Noun+ particle + の ( = no) + Noun : への/での/との ( = eno/deno/tono, etc.)



= Watashi eno kansha no kimochi wa  bangohan de shimeshite ne.

= Try expressing your appreciation for me by (buying me) dinner.

Hi everyone! I am your guest teacher, Mimi. Nice to meet you! よろしくね!= Yoroshiku ne!

Many of you already know that there are a lot of functions of ( = no) and one of them is to modify a noun.
In this lesson, I will explain when and how to use  ( = no)  with other particles.

First,  using ( = no) as a nominalizer followed by other particles

!star!  noun/ adjective / verb plain form +   ( = no) + particle

* ( = no wo)

* ( = no mo)

* ( = no ga)

* ( = no wa), etc.

If you know the function of each particle, it is not that hard to figure out the meaning.

* (=wa) subject marker

Ex. 日本語を勉強する楽しい。

= Nihongo wo benkyou suru nowa tanoshii.

= Studying Japanese is fun.

* ( = ga) subject marker / ( = mo)  also

* 日本語を勉強する (= nihongo wo benkyou suru) to study Japanese

nominalizing日本語を勉強する (= nihongo wo benkyou suru no) studying Japanese subject

(You also use こと (= koto) to nominalize a verb

* 日本語を勉強すること (= nihongo wo benkyou suru koto) studying Japanese

Ex. 外で運動する好きだが、家で本を読む好きだ。

= Soto de undou suru no ga suki da ga, ie de hon wo yomu no mo suki da.

= I like doing my exercising outside but I also like reading books at home.

* 外で運動する ( = soto de undou suru) to do one’s exercising

外で運動する ( = soto de undou suru no ) doing  one’s exercising

* 本を読む ( = hon wo yomu ) to read a book

本を読む  ( = hon wo yomu no) reading a book

* ( = wo) object marker

Ex. 母は私が一日中ゲーム(を)する嫌う。

= Haha wa watashi ga ichinichi juu geimu (wo) suru no wo kirau.

= My mother doesn’t like me to play games all day long.

(to play a game all day long) is an object

* ゲーム(を)する  (= geimu (wo) suru) to play games

ゲーム(を)する (= geimu (wo) suru no) playing games

If you don’t know the basic usage of (=no), feel free to leave a comment. Maggie sensei will make a lesson on more basic usage of ( = no) when she has a chance.


Today I will focus on the pattern,

⭐️ noun + particle + ( = no) + noun

noun +

+  ( = de + no)

+ ( = e+  no)

+ ( = to + no)

から + ( = kara +  no)

まで + ( = made + no)

+ ( = mo + no)

だけ + ( = dake + no)

ため + ( = tame + no)

+ noun

Of course, you don’t always add these particles before ( = no) and a lot of time it is unnecessary.

They all modify a noun by using other particles and in doing so add meaning to the noun.

For example, if you say:


= Maggie no purezento

It means “Maggie’s present” but it is not clear whether it is a present “from Maggie” or “to Maggie”.

So to make it more clear you say:


= Kore wa Maggie eno purezento desu.

= This is a present for Maggie


= Kore wa Maggie no tameno purezento desu.

= This is a present for Maggie



= Kore wa Maggie kara no purezento desu.

= This is a present from Maggie.


So adding a particle before ( = no) makes what you modify clearer.

See the difference?

* 来週予定

= raishuu no yotei

= plans for next week

* 来週まで予定

= raishuu made no yotei

= plans until next week

* 来週から予定

= raishuu kara no yotei

= plans from next week


* 日本

= Nihon no tabi

= trip in Japan / trip to Japan/ the way Japanese people travel (vague)

↓ (to make it more clear)

* 日本

= Nihon deno tabi

= traveling  around (in) Japan

* 日本

= Nihon heno tabi

= trip to Japan


Sometimes the difference is subtle and the translation could be the same.

* 飛行機

= hikouki no tabi

= airplane trip

= travel in an airplane

* 飛行機

= hikouki deno tabi

= airplane trip

= travel by an airplane

So you always have to pay attention to the function of the particle.
Let’s look at them one by one.


