How to use V + 始める ( = hajimeru) / だす ( = dasu) / かける ( = kakeru)



= Kotoshi wa itsu yuki ga furihajimeru no kanaa.

= I wonder when it starts to snow this year.

Hi everyone!  元気?( = Genki?) How are you doing?

Are we ready to study Japanese?  Good!!!

Today we have a guest teacher, Tipou-Sensei. He is from Canada.

He was also recruited to be an angel this year, so we are now good buddies in Dog Heaven.

Tipou-Sensei, 今日のレッスン、よろしく! ( = Kyou ino ressun yosorhiku!) Please take care of today’s lesson.


みなさん、はじめまして!( = Minasan, Hajimemashite!) Nice to meet to you, everyone!

My name is Tipou. I am a male toy poodle from Canada. My big sister named me Tipou  (“little flea” in Canadian French) because I’m cute and small — like a flea!

I was raised by a French Canadian family, so I used to only speak English and French. Then I met Maggie Sensei, and ever since, she has been teaching me Japanese!  I would love to practice by teaching Japanese here. So be good!


= Saa, kyou no ressun wo hajimemashou!

= Let’s start the lesson for today.

Today I will teach you the difference between

Verb + だす * ( = dasu), 始める ( = hajimeru) and かける  ( = kakeru).

*We also use the kanji  出す = dasu)


 !star! How to form:

1) Make ます ( = masu) form 


動く ( = ugoku) to move


動きます ( = ugokimasu)


Add 始める  ( = hajimeru) / だす  ( = dasu)/ かける ( = kakeru)


*動き始める  ( = ugoki hajimeru)

*動きだす  ( = ugoki dasu)

*動きかける ( = ugoki kakeru)

for past tense, add 始めた ( = hajimeta) / だした  ( = dashita) / かけた  ( = kaketa)


*動き始めた  ( = ugoki hajimeta)

*動きだした  ( = ugoki dashita)

*動きかけた  ( = ugoki kaketa)


⭐️The difference between V 始める ( = hajimeru) and  だす  ( = dasu)

1)  Generally speaking, you use V+ 始める ( = hajimeru)  when things start to happen or you start to do something gradually. We focus on the beginning on the action and how it continues.

And you use V+ だす ( = dasu)  when things happen suddenly / when someone starts to do something suddenly /spontaneously  and you can’t control it.

V+ だす ( = dasu)  usually involves sudden or unexpected  actions or  changes and we use it when we just  focus on the beginning of the action.

Compared to V+ 始める ( = hajimeru) it is more objective. So you don’t usually  use it for our own action unless you describe your own actions objectively.

* バスが動き始め

= Basu ga ugoki hajimeta.

= The bus has started to move

* バスが動きだした

= Basu ga ugokidashita.

= The bus has stated to move.

They both mean the same “The bus has started to move” but there is the following difference.


* 動き始める ( = ugoki hajimeru)

➡️ The bus starts to move gradually in order to go somewhere.


* 動きだす ( = ugokidasu)

 ➡️ The bus started to move suddenly/unexpectedly.


* 赤ちゃんが歩き始める

= Akachan ga arukihajimeru

= A baby starts to walk.

➡️ You see that action as the first process of growing up.

* 赤ちゃんが歩きだす

= Akachan ga aruki dasu.

= A baby starts to walk suddenly.

➡️You are just focusing on that moment.


Ex.  3月半ばに桜の花が咲き始める

= Sangatsu nakaba ni sakura no hana ga sakihajimeru.

= The cherry blossoms start to bloom in the middle of March.

You can use  咲きだす ( = sakidasu) if all the flowers burst into blossom suddenly.


Ex.   一斉に花が咲きだす

= Issei ni hana ga sakidasu.

= All the flowers start to bloom suddenly.


Ex.   彼女は美しい声で歌い始めた

= Kanojo wa utsukushii koe de utai hajimeta.

= She started to sing with a beautiful voice.

➡️ You were expecting that she would sing a song.

