation be correct?

    1. Hi David,

      Ah OK, that し is a verb, する
      発見をする = to discover
      (masu-form) 発見をします
      You attach the suffix づらい with masu-stem and expresses, hard to do ~ / difficult do do ~

      masu form します
      →masu-stem (delte ます)し +づらい (hard to do) ⇨しづらい

      Another example
      見る to see →(masu form) 見ます
      →(masu-stem) 見
      →attach づらい
      →見づらい hard to see

  5. Hello, Maggie先生。

    I need your explanation about “し” after the word 繁栄。


    Is 繁栄 used as a noun or する verb? If 繁栄 is a noun it should be 繁栄だし according to the formula and 繁栄するし if it’s a する verb. But, the sentence used 繁栄し。

    Thank you^^

    1. Hello Chewy
      Ah, this し is masu-stem of the verb 繁栄する
      When you connect verbs, to do something and then do something, you can use te-form or masu-stem. This し is the later.
      masu-stem is more formal than te-form.
      masu form 繁栄します
      masu stem 繁栄し

      The meaning is the same as te form: 繁栄して

  6. こんにちはマギー先生! ちょっと質問があります。
    I just noticed that you used “ですし” in an example where I guessed that it’s because it’s polite form. Is it also acceptable to use ~ますし? Although I don’t think there is such a pattern. I’m just curious how you say a polite form of verb using し。🙂

    1. Hi Lory

      When you connect two verbs, you use the plain form before し and finish the sentence with です・ます
      Ex. お金も欲しいし時間も欲しいです。
      Ex. 休日は、掃除もするし洗濯もします。
      But in formal conversation you connect です・ます+し
      Ex. お金も欲しいですし時間も欲しいです。
      Ex. 休日は、掃除もしますし洗濯もします。

  7. May i use し and のに in one sentence?
    Foe example:
    私はもう若くないし、頭が良くないし、もう可愛くないのに、Keanu reeves はまだ私の愛を追いかけているよ。。。(hahaha…. you wish 😂😂😂😂)
    Although i am not young anymore, not smart, and not pretty anymore, but keanu reeves is still chasing my love (ignore my super high confidence 😂😂😂😂😂😂😂)

    1. 🤣 Love your example sentence! It seems like Keanu is really into you. 💕
      You can use し and のに in one sentence.
      Just one small change that I would suggest to make this sentence look more natural.
      頭はよくないし (That implies some other stuff is good but not smart.)
      The rest is fine.

      1. Thank you very much, maggje…😘
        Hahaha indeed…. keanu reeves is really indeed into me………….. in my dream 妄想の中に😂😂😂😂😂😂

  8. こんにちは、マギー先生!

    I’ve come across a different usage of ~し that I’m not sure how I should interpret and I was hoping you could help me. Here’s an example:

    “自由を求めし者 変わり果てて

    Here, the ~し comes directly after the stem of a verb and I’m wondering what it means exactly?


    1. こんにちは Sebastian

      Ah, that’s old Japanese.
      So when you modify a noun with a verb you use a dictionary form in modern Japanese.

      But in old Japanese, you use

      求めます→求め+し+ noun
      追います→追い+し+ noun

      You only use it in some literal expressions and you might see some adjective form as well.

      若かった日→若かりし日 The day that someone was young.


      1. なるほど!

        No wonder I had no clue since it’s not part of modern Japanese…


      2. Hello Maggie sensei!
        Wonderful lesson, it cleared a lot of things up with me, especially with all the examples you’re giving.

        What I found from another source (which I feel you’ve also implied here) is that し states a reason while also implying other reasons, while から does not have that quality.

        I was wondering if you replace the last し in a row with から, if you still have the *implying more* function or if the から makes that nuance disappear. Like in the following example you gave:


        1. Hello Marloes

          Good question.
          The nuance difference between the following sentences are
          お金はないし、暇もないし、(…) この夏は旅行に行くのはやめよう。 It implying there might be some other reasons why you gave up the trip this summer. (You often use this pattern in conversation ~ し ~ し.. when you are thinking about the reason)
          お金はないし、暇もないから、この夏は旅行に行くのはやめよう。It gives two specific reason why you gave up the trip this summer.