+  ( = de + no)

Mainly the particle (= de) has two functions.

1) with/by (method)

* カードで買い物をする

= kaado de kaimono wo suru

= to buy something with a credit card


= kaado deno kaimono

= Shopping with a credit card/ buying something with a credit card

Ex. このカードでお買い物はできません。

= Kono kaado deno okaimono wa dekimasen.

= The shopping with this card is not allowed.

= You can not use this card for shopping.

* 移動する

= kuruma de idou suru

= to go somewhere by car/ to use a car


= kuruma deno idou

= going somewhere by car / using a car to go somewhere

Ex. 移動は避けてください。

= Kuruma deno idou wa sakete kudasai.

= Please avoid using a car.

* 電話問い合わせする

= denwa de toiawase suru

= to inquire by phone


= denwa  deno toiawase

= inquiring by phone


= Odenwa deno otoiawase wa ohikae kudasai.

= Please refrain from making inquiries by telephone

* インターネット購入する

= Inntaanetto de kounyuu suru

= to purchase on the Internet


= Intaanetto de no kounyuu

= to purchase on the Internet

Ex. インターネット購入方法はこちらをご覧ください。

= Intaanetto deno kounyuuhouhou wa kochira wo goran kudasai.

= Please check here to see how to buy it/them on the Internet

* ビジネス利用する

= bijinesu de riyou suru

= to use ~ for business


= bijinesu deno riyou

= using ~ for business

Ex. ビジネスご利用はできません。

= Bijinesu deno goriyou wa dekimasen.

= You can’t use it/them for business.

* 英語質問をする

= eigo de shitsumon suru

= to ask questions in English


= eigo deno shitsumon

= asking questions in English / questions in English

Ex. 英語質問も受け付けます。

= Eigo deno shitsumon mo uketukemasu.

= We will also accept the questions in English.

* 東京生活する

= Toukyou de seikatsu suru

= to live in Tokyo


= Toukyou deno seikatsu

= Life in Tokyo

Ex. 東京生活にはもう慣れましたか?

= Toukyou deno seikatsu niwa mou naremashita ka?

= Are you getting used to the in Tokyo?

2) ( = de) as a location marker. (at/in)

As I taught in my ( = ni & de) lesson, you use ( = de) as a location marker when some action or event is involved.

* パーティー会話する

= Paatii de kaiwa suru

= to talk at a party


= Paatii deno kaiwa

= conversation / talk at a party

Ex. パーティー会話は誰にも言わないでください。

= Paatii deno kaiwa wa dare nimo iwanai de kudasai.

= Please do not tell anyone what we talk about at the party

* 渋谷何かが起きた

= Shibuya de nanika ga okita.

= Something happened in Shibuya


= Shibuya deno dekigoto

= What has happened/is happening in Shibuya


= Shibuya deno dekigoto wo otsutae shimasu.

= We will tell you about the news in Shibuya.

* ホテルWiFiを使う

= Hoteru de waifai wo tsukau.

= to use WiFi at a hotel


= Hoteru deno waifai no riyou

= The usage of WiFi at a hotel


= Hoteru deno waifai no riyou wa, yoru hachiji made desu.

= WiFi service in the hotel is until 8:00.

= You can use WiFi in the hotel until 8:00.

* コンビニ支払う

= konbini de shiharau

= to pay at a convenience store


= konbini deno shiharai

= payment at a convenience store


= Konbini deno oshiharai mo kanou desu.

= Payment at a convenience store is available.

= You can pay at a convenience store.

* 学校勉強する

=  gakkou de benkyo suru

= to study at school


= gakkou deno benkyou

= study at school

Ex. 学校勉強が大変なので塾は行かない。

= Gakkou deno benkyou ga taihen nanode juku wa ikanai.

= Studying at school is tough so I won’t go to cram school.


= Kumamoto de raibu konsaato wo suru

= to have a live concert in Kumamoto


= Kumamoto deno raibu konnsaato

= a live concert in Kumamoto

Ex. バンドは熊本ライブコンサートを最後に解散する。

= Bando wa Kumamoto deno raibu konnsaato wo saigo ni kaisan suru

= The band will have their final live concert in Kumamoto (and then they’ll break up.)