 But if a man started to sing out of the blue,


Ex.   地下鉄の中で急に一人の男性が歌いだした

= Chikatetsu no naka de kyuu ni hitori no dansei ga utai dashita.

= One guy (has) started to sing all of a sudden on the subway.


I will show you how to use each verb with more example sentences.  

⭐️  V + 始める  ( = hajimeru)

1)  When something starts to do something gradually, you use  V + 始める ( = hajimeru)

Ex. 薬を飲んだら熱が下がり始めた

= Kusurui wo nondara netsu ga sagari hajimeta.

= After I took medicine, the fever started to drop.

Ex. 彼は自分の生い立ちについて話し始めた

= Kare wa jibun no oitachi ni tsuite hanashi hajimeta.

= He started to talk about his personal history.

2) When you start doing something intentionally.

Ex.   そろそろ年賀状を書き始めようかなあ。

= Sorosoro nengajou wo kakihajimeyou kanaa.

= I guess I should start writing New Year’s cards now.

Ex. 答案に答えを書き始めて下さい。

= Touan ni kotae wo kakihajimete kudasai .

= Please start to write your answers on the answer sheet.

Ex. 文句ばかり言っていないで早く仕事をやり始めたらどうなの?

= Monku bakari itte inai de hayaku shigoto wo yarihajimetara dou nano?

= Stop complaining and why don’t you just start to do your work?

(Note : You can’t replace these with  V +  だす ( = dasu). Becauseだす  ( = dasu)  is for spontaneous actions / movements and not for intentional actions.)

3) When you start doing some on-going activity as a process.

Ex.   4月から新しい学校に通い始める

= Shigatsu kara atarashii gakkou ni kayoi hajimeru.

= I will start to go to the new school in April.

Note: If you just describe a sudden action, you can use だす  ( = dasu)

➡️ Ex.   彼は急にジムに通いだした(or  通い始めた

= Kare wa kyuuni jimu ni kayoi dashita. (or kayoi hajimeta)

= He started to go to the gym out of the blue.

Ex. 彼といつから付き合い始めたの?

= Kare to itsu kara tsukiai hajimeta no?

= When did you start to go out with him?


🌸  V + だす ( = dasu):

1) When you suddenly / spontaneously begin doing something / when something suddenly happens.

Ex.   フラッシュモブで突然、周りの人達が踊りだした

= Furasshu mobu de totsuzen, mawari no hitotachi ga odori dashita.

= All of a sudden, people around me started to dance in a “flash mob”.

Ex.   彼が急に別れようと言いだしてきたの。どうしたらいい?

= Kare ga kyuuni wakareyou to iidashite kitano. Doushitara ii?

= My boyfriend suddenly said he wanted to break up. What should I do?

Ex.   いきなり火災警報器が鳴りだした

= Ikinari kasai keihouki ga naridashita.

= All of a sudden the fire alarm started beeping.

2) だす (  = dasu) is often used with emotional verbs

*泣きだす  ( = nakidasu) = burst into tears

*笑いだす  ( = waraidasu) = burst into laughter

*怒りだす  ( = okoridasu) = to flare up

*怒鳴りだす  ( = donaridasu) = to start to shout, to yell

*わめきだす  ( = wamekidasu) = to start to scream


Ex.   彼はそれが冗談だとわかると急に笑いだした

= Kare wa sorega joudan dato wakaru to kyuuni waraidashita.

= After he realized it was a joke, he burst into laughter.

Ex.   赤ちゃんは私の顔を見ると泣きだした

= Akachan wa watashi no kao wo miru to nakidashita.

= The baby burst into tears when she saw my face.

Ex.   私の弟は、一度怒りだすともう手のつけようがなくなる。

= Watashi no otouto wa ichido okori dasu to mou te no tsukeyou ga naku naru

= Once my younger brother loses his temper, he becomes uncontrollable.


3) It is also used for a sudden change of a natural phenomenon

Ex. ホテルを出たところで急に雨が降りだした

= Hoteru wo deta tokoro de kyuuni ame ga furidashita.

It started to rain when we left the hotel.