    1. Hi Eliza

      Basically you use とか with noun or noun form of verbs.
      When you list up multiple things,
      I had sushi, hamburger and etc.
      You can say
      But you can’t use し
      X すしし、ハンバーガーを食べた(wrong)

      When you list up some quality of thing/person

      Maggie is cute and sweet, you connect with し but not とか
      Xマギーはかわいいとか優しい (wrong)

      When you talk about what you do/did, you use し
      I went to Tokyo and had sukiyaki.
      X 東京に行ったとか京都も行った。(wrong)

      1. You’re so fast!

        I thought that とか could be used with adjectives, nouns and verbs.


          1. Let me see if I understood…

            とか is used to list nouns and verbs in the dictionary form.
            While し is used to list adjectives and verbs (actions).
            And both have the nuance of “there is something more that are not listed”.
            Also し has the nuance of “not only, but also”

          2. I think you got the general idea.
            This may confuse you a little but there are exceptions.
            You can use とか with adjectives when you quote
            The nuance difference is
            かわいいとかきれいとか言われる。 (People tell me I’m cute, beautiful and so on.)
            かわいいし、きれいだと言われる。(People tell me I’m cute and also beautiful.)

          3. OK! Thank you for your reply! And I’m so sorry to bother you with so many questions.
            But, anyway, thank you for this lesson! =)

  9. Hi, I had a question about the usage of し in 何しに! I’m not sure if this is the place to ask it (sorry if you have an article that explains this already — I had a look and I couldn’t find anything) but this is the article that popped up on google so I’ll give it a shot.

    I don’t think I’ve really come across 何しに before this.

    I came across this sentence in a manga [ええ…⁉︎何でベランダ⁉︎ 何しに⁉︎何で⁉︎], where someone had previously unexpectedly appeared on their veranda. The reason for the confusion is self evident so I figured the sentence was shortened; either left incomplete or maybe slang.

    My first impression was a vague feeling of に being kind of an ‘in the direction of’ usage [why (were they THERE (aka the veranda) / what (were they doing THERE)] but that didn’t fit quite right?
    Then I remembered 為に being roughly ~ for what reason, and the に had a similar feeling. So that lead me to thinking it might have a ‘for what’ kind of quality, with an emphasis on purpose instead of direction. Kind of a: WHY?! are they there vs a why are they THERE?!

    The し would be a conjunction of する, I’m assuming, but I have no idea how that fits into it. Is it just that 何する needs to be conjugated before using a に particle on the end? I’m not sure how する leads to しに at all.

    Is it because it’s past tense? する -> した -> dropping the た so as to add the に -> しに. Why would the た be dropped, if that’s the case?

    Would 何したに not work? Is it because た wouldn’t be used at the end of the sentence if it was left in there? What about する + に in other tenses?

    After some googling, I learnt that 何しに is usually used with 行く and 来る which kind of makes sense in a ‘for what reason did you come to Japan’ etc way, if the に is a little of both direction and purpose? That’s all I could find on しに.

    I still don’t understand how it works, or in what other situations しに is relevant 😓 I feel like I’m missing something really simple here but I’m not sure what.

    Sorry for rambling, I just wanted to explain my reasoning behind my utter confusion haha. I’d really appreciate it if you could help me out. Thank you for reading!

    1. Hi Rose,


      Let me break it down.
      *なに・何 = what
      You drop an object marker, を, after なに in casual conversation.
      *し is a masu-stem of a verb する
      *に is a particle to indicate one’s purpose

      So the whole phrase is

      You can also figure it out from the possible answer why that person came to the balcony.

      (somethingを) verb masu-stem + に+来た= I came (here) to do something
      電話をかけに来た。I came here to make a phone call.
      あなたに会いに来た。 I came here to see you.
      たばこを吸いに来た。 I came here to smoke.

  10. HI Maggie先生、Thank you for the post. I’ve been searching the explanation for the particle end with し。Your explanation is very in detail and clear. I’ve learned a lot today. ありがとうございました。

      1. HI Maggie先生、

        I will check in everyday. A lot of question have been solved by reading your lesson. Thank you so much for your knowledge.

