How to use 〜ていく+〜てくる ( = ~teiku + ~tekuru)



= Ame ga futte kita noni sonnano kite iku no?

=“It has started to rain and  you’re going out like that?”

🐶 「いいの!お洒落していくの!」

= Iino! Oshare shite ikuno!)

“Leave me alone! I wanna go out dressed up!”



= Mou harete kita noni reinkouto kite kita no?

=  “How come you are wearing a raincoat? The weather has cleared up now.”

🐶 「悪い?」

= Warui?

“Is there any problem?”

Hi, everyone.
We have got a request from T-san.

“If possible, can you do a lesson about ~te iku and ~te kuru form? I have been having problems to understand when to use them or when to use one versus the other. “

OK, tough one, but I will try to make a lesson with lots of example sentences so that you’ll get the idea. 

がんばります! ( = ganbarimasu!) :P

As many of you already know, the verb 行く ( = iku) means to go somewhere and 来る ( = kuru) means to come from somewhere.


= Watashi wa ashita kyouto ni ikimasu.

I will go to Kyoto tomorrow.


= Kare wa maiasa hachiji ni kaisha ni ikimasu.

= He goes to the office at 8:00 every morning.


= Ashita tomodachi ga kimasu.

= My friend will come over tomorrow.


= Shuumatsu no paatii niwa juu nin no hito ga kuru yotei desu.

10 people are supposed to come to the party this weekend.

So far so good?
Now we see the form with other verbs!

<Basic grammar patterns >

Verb + ていく ( = teiku)

<Present forms>

Verb + ていく ( = teiku)

negative form:

Verb + ていかない ( = te ikanai)

“masu” form (more polite):

Verb ていきます ( = te ikimasu)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

Verb ていきません ( = te ikimasen)

<Past  forms>

Verb + ていった  ( = teitta)

negative form:

Verb + ていかなかった ( = te ikanakatta)

“masu” form (more polite):

Verb ていきました ( = te ikimashita)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

Verb ていきませんでした ( = te ikimasendeshita)


🔸 Verb +てくる ( = tekuru)

<Present forms>

Verb + てくる  ( = tekuru)

negative form:

Verb +てこない  ( = te konai)

“masu” form (more polite):

Verb +てきます   ( = te kimasu)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

Verb +てきません  ( = te kimasen)

<Past  forms>

Verb + てきた  ( = tekita)

negative form :

Verb + てこなかった  ( = te konakatta)

“masu” form (more polite):

Verb +てきました  ( = te kimashita)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

Verb +てきませんでした  ( = te kimasendeshita)

🔸 (examples)

<Present forms>

• 帰って行く ( = kaette iku) to go home

negative form :

帰って行かない ( = kaette ikanai)

“masu” form (more polite) :

帰って行きます ( = kaette ikimasu.)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

帰って行きません ( = kaette ikimasen.)

<Past  forms>

• 帰って行った ( = kaette itta) to have left, gone

negative form :

帰って行かなかった  ( = kaette ikanakatta)

“masu” form (more polite) :

帰って行きました  ( = kaette ikimashita.)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

帰って行きませんでした ( = kaette ikimasen deshita.)

<Present forms>

帰って来る ( = kaette kuru) to come home, return

negative form :

帰って来ない  ( = kaette konai)

“masu” form (more polite) :

帰って来ます  ( = kaette kimasu.)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

帰って来ません  ( = kaette kimasen.)

<Past  forms>

•帰って来た ( = kaette kita) to have come home, return

negative form:

帰って来なかった  ( = kaette konakatta)

“masu” form (more polite):

帰って来ました  ( = kaette kimashita.)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

帰って来ませんでした  ( = kaette kimasen deshita)

Example sentences :

Ex. 暗くなってきたので子供たちは、家に帰っていった

= Kuraku natte kita node kodomotachi wa ie ni kaette itta.

Since it was getting dark outside, the children went home.

(You see them going home/going away.)

Ex. 暗くなってきたので子供たちは、家に帰ってきた

= Kuraku natte kita node kodomotachi wa ie ni kaette kita.  

Since it was getting dark outside, the children returned home.

(You are at home and you see them coming home.)

:rrrr: <How to use Verb + ていく  ( = teiku) and  Verb +てくる  ( = tekuru)>

*Sometimes you don’t use kanji  ( 行く ( = iku)  来る ( =  kuru))   for iku and kuru and just use hiragana,  いく( = iku) くる ( = kuru)

1)Verb    +   てくる  ( = te kuru):  to do something and return

Verb   +  ていく ( = te iku) : to go to do something

• 連れていく ( = tsurete iku)  to take someone with you somewhere

• 連れてくる ( = tsurete kuru) to bring someone

Ex. 明日、マギーを連れていってもいいですか?

=Ashita Maggie wo tsurete itte mo iidesu ka?

=“Can I take Maggie with me (from here to somewhere) tomorrow?”

Ex. 明日、マギーを連れてくるんですか?

=Ashita Maggie wo tsurete kurun desu ka?

=“Are you going to bring Maggie (here) tomorrow?”

買う ( = kau) to buy買って  ( = katte) + いく( = iku) or くる ( = kuru)

買っていく  ( = katte iku) to buy something and go somewhere

買ってくる ( = katte kuru) to buy something and bring it to the place where the speaker is.


= Maggie, doggu fuudo ga nai kara katte kuru ne.

= Maggie, there is no dog food left so  I will go get some and come back (home).