4) You often use it in a pattern

➡️ V + だしたらとまらない   ( = dashitara tomaranai) = once you do something, you can’t stop doing it.

Ex. あのセールスマンはしゃべりだしたとまらない。

= Ano seerusuman wa shaberi dashitara tomaranai.

= Once that sales person starts talking, he can’t stop talking.

Ex. このスナック菓子は美味しくて食べだしたらとまらない。

= Kono sunakku gashi wa oishikute tabedashitara tomaranai.

= This snack is so delicious that once I start eating it I can’t stop.



🌸 V + かける ( = kakeru)

The big difference between V + かける ( = kakeru) and 始める ( = hajimeru) & だす ( =  dasu) is,


You use V + かける ( = kakeru)  when you don’t finish what you have started and leave it undone.

Ex. 本を読みかけたらすぐに眠くなって寝てしまった。

= Hon wo yomikaketara suguni nemuku natte nete shimatta.

= As soon as I started to read a book, I felt sleepy and fell asleep.

Ex.  夕食を食べかけたところに、友達から電話がかかってきた。

= Yuushoku wo tabekaketa tokoro ni、 tomodachi kara denwa ga kakatte kita.

= When I started to eat dinner, I got a phone call from my friend.

Ex.   一度、川で溺れかけたことがある。

= Ichido kawa de obore kaketa koto ga aru.

= I once almost drowned in the river.

Ex.   彼女に手紙を書きかけたがどうやって気持ちを伝えたらいいかわからなくなった。

= Kanojo ni tegami wo kakikaketaga douyatte kimochi wo tsutaetara ii ka wakaranakunatta.

= I started to write a letter to her but I ended up not knowing how to express my feelings towards her.

Ex.   彼のことが好きだと言いかけてやめた。

= Kare no koto ga suki to iikakete yameta.

= I was about to tell him “I love you” but stopped in mid-sentence.

Note: There are certain cases that you use かける ( = kakeru)  when you begin doing something. In this case it doesn’t imply something is unfinished and left it undone.


Ex. だんだん、彼の気持ちがわかりかけてきた。

= Dandan kare no kimochi ga wakari kakete kita.

= I have gradually started to understand his feelings

adjective form: + かけの ( =  kakeno) + noun

Ex. 食べかけのりんご

= Tabekake no ringo

= a half-eaten apple

Ex. やりかけの仕事

= Yarikake no shigoto

= unfinished work

Ex. 書きかけの手紙

= kakikake no tegami

= unfinished letter

maggie-senseiマギー先生より = Maggie sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei


= Tipou sensei arigatou!

= Thank you, Tipou sensei!


私も作りかけのレッスンをいっぱい残して天国に来ましたが、こうやってまた素敵な仲間と一緒にレッスンを作ることができてうれしいです。 !JYANE! 

= Watashi mo tsukurikake no ressun wo ippai nokoshite tengoku ni kimashita ga,  kouyatte mata sutekina nakama to issho ni ressun wo tsukuru koto ga dekite ureshii desu.

= I came to heaven leaving many unfinished lessons, but I am happy because I get to make lessons again with wonderful friends like this.


❤️ Special note for French speakers :

Tipou’s sister has translated this lesson in French. Go check this Facebook page.


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  1. Facebook page for French lesson does not work. Please notify when possible that it is repaired, please?

    Thank you very much for this learning opportunity.

  2. Is there any case when you can use dict. Form + 始める?
    ie:… よむはじめる

    If so, any examples and meanings? Thanks!!

    1. Hi Marcos,

      You don’t say よむはじめる.
      The basic rule to make a compound verb is to use masu-stem for the first verb.

      1. First of all thank you for your reply!

        I know that basic rule. However is there any situation where could be used? For example…

        彼が歩いて始めた (he walked and started -something-)
        彼が歩き始めた (he started to walk).

        So is there any context where it could be possible?

        Thanks for you time!