* 飲み会ふるまう

= nomikai de furumau

= to behave in a drinking party


= nomikai deno furumai

= behavior at a drinking party

Ex. 昨夜の飲み会ふるまいは誰にも知られたくない。

= Sakuya no nomikai deno furumai wa dareni mo shiraretaku nai.

= I don’t want anybody to know how I behaved at the driking party last night.

* 日本経験したこと

= Nihon de keiken shita koto

= What you experienced in Japan


= Nihon deno keikan

= experiences that you had in Japan

Ex. 日本経験を大切にします。

= Nihon deno keiken wo taisetsu ni shimasu.

= I will cherish my time (literally: experiences) in Japan.

+ ( = e +  no)

 ( e) = direction (to, towards)

Note: As for the particle

( = ni) =  to / for


( = wo) = object marker

You don’t say

X ( = ni no)

X ( – wo no)

You use ( = e) instead.


= Maggie Sensei ni shitsumon suru

= to ask Maggie Sensei


= Maggie sensei eno shitsumon

= questions for Maggie Sensei

Ex. マギー先生質問はコメント欄を使ってください。

= Maggie Sensei eno shitsumon wa komento ran wo tsukatte kudasai.

= If you have questions for Maggie Sensei, please use the comment section.

* 彼のこと思う。

= Kare no koto wo omou

= to think about him


= Kare yeno omoi

= feelings towards him

Ex. 日に日に彼思いが強くなる。

= Hi ni hi ni kare eno omoi ga tsuyoku naru.

= My feelings for him are getting stronger every day.


= Nihon ni /e yushutsu suru

= to export to Japan


= Nihon eno yushutsu

= Export to Japan

Ex. オーストラリアから牛肉の日本輸出が増えている。

= Oosutoraria kara gyuuniku no nihon eno yushutsu ga fuete iru.

= The export of beef from Australia has been increasing

* 友達プレゼントする

= tomodachi ni purezento suru

= to give a present to a friend


= tomodachi eno purezento

= a present for a friend

Ex. 友達プレゼントで携帯ケースを探しています。

= Tomodachi eno purezento de keitai keisu wo sagashite imasu.

= I am looking for a cellphone case for a gift to my friend.

* 新宿行く/新宿行く方法

= Shinjuku e iku / Shinjuku ni iku houhou


= Shinjuku eno ikikata

= the way to go to Shinjuku


= Sumimasen. Shinjuku eno ikikata wo oshiete kudasai.

= Excuse me. Could you tell me how to get to Shinjuku?

* 小説家なる道

= Shousetuka ni naru michi

= The way  to become a novelist


= Shousetsu eno michi

= the way to become

= How to become a novelist /becoming a novelist

Ex. 彼は、小説家道をあきらめた。

= Kare wa, shousetuka eno michi wo akirameta.

= He gave up on becoming a novelist.

* この病気理解する

= kono byouki wo rikai suru

= to understand this disease


= kono byouki eno rikai

= Understanding this disease

Ex. 人々のこの病気理解が必要だ。

= Hitobito no kono byouki eno rikai ga hitsuyou da.

= People’s understanding of this disease is necessary

= People need to understand this disease

 ⭐️ From the picture above:


= Watashi eno kansha no kimochi wa  bangohan de shimeshite ne.

= Try to show your feelings of appreciation for me by (buying me) dinner.

= Show your appreciation for me with dinner.


= (Anata ga) watashi ni kansha suru

= You appreciate me


= (anata no) Watashi heno kansha

= (your) appreciation for me



= (anata no)  Watashi eno kansha no kimochi

= (your) feelings of appreciation for me

* ~で示す

= ~ de shimesu

express with ~/ to show with

+ ( = to + no)

( = to ) = with , against

* モンスター戦う

= monsutaa to tatakau

= to fight against  monsters


= monsutaa to no tatakai

= A fight against monsters

Ex. モンスター戦いにはトレーニングが必要だ。

= Monsutaa tono tatakai niwa toreiningu ga hitsuyou da.