(The speaker is with Maggie right now and leave the house to get dog food.)


= Maggie, doggu fuudo ga nai kara katte iku ne.

= Maggie, there is no dog food left so I will get it and come to your house.

(The speaker is not with Maggie right now and will bring her dog food.)

持つ  ( = motsu) to hold持って  ( = motte)+いく  ( = iku) or くる ( = kuru)

持っていく  ( = motte iku) to take

持ってくる  ( = motte kuru) to bring

OK, imagine this situation. You’re home, and are just about to leave to go to a party. You want to bring something like wine or chips to the party so you call and ask him what you should bring.

Ex. 何を持っていったらいい?

=Nani wo motte ittara ii?

=What should I take?

And your friend may say something like,

Ex. ワインを持ってきて

=Wain wo motte kite!

= Bring us a bottle of wine!

する ( = suru)  to doして  ( = shite) + いく  ( = iku) or くる ( = kuru)

宿題をしていく  ( = shukudai wo shiteiku) to do homework and go (to school)

宿題をしてくる  ( = shukudai wo shitekuru) to do homework and come (to school )

Ex. 息子は最近、宿題をしていきません

= Musuko wa saikin shukudai wo shiteikimasen.

= My son doesn’t do homework lately.

(=He doesn’t do homework and take it to school)

Ex. 最近、宿題をしてこない生徒が多いです。

= Saikin shukudai wo shite konai seito ga ooi desu.

= There are lots of students who don’t do homework at home and come to school recently.

(Many students come to school without doing homework.)

作る ( = tsukuru)  to make → 作って  ( = tsukutte) + いく  ( = iku) or くる ( = kuru)

• 作っていく  ( = tsukutte iku) to make something and go

作ってくる ( = tsukutte kuru) to make something and come

Ex. お弁当を作っていかなければいけません。

 = Obentou wo tsukutte ikanakereba ikemasen.)

= I have to prepare lunch and take it (to somewhere.)

Ex. お弁当を作ってきて下さい

= Obentou wo tsukutte kite kudasai.

= Please make lunch and bring it.

もらう ( = morau) →もらって  ( = moratte) いく  ( = iku) or くる ( = kuru)

もらっていく ( = moratte iku) to receive something and go somewhere

もらってくる ( = moratte kuru) to receive something and bring it here

Ex. これ美味しそうだからもらっていきます

= Kore oishisou dakara moratte ikimasu.

= This looks delicious so I will take it (home).

Ex. 母はいつも出かけると一杯ポケットティッシュをもらってくる。

= Haha wa itsumo dekakeru to ippai poketto tisshu wo moratte kuru.

 Whenever my mom goes out, she gets lots of pocket tissues and brings them back home.

2) Verb + ていく   ( = teiku) describe a motion going away from the place where the speaker is.

Verb  てくる   ( = tekuru) describe a motion coming towards the place where the speaker is.


= karasu ga tonde iku

= Crows are flying away. (going away)


= karasu ga tonde kuru

= Crows are flying towards. (coming towards)


=Maggie ga kyoushitsu kara deteiku.

Maggie is leaving (from) the classroom. (walking out of the classroom)


=Maggie ga kyoushitsu kara dete kuru.

= Maggie is coming out of the classroom. (coming towards the speaker)


Verb + ていく  ( = teiku) and てくる  ( = tekuru) / てきた  ( = tekita)  are sometimes related to the time flow from speaker’s point of view.

You have to focus on how  things have been changing or will change.

Verb + ていく  ( = teiku) From the time when speaker is thinking to the future. / habitual actions

⬇️(past tense)

Verb + ていった  ( = teitta) From the past until the time when speaker is thinking.

Verbてくる  ( = tekuru) From the time when speaker is thinking to the future. / habitual actions

⬇️ (past tense)

Verb + てきた  ( = tekita) From the past until the time when speaker is thinking.

Ex. 人気があがってくる

=Ninki ga agatte kuru.

They will become popular from now on.

(You are seeing their popularity subjectively.)

Ex. 彼らの人気があがってきた

= Karera no ninki ga agatte kita

They have been becoming popular until now, but we don’t know what will happen at this point. They may continue becoming more and more popular or they may stop being popular.


Ex. 人気があがっていく

= Ninki ga agatte iku

= They will become popular. (from now on )

(You are seeing their popularity objectively)

Ex. 人気があがっていった 

=Ninki ga agatte itta.

They became popular. / They have been popular.

• なっていく ( = natteiku)+なってくる ( = nattekuru) becoming to/start to/be getting

Ex. 暑くなってくる

= Atsuku natte kuru

= It will get hotter. (from now)

Ex. 暑くなってきた

= Atsuku natte kita.

It is getting hotter/ It has been getting hotter. / It has become hotter. (until now.)

Ex. 暑くなっていく

= Atsuku natte iku

= It will get hotter. (from now on )

Ex. 暑くなっていった

=Atsuku natte itta.

= It got hotter.

Note: You use 暑くなってくる  ( = atsuku nattekuru) / 暑くなってきた( = atsuku natttekita) when you are/have been feeling the heat.

暑くなっていく( = atsuku natte iku) / 暑くなっていった ( = atsuku natte itta) is used when you describe the change of the climate more objectively.

So when you describe something (physically or mentally) far away from you , you use ていく( = teiku)・ていった  ( = teitta)

Ex. 景気がよくなってきています

= Keiki ga yoku natte kite imasu.)