        1. Hello Marcos,

          OK, if it is clear what he started, that first sentence worked.
          歩いて始めた is not natural but for example,


  3. What does ‘戻りかけている’ mean?

    1. @Matt
      There are a few expression such as 降り止む(ふりやむ)stop raining, 立ち止まる(たちどまる)to stop walking
      but you don’t say 遊び止める
      You just say V のをやめる。Ex. 遊ぶのをやめる

  4. Hi, Maggie.

    I want to ask how to use masu stem + no.

    I once heard it in an anime (七つの大罪):
    刃折れの剣 [haore no ken]

    It was translated as ‘a sword with a broken blade’

    Is it the same as ‘刃が折れた剣’?

    Is there a rule how to use ?

    I appriciate your answer

  5. If I know well 出す also means – with another verb – ‘to do out (of)’

    For instence: 引き出す – to pull out.

    Is it correct?

  6. (Ok let’s try it here…)

    Hello again!
    Maggie, I need your help to verify the difference between ~終わる and ~終える. Using a few Japanese web sites I’ve tried to figure out it by myself. I came to follow conclusions.
    1. there’s no difference in the meaning between this two patterns
    2. the nuance is

    ~終える implies that because of certain circumstances the speaker was (in a way) forced to finish a certain action. It can also imply, that the finishing of the action was connected with efforts or that the speaker had no other choice, but to finish his action faster then expected (then it normally would take).

    ~終わる implies that finishing of the action was a result of normal course of things, because with the passage of time every action reaches its final stage.

    すしを食べ終わった => implies that the speaker ate his sushi as a normal course of things. He was hungry, ate his sushi and now he’s full.
    すしを食べ終えた => implies that the speaker had to do some extra actions (it wasn’t just a normal course of things) to finish his sushi. It might imply he did some efforts (for example although he was full he forced himself to eat everything what was on his plate) or he was in hurry and had to finished eating faster then normal, because his bus leaves soon.


    1. @天人

      Hi, 天人さん
      One of your comment was in the pending file but all other comments worked.
      I deleted two of them. Will answer this question in Maggie’s room. :)
      I noticed you can not post a comment there sometime. If that happens, you can post a question anywhere.

  7. こんにちは、先生 !MUSIC!
    i always wonder about stem verbs that are combined such as 降り注ぐ、響きあう、塗りつぶす、食べ比べる、抱きしめる、消え去る、舞い落ちる、辿り着く、付け加える、切り替える、待ち焦げれる、繰り寄せる、飛び立つ、鳴り響く、振り向ける、失い進む。
    i mean how do you make them or how do you use them(their rules probably??)
    i hope you get what i mean lol. if it’s possible, please make a little lesson about it, maybe? thank you^^

    1. @yzr

      First, I have a lesson on ~合う.
      Other than 合う, there are not so many compound words. It will be easier for you to separate two parts and figure out the meaning.
      I will show you how.

      抱きしめる→抱く(to hold)/ 抱いて(hold and ) +締める(tighten ) →抱きしめる= to hold someone/something tightly.
      舞い落ちる→舞う(to dance) 舞って(dance and) +落ちる( fall) →舞い落ちる = something falls as if dancing.
      塗りつぶす→塗る(to paint) 塗って(paint and) +つぶす(mash)→ 塗りつぶす→paint out/black out
      Other words 押しつぶす=push and smash = smash/crush

  8. I wanna asking for you..!!
    May i know this book’s referention?? Bcause i’ll write my thesis about how to use V +始める and V+だす..thanks a lot before :)

    1. @Anita anggraini

      Hello Anita.
      What do you mean “this book”? All the lessons here on Maggie Sensei’s site are original. I made the whole thing. :)

  9. こんにちは先生!
    How are you? I hope you are fine and everything is ok. This lesson is very useful, I didn’t know how to use these verbs before. Now it’s getting easier.
    I have the following questions.

    1. 夕食を食べかけたところに、友達から電話がかかってきた/ ホテルを出たところで急に雨が降りだした。Can you please tell me what is “ところに and ところで” and how to use it?

    2. 地下鉄の中で急に一人の男性が歌いだした。 What is “一人の男”? is there any replacement for it?