= In order to fight against monsters, you need training.

* 近所の人関わる

= kinjo no hito to kakawaru

= to be involved with one’s neighbors/to interact with one’s neighbors


= kinjo no hito tono kankei

= relationships with one’s neighbors

Ex. 彼はいつも近所の人関係を気にしていた。

= Kare wa itsumo kinjo no hito tono kankei wo ki ni shite ita.

= He was always concerned about his relationship with his neighbors.


= joushi to hanashiau

= to talk with one’s boss


= joushi tono hanashiai

= a talk with one’s boss

Ex. この件については、上司話し合いが終わってからまたご連絡いたします。

= Kono ken ni tsuite wa, joushi tono hanashiai ga owatte kara mata gorenraku itashimasu.

= As for this matter, I will contact you again after the talk with my supervisors.

* 彼女約束する

= kanojo to yakusoku suru

= to promise her (one’s girlfriend)


= kanojo tono yakusoku

= a promise made to her (one’s girlfriend)

Ex. 彼女約束があるから他の女の子とは飲みにいけない。

= Kanojo tono yakusoku ga aru kara hoka no onna no ko to wa nomi ni ikenai.

= Because of my promise to my girlfriend, I can not go out for a drink with other girls.

= Since I promised my girlfriend, I can not go out for a drink with other girls.

から  + ( = kara +  no)

から ( = kara)  from

* 5時から始まる映画

= goji kara hajimaru eiga

= the movie which starts at 5 o’clock


= goji kara no eiga

= 5 o’clock movie.

Ex. 今から家を出たら5時から映画に間に合うよ。

= Ima kara ie wo detara goji kara no eiga ni maniau yo.

= If we leave our house now, we can make the 5 o’clock movie.


= Maggie kara kita raburetaa

= a love letter that came from Maggie


= Nihon kara no raburetaa

= Love letter from  Maggie.

Ex. 「それ、何?」

= “Sore, nani?”

= “What is that?”


= “Maggie kara no raburetaa dayo.”

= “It’s a love letter from Maggie.”

*マギーお願いする/ マギーからお願いする

= Maggie ga onegai suru  / Maggie kara onegai suru

= Maggie begs/asks a favor/ to ask from Maggie


= Maggie kara no onegai

= a favor from Maggie

Ex. マギーからお願いです。みなさん、質問はお手柔らかにしてください。 !nemui! 

=Maggie kara no onegai desu. Minasan, shitsumon wa oteyawaraka ni shite kudasai.

= A request from Maggie. Please take it easy when you ask me a question. (Don’t ask me questions that are too difficult, please.)

* 30歳から転職する

= sanjussai kara tenshoku suru

= to change jobs at 30.


= sanjussai kara no tenshoku

= changing jobs at 30 years of age.

Ex. 30歳から転職は大変だ。

= Sanjussai kara no tenshoku wa taihen da.

= It is hard to change a job at 30 years of age.

You also say


= Sanjussai de tenshoku suru

= to change jobs at 30 years of age.


= sanjussai deno tenshoku

= changing jobs at 30 years of age.

まで + ( = made + no)

まで ( = made) until


= juuji kara goji made hataraku shigoto

= a job which starts from ten and finishes at five.


= juuji kar agoji made no shigoto

= Ten-to-five job.

Ex. 10時から5時まで仕事を探しています。

= Juuji kara goji made no shigoto wo sagashite imasu.

= I am looking for a ten-to-five job.

* 品川まで行く料金

= Shinagawa made iku  ryoukin

= fare/fee to go to Shinagawa


= Shinagawa made ni densha ryoukin

fare/fee to Shinagawa

Ex. 品川まで料金はいくらですか?

= Shinagawa made no ryoukin

= How much is the fare to Shinagawa?

* まで(いろいろ)あった

=  Imamade (iroiro) atta.

= Many things happened up to now


= imamade no koto

= What has happened up to now

Ex. までことは水に流してください。

= Imamade no koto wa mizu ni nagashite kudasai.

= Please forget about what has happened up to now.