  11. こんにちは!はじめまして?
    So, I’m in my very beginner’s lessons and I found myself caught up by this note I saw a guy at work write:


    I can understand almost all of it after a good look at it, except the part after the “answer” part. I know the end is “kudasai”, but I get nothing off of “しであげて”. Help?


    1. @Luís Eduardo

      It must be a typo. It doesn’t make a sense.
      Could it be 回答してあげてください。 = Please answer to someone?

  12. Maggie Sensei:

    Thank you for your explanations. I have read both your lessons on shi & tali. Are they pretty much interchangable? I’ve noticed that tali is used with verbs more. but it seems that both can be used to list examples. Can you go over the differences for me? Thank you.


    1. @Amy

      A lot of time they are not interchangeable.
      You don’t use たり when you show the contrast (2) , give a reason (3) or make your point in a colloquial usage. (4)

      While you use し when you add more information/facts,
      On top of (1), +(2)

      you could use たら for more random facts.

  13. いつもありがとうございます!

    1. @Alec

      今、わかります・私はやっと分かります→今、わかりました/ やっと分かりました。)

  14. マギー先生!教えてくれて有難うございます。

    1. @bokun

      (少しお手伝いしますね。今まで全て分かりました。:今までは”until now”という意味になります。「全てわかりました」だけでいいと思いますよ。
      1) 簡単だし、分かりやすいです。
      2) 簡単だし、分かりやすいし、+ conclude your sentence)


  15. Maggie-sensei

    can you please explain to me why the author use both だけど and し in this sentence この後、僕たちは入学式と学校案内だけだけど、上級生は普通に授業らしいし

    because isn’t that し function in there already use by だけど that is to list two different things to show contrast?

  16. Something I notice often is how し is used in conjunction with も.


    For example. It makes me wonder if their meanings are similar in some way.

    1. @Commenter

      Hello, Commenter!
      Ah maybe you are right. You might see the pattern 〜も+V し a lot.
      Actually we use various particles with し such as
      but when you want to emphasize that fact that this person ALSO has a lot of experiences, you use も with し.

      1. お久しぶり、マギー先生!元気だった?
        質問があるんだけど… なんで「で」の助詞と「の」の助詞を一緒に使っているの?見たことがない O.o

        1. @Marianne

          Hello Marianne! 久しぶり!今日までお休みで返事が遅れてごめんなさい。

          I think you already know you use で
          1) to show some location

          Ex. 図書館で勉強する
          = Toshokan de benkyou suru
          = to study at the library

          Ex. 家でカラオケをする
          = Ie de karaoke wo suru
          = To do karaoke at home

          2) method
          Ex. タクシーで帰宅する
          = Takushii de kitaku suru
          = to go home by taxi

          Now, when you modify a noun, you use 「の」

          = Toshokan deno benkyou
          = The study in the library

          2) 家でのカラオケ
          = Ie deno karaoke
          = Karaoke at home

          3) タクシーでの帰宅
          = Takushii deno kitaku
          = Going home by taxi

          1. いいえ、全然!私こそ、遅い返事ごめんなさい!

          2. Maggie-sensei

            help me pleaaaase (T_T)

            I got confused in this sentence リュカの寝間着はTシャツと長ズボンで、寝るときは布団をかぶってたんだ

            because I don’t really understand で function in that sentence

            what I get from that sentence is “Luca sleep-wear are a T-shirt and long pants when its sleeping time he would put on the futon”

          3. @just a novel lover’s

            That で is simply means “and” (Actually this で is not a particle. te-form of an auxiliary verb. 寝間着はTシャツと長ズボンだ。→te-form and continue the sentence with te-form 寝間着はTシャツと長ズボンで…
            Luca’s night clothes and T-shirt and longs pants (Luca sleeps in T-shirt and longs pants) and he used to sleep with his head under the futon.

          4. so で in that sentence not means “method” or “place”, but “and” like と, sensei?

          5. @just a novel lover’s

            Yes. で also has a function of giving a reason but in this case it would be more natural to translate “and”.
            If it is said
            (Luca sleeps in T-shirt and long pants.)
            Then で means “with”

          6. can you explain to me sensei, why the author use で in that sentence instead of と?

            and, hehehe can I ask you about cutting words sensei?

            like in this sentence ここでも忍び足で歩いていく。

            is it ここで-も忍び足で-歩いて-いく。



          7. @just a novel lover’s

            That で is actually not a particle. It is te-form of an auxiliary verb.