    3. 文句ばかり言っていないで早く仕事をやり始めたらどうなの? What is “言っていないで” ? Please explain about this form. Why not “言わないで”?I’m confused.


    1. @kuroineko

      こんにちは、kuroineko! Thank you! I am good! How about you?

      1. 夕食を食べかけたところに・ホテルを出たところで They both mean “when”
      the difference between ところに and ところで is complicated and it is difficult to explain the whole difference here so I will just explain shortly.
      What we need to do is to focus on the particle に and で (When some action/movement (in this case 電話がかかる)is aiming toward certain time period (夕食を食べかけたところ)you use ところに
      When some event or actions take place (雨が降る), you use ところで)

      If you want to learn more about the difference between に and で、go check this lesson.

      2. 一人の男性=One man

      3. You can also say 言わないで (without complaining) but when you describe someone is constantly complaining, ~ている is better.
      言っている= have been saying/ to be saying →言っていないで = without being complaining

  10. Hi dear maggie-sensei!
    i tried to translate a song the other day but when i checked the translation online there were two quite different translations and I’m not sure I understand well which is the right one or how the grammar works.Please help!

    ドラマティックさに欠けてる 別れも良しとして バイバイ
    1)Our breakup, not as dramatic as expected, concluded with a nonchalant bye-bye.
    2)Even an undramatic break-up  Is fine  BYEBYE

    さよならの理由は 幾らもあるのに 咲いた傘の花の数だけ ついた溜息
    1)While there are many reasons for our parting, the number of the umbrellas represents the number of my sighs.
    2)The reasons for breaking up  Were so numerous Just like the number of umbrellas blooming like flowers  I heaved a sigh.
    (i can’t understand the part with the umbrellas and the sigh)

    黄昏 久留米駅から 傾れ込む人の波 波 寄せては帰らず 街 鼓動 前夜
    1)At dusk, I let myself dissolve into the waves of people from the Kurume Station.
    Not going home, I think about the previous night with a racy heart on the street.
    2)Evening  From Kurume Station  The crowd surged like A wave  A wave  That I lean into, away from home to  The town  Its pulse  The previous night
    (the syntax here is completely different,I’m so confused)

    最後に約束してた 中華に連れて行ってちょうだい 言いそびれた そうじゃない 染まった女の弱み
    1)You made a promise in the end, so please take her to Chinatown.
    You couldn’t bring yourself to say it, huh? Women’s weakness has rubbed off on you
    2)In the end we made a promise  I’ll have you take her out for Chinese food
    Which I missed the chance to say  No, that’s not it  This is the weakness of a stained woman.

    待ち合わせには決まって 遅れて到着の彼が なのに 先に待ってるの 最後まで冷たい人
    1)Although he’d always be late for our dates, I always wait there first and stay there until it’s become too cold to bear.
    2)He always arrives late  When we meet up But  He’s waiting there before me  Until the end, he’s a cold-hearted person

    処方箋代にくれた 煙草 消した後で効くの?
    1)Instead of my prescribed medicine, I want some tobacco. Will it sedate me?
    2)Cigarettes  Given in place of a prescription  Will they still be effective after they burn out?

    Sorry for making such a long comment :(

  11. まぎーせんせい、





  12. マギー先生、教えてくれてありがとう!このレッスンを習っていて面白かった。だから前に「V+だす」と「V+かける」の使い方がわからなかった。

    このemojiを見たらすぐに大好きだよ! boucingheart!

    1. @ocd


  13. Hi there Maggie sensei!
    Thanks for another great lesson! I stumbled upon this website a few months ago and I’m really glad you’ve gone over the uses ’言う’ and some of the ways of using ’かける’; you’ve helped may it much easier for me to understand them-they seem to be used everywhere!
    To be honest if there were 2 verbs I could get rid of in Japanese- it would still have to be them.haha!
    Though making them clearer has made me hate them a little less now :lol:

    Thanks again and I hope you keep making lessons!

    1. @Will

      Hello Will!
      Thank you for visiting this site.
      I really respect all of you who are trying to learn Japanese. You may hate some of the complicated grammar but I believe you will be able to use them without thinking.

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