= The economy has been getting better. (until now)

Ex. 景気がよくなっていきます

= Keiki ga yoku natte ikimasu.)

= The economy will get better. (from now on )


Ex. 1) あの子はだんだん可愛くなってくるね。

= Anoko wa dandan kawaiku natte kurune.

= She has been getting cuter and cuter. (until now and maybe in the future as well)

Ex. 2) あの子はだんだん可愛くなってきたね。

= Anoko wa dandan kawaiku natte kitane.

= She has been getting cuter and cuter. (until now)

Ex. 3) あの子はだんだん可愛くなっていくね。

= Anoko wa dandan kawaiku natte ikune.

= She will be cuter and cuter. (from now on )

Note : Actually these three sentences may sound the same but the differences are

Ex.1 and Ex. 2) focusing on the past to present. /  when we see her subjectively and we are close to the girl.

(The difference between Ex.1 and Ex 2) Ex 1 is used when you want to emphasize the present time more. )

Ex.3 :  focusing on the present and future / when we see the girl objectively in a distance.


Ex. マギーが好きになってくる/きた

= Maggie ga suki ni natte kuru./kita.

= I’ve come to like Maggie. (until now)

Ex. マギーが好きになっていく

= Dandan Maggie ga sukini natte iku.

= I am getting to like Maggie. (from now on )


🔸てくる ( = tekuru): Something (motion, action, change)  is coming/moving toward where you are or your perspective.

:ii:ていく ( = teiku) : Something (motion, action, change)   is going away from where you are/ your perspective. (Or when you see something ( motion/change) moving in some direction objectively.


Note: There are some cases which you only use てくる ( = tekuru) forms.

• お腹がすいてくる/きた

=Onaka ga suite kuru/kita

= to be getting hungry


=Hara ga tatte kuru/kita

=to be getting angry


=Atama ga okashiku natte kuru/kita

= to be going crazy

*きた  ( = kita) is a past tense of くる ( = kuru) but you can use きた ( = kita) to describe what has been happening as well.

⭐️ I have made a listening lesson regarding the variation form of てくる  ( = shitekuru) +くれる ( = kureru). Go check it out!


🐶 From the first picture above :


= Ame ga futte kita noni sonnano kite iku no?

“It has started to rain and  you’re going out like that?”

• ~のに  ( = ~noni) even if, although

ていく ( = kite iku) to wear (something) and goes out


= Iino! Oshare shite ikuno!

“Leave me alone! I wanna go out dressed up!”

• いいの!

= Iino!

I said it’s OK!/That’s OK.  Leave me alone!  / What I’m doing is OK, so just let me do it!)

お洒落(オシャレ/おしゃれ)( = oshare) to be dressed up, fashionable,

Ex. 彼女はお洒落だ。  

= Kanojo wa oshare da

=  She is fashionable.

Ex. 彼女はお洒落をして出かけた。

 = Kanojo wa oshare wo shite dekaketa.

She went out dressed up.

:rrrr: From the second picture above:


=Mou harete kita noni reinkouto kite kita no?

“How come you are wearing a raincoat? The weather has cleared up now.”

晴れてきた ( = harete kita)  the weather has cleared up

てきた ( = kite kita) to have come here wearing (something)

「悪い?」 ( = Warui?) “Is there any problem?”

We use it when we talk back when someone criticizes you.

Also we say これのどこが悪いの? ( = Kore no doko ga warui no?) “What is wrong with this?”

:rrrr: The first picture : ていく  ( = ~teiku): going out wearing something

:rrrr: The second picture :てくる ( = ~tekuru): coming wearing something


maggie-senseiマギー先生より= Maggie sensei yori =  From Maggie-sensei


=”~teiku” to “=tekuru” no tsukai kata, sukoshidemo wakatte kimashitaka?)

= Have you begun to lean how to use “teiku” and “tekuru”?

よかったらコメント欄を使って文章を作ってみて! チェックします!

=Yokattara komento ran wo tsukatte bunshou wo tukutte mite! chekku shimasu.)

= Please feel free to make a sentence and post it in a comment so that I can check it for you.



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  1. Hi Maggie先生! Thank you for your explanation!

    In the dictionary when I look up 持っていく it means: “to take (something) along; to bring with one”

    And 持ってくる means: “to bring; to take (something) along”

    Why do they mean the same thing? Can you explain this please?

    Thank you!

    1. Hi Tiana
      I see your confusion.
      When you simply describe someone’s action to take or bring something, you use
      持っていく to take something with you
      持ってくる to bring something with you
      However, the English translation can change depending on the speaker’s point of view.

      For example, you are invited to a party and telling the host that you are going to get some wine and take it to the party.
      You say
      It actually means “I will take some with with me (and go to your party.)”
      But the most common English translation will be
      “I will bring some wine (with me). ”
      It is based on the listener’s (the host’s) point of view.

      It is similar to “come” and “go”
      If someone calls you, you say
      I am coming.
      to come is 来ます but the most natural Japanese translation will be 行きます

  2. And also. Just right now saw this phrase
    I was watching the video about grammar:)
    In videos like that there are a lot ていく

  3. Hi, Maggie, thank you!!
    I have one question.
    I sometimes see it in different videos. For example, a girl comes to the cafe, and orders food. She shows what she orders, for example, a cake. Then says about this cake “食べていきます”. What kind of idea of ていく is that?

    Also, i often hear something like 説明していきます、見ていきます in the situations like the above one.
    what does it mean?