= Please let bygones be bygones.

Ex. から見える景色

= mado kara mieru keshiki

= The views that you see from the window


= mado kara no keshiki

= The view from the window

Ex. この部屋は窓から景色がきれいです。

= Kono heya wa mado kara no keshiki ga kirei desu.

= The view from the windows in this room is beautiful.

+ ( = mo + no)

( = mo) emphasizing what comes before, that many, that much


= sanjuppun mo okureru (the speaker thinks 30 minutes is too long.)

= 30-minute delay


= sanjuppun mono okure (the speaker thinks 30 minutes is too long.)

= 30-minute delay

Ex. 雷で小田急線は30分遅れが出ている。

= Kaminari de Odakyuusen wa sanjuppun mono okure ga dete iru.

= Odakyuu line is delayed 30 minutes due to the thunder. (the speaker thinks 30 minutes is too long.)


= gojuunin mo kuru

= 50 people are coming  (there is a nuance that the speaker thinks 50 people is a lot)


= gojuunin mono hito

= FIFTY people (the speaker thinks 50 people is a lot)

Ex. 50人人がパーティーに参加した。

= Gojuunin mono hito ga paatii ni sanka shita.

= A good 50 people came to the party.


= juuman en mo suru kutsu

= a pair of shoes which cost a good (at least) 100,000 yen


= juuman en mono kutsu

= a pair of shows that cost a good 100,000 yen

Ex. 10万円靴は、買えない。

= Juuman en mono kutsu wa, kaenai.

= I can’t afford to buy 100,000 yen shoes. (100,000 yen is too expensive.)

だけ + ( = dake + no)

だけ ( = dake ) + ( = de), (= ni), ( = ga), etc. :  only, limited

Ex. 女性だけで作られた野球チーム

= josei dake de tsukurareta yakyuu chiimu

= a baseball team made up of only women


= josei dake no yakyuu chiimu

= a baseball team just for women

Ex. うちの会社には女性だけ野球チームがある。

= Uchi no kaisha niwa josei dake no yakyuu chiimu ga aru.

= There is a baseball team which is just for women in my company.

* だけが使える部屋

= boku dake ga tsukaeru heya

= a room that only I can use


= Boku dake no heya

= a room just for me

Ex. だけ部屋が欲しい。

= Boku dake no heya ga hoshii.

= I want a room just for myself.


= koko dake de hanasu hanashi

= a conversation that does not leave these walls


= Koko dake no hanashi

= a conversation that does not leave these walls

= just between you and me/ off the record

Ex. ここだけ話だけど、彼、あの子と別れたんだって。

= Koko dake no hanashi dakedo, kare, anoko to wakaretan datte.

= This is just between you and me but I heard he broke up with that girl.

ため ( = tame)  + ( = no)

ため ( = tame) for ( + ( = ni))

Ex. マギーのために作ったおにぎり

= Maggie no tame ni tsukutta onigiri

= a rice ball that someone made for Maggie


= Maggie no tame no onigiri

= a riceball for Maggie

Ex. これは食べちゃだめ!マギーのためおにぎりなんだから。

=Kore wa tabecha dame! Maggie no tame no onigiri nan dakara.

= This is a rice ball for Maggie, so…

only for ~ : ためだけ ( = tame dake)

When you emphasize “Maggie” you say


=Maggie no tame dake no onigir

= A rice ball just for Maggie.

maggierainbow125マギー先生より = Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei


= Kono ressun wa kono saito dake no ressun desu.

= This lesson is specifically just for this site.

プレゼントは何がいいか考えておきますね。 😉

= Watashi eno purezento wa nani ga iika kangaete okimasune.

= I will think about what is the best gift for me. (I’ll think about what I would really like as a present.)


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  1. Hi there,
    There is an anime is currently airing, its name is “推しの子 (Oshi no Ko)” and I translated it as “kid of my favorite idol” cuz the anime is about an idol named “Hoshino Ai”. But someone says it’s not true as it may be translated to one of those:
    – the kid you support
    – the kid who is a fan
    – or the child of a fan
    which is correct?
    thank you.