            Ex. 彼は歌が上手だ。そしてギターも上手だ。
            (compound sentence)
            He sings well and (also) plays the piano well.

            Ex. 彼女は学生です。(そして)勉強が好きです。
            ↓(compound sentence)
            Ex. 彼女は学生でそして)勉強が好きです。
            = She is a student and loves studying.


            →(compound sentence)

            And you can’t replace this で with と


            This で is a particle to indicate the location.
            By using with も adds the nuance of “also”
            ここ+で (location)+も (also)+ verb

            If it is said
            ここでは, it shows the contrast. Maybe not other places but someone tiptoes here.
            ここ+で(location) +は (subject/contrast) + verb

            Or depending on the content, it could mean ここ-でも(even)= even here

          8. Maggie-sensei, question!

            in this sentence 無い物ねだりをしてもしょうがない、出来る範囲で頑張ろう。

            the dictionary that I use said that 無い物ねだり can mean “asking for the moon”, where “the moon” came from? there is no word in that words that have meaning for “moon”

          9. @just a novel lover’s

            “asking for the moon” is an English idiom. You can’t reach the moon and the moon is too big to have so it is impossible to get the moon.
            So when people wish for what they can’t have, or seek things that they can’t reach, you say 無いものねだり

          10. ah, so it’s english idiom no wonder I cannot “click” it hahaha

            thank you sensei for telling me about it ^^

        2. uwaaa…. !niconico! 

          hontouni arigatogozaimasu sensei (_ _)

          it’s really broaden my view hehehe…

  17. わあ~マギー先生のすてきなサイトを見つけてとても嬉しかった。これから、マギー先生からも日本語を勉強します。

    この文は正しいかどうか知りません。 ちょっと手伝ってくれませんか.
    Well I hope I have written it correctly. 良い一日を

    1. @チャド



      1)The way you use し is good but using too many し in one sentence sounds strange. Maybe you should divide them into a couple of sentences.
      2)You know the honorific words such as 参る、頂く、おります。very well.
      When you write a sentence, you have to stick to the same form. I think balance-wise, you should stick to just regular ます form.

      Now I will fix your sentence a little to make it sounds more natural, OK?

      僕は日本語が上手になりたいので日本に行きたいです。*(Adding one sentence so that you can use a couple of し in the next sentence.) 日本ではやりたいことがいっぱいあります。例えば友達をたくさん作りたいし、色々な所を訪ねたいし、日本料理もたくさん食べたいです。

      How’s that?

      1. わ~すごい!この文章はそんなに自然みたいと思いますよ。
        I can now imagine myself saying this passionately. ^_^


        1. @チャド

          (Note for you. そんなに自然みたいと思いますよ If you meant my sentences are natural, use とても →とても自然だと思います。
          マギー先生をそんなに早く手伝って頂いてありがとうございます。→It means Thank you for helping Maggie Sensei this fast. So just say マギー先生、手伝ってくれてありがとうございます。)

          And どういたしまして、チャド!My pleasure!! :)

          1. こんにちは先生。

            Thank you again for honest corrections. Sorry, I should have left English translations as well. You see I wanted to say that your sentences look or sound so natural to me. And I wanted to emphasize that ”so” by adding そんな. Oh and I wanted to thank for your help and also for replying so fast so I sticked those reasons together. Don’t know if I did it correctly though.

            良い一日を Have a wonderful day ^_^

          2. @チャド
            I will help your Japanese here anytime.