    1. Hello July

      食べていきます = I will eat (and leave the restaurant)
      It implies the speaker goes somewhere after they eat.
      So you can’t use this expression when you eat at home.

      In this case, it doesn’t imply any movement.
      You use ていきます when you express the process of explaining/seeing something.
      If you just say 説明します/見ます, it could be just one time action.
      By using Vていきます, you can express what you are going to do (for a certain period of time).

  4. Hello Maggie-sensei 😊
    I have a little question. I reviewed this grammar point with the book “新完全マスター文法 日本語能力試験N3”. The book talks about another function of -ていく and -てくる but I don’t quite understand it because there is only two examples. The function is “A movement or shift occurring after an action” and the examples are “出かけるとき、天気予報を見てきました” and “荷物はここに預けていこう”. My question is fuzzy, but I don’t really understand the difference with the function of doing something and coming back, and doing an action without coming back. If you can enlighten me. お願いします🤗

    1. Hi Aurore

      You connect two actions with te-form.
      You do A and then do B.
      If the verb B is 行く or 来る,
      you do something (A) and you go somewhere or you come somewhere.
      (You can rephrase them with から)

      1) 出かけるとき、天気予報を見てきました (←天気予報を見てからきました)
      I checked the weather report (action A) when I left the house and came here*(acton B)
      (*wherever the speaker is now.)

      2) 荷物はここに預けていこう (←荷物をここに預けてからいこう)

      I will leave your bag (action A) here and go somewhere (action B).

      So these two examples happened to have verbs, 行く/来る but you can use other verbs.

      I had lunch and went out →昼ごはんを食べて出かけた。(←昼ごはんを食べてから出かけた)
      We talked about it and then decided. →よく話し合って決めた。(←よく話し合ってから決めた)

      1. Hello Maggie-sensei,

        Thank you very much for your quick response 😊. It’s clear to me now, I didn’t realize that in this case -て was only used to connect 2 actions. Thanks for the explanation and additional examples 😁.

        Have a nice week end

  5. ~てく==ていく?

  6. こんにちは、マギー先生

    A simple question:
    Is て行く pronouced ていく or てゆく?

    Ps: When I listen to japanese songs, I always hear something like てゆく

    Sorry for my bad english

    1. こんにちは Moises

      Good question.
      いく is more common and conversational
      ゆく was used in old days. You still use it mainly in written form as a poetic or literal expressions so that you hear that in lyrics.

  7. Hello Maggie Sensei,
    I had a question about the above statement, does it mean the pet loves its owner, or does it mean the owner loves its pet?

      1. Thank you Maggie Sensei,
        Does the above mean that as the kids get bigger, they will rebel against their parents and what does this part mean exactly:親が思うように育たないこともある。

        1. Hi Mark
          Does the above mean that as the kids get bigger, they will rebel against their parents?
          →Yes, you are right.
          〜こともある sometimes ~
          Sometime they don’t grow as the parents expect.

  8. こんにちわマギー先生、お忙しいところすみません、
    「顔が赤くなってきた」 と 「顔が赤くなっていった」と比べたら、何か違いがあるんですか。

    1. こんにちは、Giorgiana

      A——face is turning red —- now

      Something happened (A) and one’s face is turning red gradually
      You are looking at the change/or feeling the change up to the current moment.
      While the point of view is “now” for なってきた
      「顔が赤くなっていった」 describes the change looking back the past.

  9. Hello Maggie!

    How you doing?

    In my studies I’ve came across this sentence: 日本へ行けるかどうかによって、来年の計画が全く変わってきます。

    I didn’t quite get the nuance in this sentence related to 変わってくる. Could you explain it to me, please?

    Thanki you! :)

    1. Hi Victor,

      The plans will change
      変わってくる is used to describe the gradual change or the change that affects you. If you just say 変わる it doesn’t involve the speaker and just state the fact that the plans will change.

  10. Hello Maggie! You’re the best!

    I went through the whole lesson again, but I’m still confused about how some verbs (especially those related to weather conditions) when attached to てくる mean that the change will begin in the present and continue to the future.

    For example:

    1) 雨が降てくる = It will rain.

    2) 暑くなってくる = It will get hotter.

    Normally てくる implies that the change already started in the past, will pass through me and continue to the future. But the ideia changes with those verbs.

    Especially when I replace the examples with their いく versions.

    3) 雨が降っていく

    4) 暑くなっていく

    Besides, I’m having trouble on how to identify if a verb implies a change from the past with てきた or if I’m talking about a change that will start in the present.

    雨が降ってきた =It started to rain (I just noticed)

    I mean, Why could it not be “The rain has been falling for a while, reached me and continues”?

    As in 雨が強くなってきた = The rain was getting stronger (Change started in the past).

    1. Hi Victor
      Since I already wrote the difference between 暑くなってくる 暑くなっていく, I won’t explain here.
      The difference is 雨が降ってくる is instantaneous change*. (The change starts now)
      暑くなる is continuous change. (the change starts in the past) So the translation will change.
      It started to rain 雨が降ってきた (It was not raining before but all of a sudden, it started to rain)
      It is getting hotter. 暑くなってきた (The temperature changes gradually and it doesn’t change from 0℃ to 40℃)

      * But of course, it goes through some process before it rains. When water droplets grow and get too heavy, they fall and the people start to feel the rain. If it is easier for you to think that way.