    1. Hi Katsu

      Ah OK, it could be confusing because the literal meaning of the title can be “the kid you support” ( = the idol herself = “My favorite idol” ) but if the story is about the child whose mother is your favorite idol then your translation is right.
      kid of my fav/ a child of my fav.

      If you are focusing the idol herself you can still say 推しの子 so “My favorite idol” works.

      I read the story but it is complicated, huh? The main character reincarnated as a child of his favorite idol.

      The following two have different meanings
      the kid who is a fan = ファンの子 ( A child who is your fan)
      the child of a fan = ファンの子 (A child of your fan)

      1. Ah, yeah, the story is kinda complicated but worth watching. I think it’s gloomy somewhat.
        Anyway, thanks for your replay, it really helps :).

    1. Hi Faisal
      I don’t understand your question,
      →You can nominalize the sentence saying 友達との相談
      Ex. 友達との相談の結果、〜〜

  2. Hi there,
    in these lines:

    誰も知らない 名付けられない
    僕らの火花が 少し照らしたのは
    干からびた土 焦げた瓦礫

    I have 2 questions:
    1-In the second line, I read that sometimes (wa) comes at end of the sentences and it may mean (conclusion, decision, opinion) or adds feminine flavour. Is (wa) in this line like what I read OR it is related to the next line same as the one in your lesson?

    2-I tried to translate these lines but not sure about which sentences are connected or which ones are separated. For example, is line 1 related to line 2&3? the same thing with line 4, is it the continuing of line 3? I’m really confused. Sorry for writing a lot!

    1. Hello Katsu,
      1. This は is a topic marker and it related to the next line.
      What our sparks illuminated a little was ~

      2. The line 1 誰も知らない 名付けられない modifies 僕らの火花 in the next line.
      Our sparks which nobody knows and nobody can name

      Hope it helps. :)

      1. So I can say:
        What our sparks (which nobody knows and nobody can name (or call)) illuminated a little was the dried soil, the charred rubble
        and for sure the days when you smiled.
        Is it good enough?

  3. Hi Maggie Sensei 😊, after my last question in the lesson about atatakai, I was thinking why in the sentence that you fixed for me I have to use との, but finally I can understand after read this lesson! But I wanna ask you something, in that question you gave me the next suggestion: マギーには、いつも私との温かい家庭があります。My question is, when we are using との, could the order of the words be changed without changing the meaning of the sentence? For example, if I change the order and write itsumo after “watashi to no” and not before, it’s still ok? Example: マギーには、私とのいつも温かい家庭があります。

    1. Hola David,

      Yes, you can say that but the meaning changes slightly.
      マギーには、いつも私との温かい家庭があります。 いつも modifies 家庭があります (Maggie always has a warm family)
      マギーには、私とのいつも温かい家庭があります。いつも modifies 温かい家庭  always-warm family

  4. @Maggie Sensei よろしくお願いいたします。

    What will be the difference between
    これからテクストを読んでください and これからのテクストを読んでください

    As in both the sentences whether から affects 読んでください or テクスト, the effect is the same. As per my little understanding of Grammar, first would be more like general informative i.e. From now on please read the texts. Whereas, 2nd could be more specific to the texts the person is receiving i.e. the texts that you are receiving from now please read them (It is not inculcating that the person was not reading earlier texts, whereas as per me the 2nd one could imply that, but I do not know for sure).


    1. Hi Phillips,
      First when you say テキスト (not テクスト), it means “a textbook” in Japanese.
      So これからテキスト (not テクスト)を読んでください。= Please read a textbook now)
      The second one is strange. You don’t say これからのテキスト.