  18. Sensei, I just learned about adjectives with da shi but cant seem to get the hang of it. Any difference like kirei shi and kirei da shi?
    If we were to use da shi to adjectives, how to link more than three adjectives in a sentence and which part i should add in da shi? *headache

    1. @Anne

      Hello Anne,
      As I explained in “How to form”, きれい(=kirei) is na-adjective. Therefore you have to say きれいだし(=kireidashi) not きれいし(=kireishi)
      Ex. しずか(=shizuka) is na-adjective しずかだ(=shizukada) →しずかだし(=shizukadashi)

      If it is i-adjective, you just add “shi”

      Ex. かわいい(=kawaii) na-adj →かわいいし(=kawaiishi)
      Ex. むずかしい(=muzukashii) na-adj →むずかしいし(=muzukashiishi)

      1. 申し訳ありません! I overlooked that part. Thank you so much Sensei! I did find a comment regarding this subject online but it didnt mention that na-adjective should be added with da/datta. You have clarified it well in here. Thank you once again and for your prompt reply. I have to admit you are the best Japanese teacher online that one could rely on.

  19. こんにちは!
    Thanks for answering my questions.
    I have two questions:
    1. Does “やっと” always come at the beginning of the sentence? What’s its exact position?

    2. What is “ただ” and how to use it?


    1. @kuroineko

      You’re welcome!

      1. Not necessary.
      You can put it before the verb.

      2. ただ as in “just”?

      Ex. ただ見ているだけです。
      = I am just looking.
      Ex. 何もできずにただ見ているだけだった。
      = I couldn’t do anything but just looking.

      Ex. 日本語をうまく話したければただ教科書を読むだけではなくできるだけ日本人と話した方がいいです。
      = If you want to speak Japanese well, not just reading your text book but you should talk to Japanese as much as possible.

  20. ありがとう先生!^^
    But in this sentence “宿題をするのを忘れていた。” why the particle ” を” used twice? I’m confused..
    Also, I have following questions.

    1. お忙しいようですし、そろそろ失礼します。Is it ok to add “し”to “です”?If so, how to pronounce? Silent “です”like usual?

    2. “遊びに行きたいし、宿題はしなくてはいけないし、どうしよう。” what is ”なくてはいけない”? And what is “なくてもかまわない?

    3. While watching anime or Japanese drama, I noticed that females (Different ages 15+) use the particle “わ” at the end of their sentence or before ”よ”like “いいわよ”. I know it doesn’t have any meaning like “の” and it’s just a female language, but is it really used in real life? Or it’s just anime and drama?


    1. @kuroineko


      *宿題をする = to do one’s homework : 宿題 is an object so you need an object marker
      However, you can also say 宿題する as one verb
      (the same thing 勉強をする / 勉強する= to study )
      *Vを忘れる= the verb 忘れる needs an object. Therefore you need an object marker,を

      1. Yes, you can say ですし. Sorry I can’t post an audio file here but you can pronounce “desu-shi”
      2. Vなくてはいけない= have to do
      Ex. する→negative form しない→しなくてはいけない = have to do
      Ex. 飲む→negative form 飲まない→飲まなくてはいけない = have to drink
      Ex. 書く→negative form 書かない→書かなくてはいけない= have to write

      なくてもかまわない = no need to do something / it doesn’t matter if S does it/it is ~ or not/ I don’t care without ~

      Ex. 明日は教科書を持ってこなくてもかまわないです。
      = You don’t need to bring your textbooks tomorrow.

      3. Some do use わ but it sounds very feminine. Go check female speech lesson.

  21. こんにちは!Thank you so much for answering my questions. It’s much easier to understand now and especially that idiom. I don’t know any Japanese idioms. Can you please make a lesson someday on idioms? I think it’s useful for any learner.
    I have the following questions (I Hope I’m not bothering you by my many questions):

    1. 何やってんの?and 何してんの?I’m confused, can you please tell me the difference between the verbs “やる”and “して”?Same meaning?

    2. Can you provide an example of “忘れて(い)た”? Continued state of forgetting thing is still confusing me..

    3. What is “やっと” and how to use it?

    4. What is the difference between “オレンジ” and “ミカン”?Are they the same, and which one is usually used?

    Thanks in advance.

    1. @kuroineko

      Hmm idioms are too broad but I have been tweeting idioms sometimes on Twitter. If I can find a good theme, I will make a lesson on some idioms in future.
      やってんの is from a verb  やる = to do
      してんの is from a verb する = to do
      They mean the same but やる is more casual.
      2. Sure,
      1) When you were supposed to do something but you completely forgot about it or doing it.
      (Note : the translation could be just “forgot” not “had forgotten” but it expresses you had/had forgotten to do something for a while)

      Ex. 花に水をやるのをすっかり忘れていた
      = I completely forgot to water my plants.
      Ex. 宿題をするのを忘れていた。
      = I forgot to do my homework.