      雨が強くなってきた。 The rain is getting stronger. The premise is it has been already raining because it says 強くなってきた ( Getting stronger)

      As for いく, you don’t say

      3) 雨が降っていく

      I guess it because the rain falls from the sky to the ground (towards people) and it doesn’t pass by the ground/people.)

    2. Hi! I’m confused about ていった and てきた.
      Someone told me 雨が降っていった is incorrect, but I don’t understand why. Could you possibly explain? Thank you

      1. I just wrote in my previous comment.
        →You don’t say 雨が降っていく I guess it because the rain falls from the sky to the ground (towards people) and it doesn’t pass by the ground/people.)
        ていく is used when some movement goes away from you.
        Meanwhile the rain falls vertically and once it hits the ground/you, it can’t move away. That’s why you don’t say 降っていく

  11. Hello

    I am struggling so much with the 宿題をしていきません sentence. I don’t understand how it can mean ”to go” when 行きません means don’t/won’t go?

    1. Hi Emma P,

      宿題をしません means ~ doesn’t do one’s homework
      学校へ行きません means ~ doesn’t go to the school.

      宿題をして(学校へ) いきません。 
      You don’t go to the school in the state of having finished your homework.
      You go to the school without doing your homework. (= 宿題をしないで学校に行く)

      Another example
      朝ごはんを食べて学校に行く = to go to the school after having breakfast.
      朝ごはんを食べないで学校に行く = to go to the school without having breakfast.
      You can rephrase it,
      →朝ごはんを食べて学校に行かない = no to go to the school in the state of having breakfast = go to school without having breakfast.

  12. Hello Maggie!

    What about the ていく and ていく in the ている past forma (ていっていた and てきていた). I’m having trouble to understand how they are used!

    Thanks a lot!

  13. Hi Maggie,

    Hope you are well :)

    I came across this in my new book today: 続けていけば

    I understand that it means “if I/we/you continue”, but I wondered how 続けていけば is different to 続けば?

    I’m sure there’s a subtle difference but I can’t work it out :D

    Many thanks as always,

    1. Ah…I just re-read a question of mine from a while ago regarding the difference between 断って来た and 断った and you mentioned that there can be an emotional element in this usage of て来た.

      I wonder if maybe that’s the answer to this one too? :D

    2. Hello Peter,
      First 続けば is intransitive verb, If something continues, and 続ければ is transitive verb, if I/we/you continue or keep doing something” so I think you meant 続ければ

      続けていけば and 続ければ
      →続ける and 続けていく

      断って来た involves one’s emotion element but in this case but not in this case.
      They mean the same but the subtle nuance difference is 続けていく is used when you continue what you have been doing/you are going to do constantly in future/keep doing for a long time.

      1. Many thanks, and yes you are correct! I meant 続ければ :D

        So, 続ければ would mean “if I/we/you continue”, but perhaps for something over a shorter time?

        続ければ: “If I carry on eating the rest of this meal then I’ll get too full”.
        続けていけば: “If I continue studying Japanese then maybe one day I’ll be good at it”.

        Is that kind of the difference?

        1. You are right.

          このまま食べ続ければお腹がいっぱいになる (You use 食べ続けていけば if there are so many things to eat and it will take a long time or このまま甘いものを食べ続けていけば糖尿病になる。 If I constantly keep eating sweet, I will get diabetes in future.

  14. Hi Maggie-sensei!

    Thanks for such a detailed post.

    I have a question.

    You mention that “Verb + てくる ( = tekuru) From the time when speaker is thinking to the future. / habitual actions”

    However, when I refer to this website,

    the graphic shows tekuru as past to present… so I am confused which is which.

    So sorry for the comment on New Year’s Eve!

    1. Hi Spencer,

      It depends.
      For example,
      If you say
      You are talking about future from now. Maybe the change has started but you are thinking about future.

      But if you say
      The change has started in past and it affects the present.

      1. Thank you!
        Let me digest the entry one more time.
        Patreon member になりました!
        Thank you for all the lessons!!

  15. Hi sensei. Wonderful and detailed explanation. May I know why does the furi in “ame ga furi hajimete” not conjugated? We can just remove -masu from furimasu and apply to this sentence? And do you cover any topic with combination of two action verbs apart from -te iku/kuru? for eg. mitts yukkuri shimasu, yonde yarimasu, oshiete moraimasu. Thank you in advance!!

    1. Hello mimibae,

      When you combine two verbs,
      Ex. furu + hajimeru
      You change the first verb to masu-form
      And then delete “masu”
      This is called “masu-stem”

      So verb masu-stem + hajimeru

      You just conjugate the second verb, hajimeru

      Other examples

      1) kaku = to write + 2) kaeru = to change / to do something again
      Change the first verb kaku to masu-stem “kaki” and add the second verb “kaeru”

      kakikaeru = to rewrite
      the past tense will be kaikkaeta
      te form will be kaikaete

      yukkuri is an adverb so you don’t have to change it but again when you conjugate you change the second verb “suru” or “yaru”
      →(past tense) “shita” →yukkuri shita
      →(te-form) “shite”→ yukkuri shite ~

      yondeyaru/oshiete morau / oshiete ageru

      You use the first verb into te-form and attach the second verb.
      You just conjugate the second verb, yaru/morau/ageru

      (past tense) yonde yatta/oshiete moratta / oshiete ageta
      (te-form) yonde yatte / oshiete moratet / oshiete agete

  16. Maggie-Sensei,
    sorry in advanced for not knowing how to type Japanese on my laptop

    What’s the difference between
    ame ga futte kita noni
    ame ga furi hajimeta noni

    1. Hi Lewis,

      1) 雨が降ってきた= ame ga futte kita
      2) 雨が降り始めた = ame ga furihajimeta
      They mean the same, “it started raining/it started to rain” but the nuance difference is

      1) It could be more subjective and conversational than 2).
      The speaker is outside and see/feel the rain started to fall.
      Also you are focusing on the moment when it started to rain.