      If you want to tell someone who hasn’t read a textbook before to read a textbook from now on you say
      By adding は, you can express the contrast (before and future)

  5. こんばんは マギー先生!I have a doubt regarding a few arrangements

    I just wanted to ask, what is the difference between in nuance and grammar

    1 Noun + Particle + の + Noun, and Sentence Verb + の(as a nominaliser) + Particle

    Eg. 電話での問い合わせは大変だ and 電話で問い合わせするのは大変だ

    (There are other examples as well if you think about when you use のas nominaliser

    2. Noun + Particle + の + Noun and, verb modifier (when working as a Participle) + Noun + Rest of the sentence

    E.g. 窓からの景色がきれいです and 窓から見える景色がきれいです


    1. おはよう、Phillips

      1. Eg. 電話での問い合わせは大変だ and 電話で問い合わせするのは大変だ
      “Noun + Particle + の + Noun” is slightly more formal so you use this form more in a written form. So you use 電話で問い合わせするのは〜 more in conversation.

      2. E.g. 窓からの景色がきれいです and 窓から見える景色がきれいです
      The listeners/readers can visualize what the speaker/writer says more vividly with a verb.

      I have a lesson (link is here)

      1. @Maggie Sensei 本当にありがとう! I got most of it I just wanted to ask, do both of these arrangements (2 above examples) have same nuance, when used, apart from being used in formal and the 2nd example being vivid in description, or there is more nuance to both of them. ありがとう先生

  6. Hello Maggie先生,
    Thank you so much for being awesome. There are practically no websites on this subject but of course you do! ♡♡♡ I am having a little trouble breaking down the differences between:

    1) N+Particle (P) +の+N
    2)P (で、は、に、の、etc) + Verb
    3)N/ADJ/V+ の+Particle

    I can understand your simple sentence explanations.

    * 飲み会でふるまう = to behave in a drinking party

    飲み会でのふるまい= behavior at a drinking party

    but the example sentence is where I get confused…

    Ex. 昨夜の飲み会でのふるまいは誰にも知られたくない。
    = I don’t want anybody know how I behaved at the drinking party last night.

    would the example sentence of just で be:

    If that is true does that mean
    is 1) just another way to say V+ことが・は?

    での is really messing with me….
    日本語で従業を取りたい= I want to take a class in Japanese
    (I want to take a class in Japan?)
    日本語での従業を受けたい= I want to take a class in Japanese

    I will always appreciate you!! Thank you!

    1. Hello Amanda,

      I see your confusion.
      Ex. 昨夜の飲み会でのふるまいは誰にも知られたくない。
      I usually try to use more natural English translation so I translated “how I behaved” but actually the literal translation is
      I don’t want anybody know “my behavior at a drinking party”

      Your sentence, 昨夜の飲み会でふるまったことは誰にも知られたくない is grammatically correct but it’s not natural.
      You say 飲み会でのふるまい more.

      日本語で授業を取りたい= I want to take a class in Japanese
      is more natural but if you emphasize 日本語 more, you attach の (日本語での)

      “to take a class in Japan” will be 日本で授業を受けたい。

      1. Thanks so much for your help! I understand better now. It’s hard to judge what structure I should pick when speaking but your explanations always help! Thanks a bunch!!

  7. Hello マギー先生,

    from this example sentence

    “He was always concerned about the relationship with his neighbors.”

    how would i say –
    “I was always concerned about his relationship with his neighbors.” ?

    1. Hi Milk

      In that case you have to change the expression a little.

          1. Yes, you can say I guess it was a typo but you can say both
            Or you can also say 私は彼の近所の人との関係を気にしていた。

  8. おはようございます、マギー先生!
    Your site is always very useful. I was doing my homework and wondered if you’ve already covered the 助詞+の topic, and sure enough, here it is!

    An example sentence from my homework has got me confused though, I’m hoping you can help explain it. The following is how the sentence is formatted:
    あれ(は の)吉田さん(が の)描いた絵です。
    We’re supposed to circle the correct particles in similarly formatted questions. The example sentence already have the answers circled in:
    あれ(’は’ の)吉田さん(’が’ ’の’)描いた絵です。(just in case it isn’t clear, the particles が and の in the second set of parentheses are both individually circled).

    What confused me is the がの combination, as I thought that が/は/に/を cannot precede の?

    Or am I misunderstanding it as an example that the sentence can possibly be written as 吉田さんが描いた絵です or 吉田さんの描いた絵です? However, this seems unlikely considering that the exercise was given just after learning the use of 助詞+の, so it’s probably meant to be read as 吉田さんがの描いた絵です. If this is correct, what is the difference with 吉田さんが描いた絵, and what could the の in the example sentence is supposed to refer to?