      2) When you haven’t/hadn’t remembered something/someone for a long time.
      →haven’t thought about/remembered something/someone for a while

      Ex. 彼のことをずっと忘れていた。
      = I haven’t thought about him for a long time.

      = I just remembered I haven’t had breakfast yet.

      3. やっと means finally, at last. You use it when some event, someone, something you have been waiting finally happens,comes,arrives.

      = I finally managed to come to Japan.

      Ex. やっとマギーに会えた。
      = I finally got to see Maggie.

      ミカン(みかん、蜜柑) is Japanese mandarin orange or tangerine. They are much smaller than オレンジ.
      オレンジ is a general name for orange that you probably see in your country. We import them from abroad.

  22. Maggie sensei! Konnichiwa! I’m sorry I’m still a beginner so I can’t really write in japanese. I only remember some hiragana characters for now T_T It’s really hard and confusing! If I want to start learning from your site, from where I should start? Should I memorize all the hiragana and katakana first before learning anything else? Can’t I skip hiragana and katakana first because it’s tougher to remember? Btw, I have a japanese friend and he can’t speak english that’s why my passion to learn japanese is increasing now ^^ I really want to understand and be able to speak better with him in Japanese. I wanted to say “do you only accept girl in your team, xx-kun” so I said to him “xx-kunのチームで女の子だけを受け入れるか”. I wonder if my sentence is correct? To me it sounds so off lol. I can’t read most of katakana and kanji yet so I really rely on Google Translate whenever I want to speak with him. I hope you can help me which lesson from your site I should learn first (as there are too many lessons and idk which one to continue read after “super basic”, “beginners” lesson and so on. Imo it’s easier for us truly beginners to read your lessons if you label/categorize your lesson like “lesson 1”, “lesson 2” until the end so we can know which lesson we should start first then which lesson followed after the first lesson ^^ just my opinion. Thank you so much for your awesome website!!

    1. @xx-san

      Hello xx-san!
      Welcome to Maggie Sensei’s site. Start learning from hiragana and katakana. There are charts on this site. Some people don’t learn hiragana/katakana first and just read romaji. But eventually you will need them. Also you have to be a friend with kanji. :)
      You can study other lessons at the same time.
      Don’t be stressed out. Try to learn it with fun.

      And thank you for your feedback. It would be nice
      I know my lessons are very random and there are not many lessons for people who have just started learning Japanese.

      Since all people have different level and interest, I try to include as much information as possible targeting beginners to advanced level.
      People come here checking index and learn whatever they are interested in.
      If you want to learn basic Japanese first, I would highly recommend to get a proper Japanese textbook first and study basic.
      I’d love to help you if you have any questions here.

      Now “do you only accept girl in your team, xx-kun” is xx-kunのチームは女の子だけ受け入れるの? (= xx-kun no team wa onnanoko dake ukeireru no?)

  23. うわああ。。。先生はスペイン語でも話せるのですか?すごいい!ね、先生、「でも」という言葉の使い方を教えて頂けませんか?例えば「写真でも撮ってきたら信じてあげる。」「でも」の意味合いは’even(a child could do it)’や’even (with this) is also fine’というのはわかるけど、たった今の例はどういう意味なのかしら?

    1. @Blossom

      こんばんは、Blossom! いい質問ですねえ。この「でも」は、ちょっと言葉を曖昧(あいまい)にしてくれるのでやわらかく聞こえますよ。

      OK, let’s compare the following two sentences.
      2) 「写真でも撮ってきたら信じてあげる。」

      1) I will believe you if you take the picture.
      2) I will believe you if you take the picture or something.
      This でも has a function to show some example and make the quote sound softer.

      Many people avoid straight expressions in Japan. By using でも, it adds the nuance of “~ or something” / “something like” /”for example” /”like” / “..and etc.”

      Ex. お茶はいかがですか? = Would like a cup of tea?
      Ex. お茶でもいかがですか? = Would like a cup of tea or something? (It implies there are other options. Or it sounds softer.)