      2) could be more objective.
      So for example, in the news or weather report, you use 降り始めた
      Ex. 昨夜から降り始めた雨は~
      Also while 1) is focusing on the moment when it started to rain, you use 降り始めた to describe the duration of rain.
      It could be still raining now.

  17. Hello Maggie-sensei!

    I simply love your work, I spent the entire summer using your website as my no.1 go-to 教科書。You are one of the best teachers I’ve ever had, and you don’t even know me xD

    I was watching a video and came across the phrases “あそんでいきたい” and “あそんでいきましょう”. It was a gaming video, a first-person Disneyland simulator, if it helps. The phrase was said before the gamer entered the first ride.

    So, I’m sensing this has something to do with the grammar rule described above. My first thought was that in these phrases, あそんで and あそびに would be interchangeable but it doesn’t completely make sense to me… They have to be different, right?

    I understand “あそびに” as a description of いく. Like, the whole purpose of いく is あそびに, and there is equal importance placed on both parts.
    Whereas, あそんでいく simply highlights the direction of あそぶ、you have to いく if you want to あそぶ. So because you あそびたい、 you いく since the place where you あそぶ is far from you. You あそんでいく。

    If you were already IN Disneyland and had just finished, would you say something like “またあそんできたい”?

    Does this make sense?

    Thank you so much in advance <3

    1. Hello, Yukisia
      First of all, I am very happy to hear you spend the entire summer studying my lessons.
      Good question.
      遊びにいく and 遊んでいく are different.

      Ex. Disney Landに遊びにいく。
      = To go to Disneyland (for fun)

      Ex. Disney Landで遊んでいく。
      = to hang out at Disneyland

      Vて・でいく implies “to spend time doing something at some place”
      If you are already in Disneyland, you say
      また遊びに来たい (not あそんできたい)

      Another example

      Let’s go out to eat.
      (You are going to move to one place and eat)

      Let’s eat something somewhere.
      (You want to spend some time having dinner/lunch)

      Hope it helps. :)

  18. Hello Maggie!

    I’m having a little trouble with the last set of examples you provided. (The “From the time when speaker is thinking to the future. / habitual actions” examples.) Is it right to assume that ていく/ていた here conveys a more factual point of view and that てくる/てきた is more to express the opinions/feelings of the speaker? Thanks in advance!

    P.S. I just wanted to say how much your website has helped me with learning Japanese. Without you I would have had WAY more trouble with learning Japanese! I really like the way you explain things and of course the cute pictures at the start of every lesson! <3

    1. Hello Bobba,

      Thank you for your nice message! I’m grateful to hear my lessons help you learn Japanese.

      Q: Is it right to assume that ていく/ていった here conveys a more factual point of view and that てくる/てきた is more to express the opinions/feelings of the speaker?

      →They both could be based on factual point of view or one’s feelings/opinions.

      They both express your feelings but the way you see the flow of your feelings is different and 好きになっていく・いった is not necessary conveying a more factual point of view.

      They are both based on what you see.

  19. Hello,

    I’ve been coming and going about a year now here in your website which is very helpful by the way. I just have a question with regards to this lesson. What would be the difference between:


    Both would mean that they don’t eat breakfast right, but is there a difference in nuance?

  20. How to intepret this sentence ?

    This sentence was to a girl who was remembering something. Also when u state that when a change is moving towards a speaker, you use てきた, how is お腹がすいてくる coming towards your perspective?

    1. I don’t know the context but 覚えてきた is to learn/memorize something and (physically) comes back to the place..
      For example, imagine you didn’t know how to read hiragana and your teacher said try to learn how to read them and come back the class.
      You studied hard at home and learned how to read them and go back to the class. Then you say ひらがなを覚えてきました。

      1. Thank You for the reply, also can i ask whats the 腹が立ってくる have to do with coming to the perspective of the speaker ? Also, what about 遊びに来た and 遊んできた. いつもありがとうございます

        1. 腹が立ってくる the emotion is happening (in yourself) You are talking about your emtoion.
          遊びに来た Someone comes to your house to hang out or play with you.
          遊んで来た You went out to hang out with someone/play with someone and came back home.

  21. I’m gonna try to make my own sentences with translation here

    1. 彼は店に行っていく
    He is going to the store (and will go somewhere else to do something)

    2. 彼は店に行ってくる
    He is going to the store (and will definitely come back home )

    Are these correct?

    1. Hello KP
      2. 店に行ってくる is correct.
      As for 1) It is tricky because the verb is 行く
      If you want to use ていく, combine with other verb 出かけていく

  22. Hi Maggie, I’m very sorry to trouble you.

    I’m reading a sentence here but I can’t work out the meaning of ~て来た:


    I think I understand that 断って来た means “rejected” and 断って来たの means “a rejection”, and I understand that basically ~て来た means “to do ~ and come”.

    But what I don’t understand is what’s the difference between 断って来た and 断った here? Are they the same or is there a difference that I can’t quite see?