    1. Hello, altuser

      That means you can use either が or の
      Not 吉田さんがの描いた絵です。

      1. Ah, so I guess it had nothing to do with 助詞+の after all. Thank you very much for clearing it up!

  9. Hello Maggie Sensei,
    I was having trouble translating a line from this song (
    Literally, I would think it is “Loving is an act.” But that doesn’t make any sense.
    I thought also that it might be something like, “I still love (you),” since 愛している is in the progressive form, and then 行為 would be highlighting the fact that it is something the speaker still does? I also thought that maybe it means something like, “It’s an act of love,” but then I feel like I’m forcing an English idiom onto the sentence. What does this actually mean, and how did you figure it out?

    Thank you!

    1. Hi Holly

      “To love someone/Loving something” is (or means) an action.
      愛している is the state of loving someone.
      It is a line from a song, They play with words. That is why a lot of phrases are not grammatically correct.

      1. So, do you think it’s best to just translate it literally as “Loving is an act,” then?

        Also, could you tell me how 愛しているのは行為だよ is grammatically incorrect? I mean, I don’t understand what it means, but I can’t figure out how it’s incorrect either.
        Thank you!

        1. You can translate love is an action.
          FYI the word 行為 literally means ” behave /what you do” and it is different from a word 行動, action.
          The lyrics can be interpreted in many ways. The writer knows the real intention and listener can interpret as they like.

  10. こんにちは !

    First of all, this website is great to learn japanese ! This lesson seems quite easy to understand ! どうもありがとう !
    I just want to check if I got it. For example, if I want to say “Please refrain to eat with a fork”, should I write フォークで食べるのは避けて下さい ?

    1. @ルー

      The sentence is OK but
      避ける (= to avoid) is not natural in that sentence.

      フォークで食べるのはやめてください。(a bit too straight)

      フォークで食べるのは控(ひか)えてください。might be better.
      (polite way

  11. こんにちは先生、

    I have question about anime title, forgive me if it’s not suitable for this lesson. I know the premises of this anime, but I don’t watch it, so may be I have misunderstanding here. The title is 進撃の巨人 or “attack on titan”. If I’m following this lesson correctly, the main noun is 巨人 (titan) not 進撃 (attack), so the literal meaning is either “the attacked/assaulted titan” or “the attacking/assaulting titan”. Using the same word, “attack on titan” should be 巨人の進撃, or to make it clearer 巨人への進撃. I know it’s just a title, so the translation can be influenced by many factor, such as to make target language’s speaker easy to understand.

    1. @Kamal

      You are not alone. Obviously many Japanese people question the meaning of the title 進撃の巨人 and wonder why 巨人 and 進撃 are reversed. (As you said, 巨人の進撃 looks/sounds grammatically more clear. )
      Since I have never read the story I can’t tell you the real intention but according to what I have researched, the interpretation of the title changes by the point of view and the episode. If the title is 巨人の進撃, you imagines a lot of Titans are attacking.
      Some said 巨人 refers to Eren himself. He becomes a Titan.
      Anyway, they decided to have that title to make the story more mysterious. Maybe we can tell the real intention while reading the story.

  12. konnichiha :w:
    I thought I should use Ga particle with using suki and kirau

    can I say:
    Haha wa watashi ga ichinichi juu geimu suru no (ga) kirau.

    thank you

    1. Hello roro ,
      because 嫌う is a verb the particle を has to be used in this case.
      But if you use 形容動詞「嫌い」then you can use it with particle が or は.


      1. @天人

        Thank you for helping @roro


        嫌う is a verb so you use a particle を


        嫌い is an adverb so you say
        ~は嫌い (*when you show the contrast)

        So if you want to use 嫌い in the example sentence, you say
        母は私が一日中ゲームするの”が”(“は”*) 嫌いだ

        But since 母は is a subject and I used a subject marker,”は”, I used a verb, 嫌う on purpose.
        Japanese people tend to avoid having two subject markers in one sentence.

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