      Ex. 日本語を勉強してみる?= Do you want to study Japanese?
      Ex. 日本語でも勉強してみる? = Do you want to study Japanese or something?

      Ex. サッカーを観ようかな。 = I guess I will watch a soccer game.
      Ex. サッカーでも観ようかな。= I guess I will watch a soccer game or something.

  24. 始めまして、先生!

  25. As usual another interesting and useful lesson ! Thank you so much! I’m your biggest fan

    I have 2 doubts. Can you help me please?

    1.’Shi’ is similar in some cases as ‘~tari’?

    2. Why sometimes do you write in Spanish? Do you also speak Spanish?

    Thank you so much

    1. Hello Edu!
      Thank you for your nice message!

      1) たり and し:In some cases* the translation might be the same but most of the time し and たり are not replaceable.

      As I explained in my たり lesson, we use たり(=tari) when we give examples or express repeated actions/conditions or for the same types of activities.
      Ex. 日本語を読んだり書いたりするのは難しい。
      = Nihongo wo yondari kaitari suru nowa muzukashii.
      = It is difficult to write or to read Japanese.

      Ex. 立ったり座ったりする
      = Tattari suwattari suru.
      = alternate between standing and sitting

      →You can’t replace たり with し

      Ex. 食べたし飲んだしもう帰ろう。
      = Tabetashi nondashi mou kaerou.
      = I ate and drank (enough) so I guess I will go home now.

      →You can’t replace し with たら

      I will add it if I think of some confusing cases.

      2) Really? I don’t think I have used Spanish here…but yes, occasionally I tweeted in Spanish or writes comment on Facebook.
      And yes, I do speak Spanish. :)

  26. Hey Maggie sensei, sorry I can’t type in Japanese right now, thank you very much for the lesson, I really enjoyed it! Is there maybe some lesson about “node”? I keep running into it and it just isn’t sticking.

      1. Oh! That really helps a lot!! Thank you for including the casual omitting of the reasoning in that lesson for “node”! Thank you so much and enjoy the rest of your day! :D

  27. Thank you very much for this lesson Maggie!
    Now I learned, how to use the colloquial し, yeeey!

    There’s one thing that I would like to stress.
    から/ので shows that there is a strong cause-effect relation between the first and the second part of the sentence (= because).
    し shows a very weak cause-effect relation (= so).

    There’s also a ~まいし construction which means “It’s not like”, “it isn’t as if”. It implies disparaging / scanting.
    EX 君一人が悪いわけではあるまいし、そんなに落ち込むことはないよ。 You’re not the only one at fault, so there’s no need to feel depressed that much!

    1. @天人

      Hello, 天人さん!Ah good one! ~ まいし

      Ex. そんなことあるまいし…
      Ex. 子供じゃあるまいし…etc.
      Nice follow as always. :)

  28. No~ the comment I wrote just now didn’t get postedT^T is this bug?
    Kiryuu is a 3 tailed fox.He’s a thief and a liar because of his past(Abandonned by his father). 三人の家族で住んでる、お母さんと大好きな弟のKaname。

        1. そうやT^Tでも誰だってええ人になれるやで。それ関西弁ですね、正しいかな。

          1. @メロ

            (なれるやで →〜なれるで/ なれるんやで)

    1. @メロ
      星キリュウ…いいんじゃない?  The Little Prince = 星の王子様みたいなイメージにも合っていると思いますよ

  29. マギー先生、レッスンについてない話だけどキリュウって言う名前となんの苗字が似合うかな。それはなんでもいいかな。変なこと聞いてごめんなさい(^◇^;)

    1. @メロ

      キリュウは片仮名? う〜ん、どんな名字がいいかはわからないけれど自分の好きな漢字からつけたらどうかな。イメージでは短い名字の方が合うかも。

      Ex. 星キリュウ= Hoshi Kiryuu

  30. Somehow, using shi at the end of a sentence makes me me think that the person is annoyed or something.

    1. @メロ

      When you are giving a reason and leave the sentence with し, the speaker is just trying to avoid the straight expression so the person is not annoyed.
      The colloquial way of finishing the sentence with し is often used jokingly when they want to make their point or talk back to you.
      But it all depends on their intonation. :)

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