    Also, is there ever any difference in meaning between ~てきた and ~て来た?
    (in my book it’s written て来た here, but ~てきた is used elsewhere)

    Many thanks!

    1. Hi Peter,

      Ah, good. I didn’t cover that usage here.
      When someone’s behavior or what they said affects your emotion, (could be negative or positive) you can express your feelings of surprise, annoyance, anger or joy with てきた

      断った doesn’t involve any emotion.
      断ってきた implies rejection triggered one’s emotion, such as anger (How dare you to turn me down), surprise (I didn’t expect this.)

      I will show you another example.

      彼がそんなことを言った。 He said such a thing. (Just stating what happened.)
      彼がそんなことを言ってきた。 expressing the speaker’s surprised feelings (or joy, anger depending on the context.)

      As for the kanji question, you see both kanji and hiragana but I would say hiragana is more common.

      1. Hi Maggie,

        I am also confused when I see the phrase 言ってきた.
        Am I right to say that it means said to me, just like メールを送ってきた (mail sent to me)?
        Other times I see people explain it as ‘has been saying for some time till now’. But based on the context/scenario, it does not feel right.

        1. Hi Chang

          It depends on the context but it is often used when some action is one way and the recipient of the action (the speaker) is annoyed, confused or frustrated.

          1. Hi Maggi-sensei,

            I was just thinking, is it wrong to interpret the two examples as follow?

            Ex. 息子は最近、宿題をしていきません。
            He does homework and not take it to school.

            Ex. 最近、宿題をしてこない生徒が多いです。
            Many students do homework and not come to school.

          2. Hi Chang,
            Ex. 息子は最近、宿題をしていきません 
            can’t be interpret “He does homework and not take it to school.”
            If you want to say that, you say 息子は宿題をしても学校に持っていきません。

            Ex. 最近、宿題をしてこない生徒が多いです。
            can’t be interpreted as “Many students do homework and not come to school.”

            宿題をしてこない生徒 means the students who come to school without doing their homework.

          3. HI Maggie-sensei, thank you for your reply. There is no REPLY button next to your thread so I have to reply here.

            I have another question. I always see phrase like this 〜を紹介していきます especially in Youtube where the uploader does an unboxing video for example. I googled to find which usage of ていく it falls under and found this website

            Based on the explanation, it says that it can be used to mean
            1) これから新たに〜する予定だ
            2) これからも継続して〜する予定だ
            I supposed 〜を紹介していきます falls under explanation 1) これから新たに〜する予定だ but the writer also mentions 「将来的にある動作を継続して行う」という意味が根本になります。.

            I felt strange because doing an introduction only lasts for the duration of the video and is not something that will be done continuously into the future. Unless 「将来的にある動作を継続して行う」という意味が根本になります。 applies to explanation 2) これからも継続して〜する予定だ only?

          4. OK, it depends on the context but
            紹介していきます can be 将来的にある動作を継続して行う I will keep introducing you something (in future)

            But as in your example sentence, you can use it when you keep doing something even in a short period of time.
            I’ll introduce something “one by one” /”one after another”

            ここにあるものどんどん食べていきます。 = I am going to all the food here one by one.

    2. Hello, Maggie. I’m wondering why あの子が可愛くなってくる isn’t translated as “she will get cuter”. But 暑くなってくる is translated as “it will get hotter”. What’s the difference? Or is it a typo?

      1. Good question.

        You can also say 可愛くなってきている for “getting cuter”, but you can say 可愛くなってくるね when you describe the change as if it is happening right now
        But you don’t say 暑くなってくる for the current change. You say 暑くなってきた/きました。

  23. I encountered this sentence: “そのことに対する人々の関心が高まってきている。”
    And I don’t understand why there is “Kite Iru” at the end. Can you help please, Maggie Sensei?

    1. 関心が高まってきている people are getting more interested in that matter.
      It expresses the change.
      Before “no interest” →(is changing) →people are having more and more interest.
      The change is coming towards you.Therefore you use kite iru.

  24. hello,
    Thanks for all your great explanations :)
    I have a question though,
    I came across this sentence, I know the meaning, but I struggle a bit to understand how it articulates altogether.

    Can you check if I’m correct and maybe give some explanations if I miss the point ^^’


    so first there’s
    楽しみたくなる which I translate(may be wrong) by “I get the urge to enjoy”

    then they add てきた
    which I guess would mean “I have been getting more and more the urge to enjoy(this place’s lifestyle) until now.”

    Am I correct?

    thank you very much :)

  25. Maggie sensei, いつもありがとう!

    I have a slight question regarding the first meaning of 「V + ていく」 (to go to do something) and 「V + てくる」(to do something and return).

    In JLPT N5 grammar there is also form of 「V (masu stem) + に行く」(to go to do something) and 「V (masu stem) + に来る」(to come to do something)

    e.g.: コンビニで買い物をしに行きます (I will go to buy things at convenience store).

    Is it true to say that if the sentence is altered to be:

    コンビニで買い物をして行きます 。

    The meaning would be “I will buy things at convenience store and then go”?

    If not (hence ~ていく and ~に行く have the same meaning), how to differentiate between both and which to use to say “to go to do something” ?

    Thank you very much Maggie sensei!

    1. Hello ユフィ、

      to go to the convenience store for shopping.
      (focusing on going to the convenience to buy something)

      I will do some shopping at the convenience store and then go (somewhere)
      You spend some time at the convenience store and then leave there.
      (focusing on doing shopping)

  26. Hello Maggie sensei,
    I was wondering, doesn’t 帰る already means go home ?
    Why use 帰ってくる then ?

    1. Hi ピエル
      OK, for example,
      He is going home. (going back to his house)

      You are just describe he is leaving where he is and going to his house.

      He is coming home./He is returning home.
      (The speaker is home. We can assume the speaker is his family.)

  27. Hello Maggie Sensei.
    I had a question regarding these two tenses of くる

    She has been getting cuter and cuter. (until now and maybe in future as well)
    The economy has been getting better. (until now)
    For some reason I thought きています would indicate (it has been but also in the future)and くるwould be until now… And if it is until now would you not just say
    I guess I am just confused on when you would use てきています vs てくる.
    Thank you in advance.

    1. Hi
      It could be talking about future but it is just focusing on the current state. The point of view is “now” and the describing the change up to now.

  28. 先生、授業をありがとうございます。
    I came across a sentence that goes like “あたたかくしていきましょう” and I guess this means “let’s keep warm” but how is it different from “あたたかくしましょ”?
    and can this be used for any kind of sentence for example “頑張って行きましょう” instead of “頑張りましょう”?

    Thanks in advance.

    1. Hi Maintoos,

      There are two interpretation of that kind of あたたかくして行く
      1) to go somewhere keeping warm (Put some warm clothes and go out somewhere)
      2) to spend the time keeping warm (So you are not actually going anywhere) *the same as がんばっていきましょう

      I believe it is the same thing in English.
      Let’s get going doing our best/keeping warm.

  29. I found this word in a song “誰かが描いていったかべの落書きの花”
    Does 描いていった mean “have been drawn ?” or long drawn ago.
    If it is what’s the difference between ていった and てきた。
    I’m sorry for I being hard to understand.
    I’ve read your article many times though.
    Thanks a lot

  30. Hi Maggie sensei,

    First, thanks for this great site you have made to us.

    Second, could you help me for this issue. I could not solve it though I have search this grammar point in many sites, but I am not sure the answer.

    My issue is I want to combine 2 sentences with なってきた。
    (1) 日本人に親しくなってきた。

    Could you help me which way is correct to combine them (or both are wrong)

    Way 1

    Way 2

    1. Hi Frozenheart. Oh wait, I hope your heart is not frozen. 😉

      Let me correct your sentences first.
      (1) 日本人に親しくなってきた。


      To combine (1) and (2) you either use て form or masu-stem

      A: 日本人と親しくなってきて、日本の文化の美しさがわかってきた。
      B: 日本人と親しくなり、日本の文化の美しさがわかってきた。

      1. Maggie sensei,

        My heart will be melted by your warmth =))

        Thanks for your prompt answer.
        It solves my issue now.
        Feel fresh now !

        Thanks you

  31. Hi Maggie Sensei! Been following you for a long time, keep up the good work!

    I have a question, maybe you can help me.

    I read the following sentence in a manga:

    Could please confirm whether the verb 走っていった is a contraction of 走っていった? If not, what’s the grammar explanation of it?

    Such a beautiful but at the same time complicated language!



    1. こんにちは、ギレルモ!
      You are right. 走ってった is a casual contraction of 走っていった
      You often drop い in casual speech/writing.
      (The person) ran towards the building (and disappeared from the speaker/writer’s view.)

      If you want to learn more of this, I have a lesson here. → Click here

  32. Hello Maggie Sensei! i have a question :)




    (From now on, i will eat many snacks)

    Are those 3 sentences have the same meaning?

    I am sorry if this is a silly question, i just want to make sure :)

    1. Hi Rarow

      From now on, i will eat many snacks
      This sentence express the speaker’s will/ The speaker decides to eat lots of snacks from now on. Is that right?
      If so,I would just say
      or 食べる (Your sentence No.3) works as well.

      Sounds like you are going somewhere but you are going to have lots of snacks NOW and head to that place.
      The same as 1. but it doesn’t specify when you are going to eat lots of snacks.
      It could be tomorrow or next week.
      For example, you are going somewhere where you can’t get any food. You might be hungry so you are saying (When I go there) I will eat a lots of snacks before I go there.

      1. Maggie, but how about the context of: ~ていく = > 動作が継続していること or 変化していること (not 方向性)? I think, that’s what Rarow meant.

        1. @天人
          Hi again, :)
          Right. You do use ~ていく in the context of 動作が継続していること or 変化していること (not 方向性) but
          The Rarow’s example 軽食をたくさん食べていく。 doesn’t sound like either one.

          Maybe the combination of the word 軽食 and 食べる

          All these いく sound like 行く(方向性) to native ears.

          But let’s say you are having 焼肉 and say

          I am going to eat just expensive meat now. Then you can say
          (decision/what you are going to do now)

  33. It reminds me so muchof one usage of “come” in English… e.g. “I’ve come to realize that…”, “I’m glad I’ve come to know you…”

  34. Maggie sensei🤚, Since we use iku and kuru when actions are happening towards us or away from us, what if I am the action doer, and am doing the action towards someone else? For example if my mother had asked me when ill be back home, and i want to say “Ill return within an hour” will the Kaeru action be used with kuru Because it is happening towards my mother?
    Sorry for any trouble.

  35. Maggie-sensei! Shouldn’t くる be and いく be switched in this part of your post?

    Ex.マギー、ドッグフードがないから買って :i: くる :i: ね。
    =Maggie, doggu fuudo ga nai kara katte kuru ne.
    = Maggie, there is no dog food left so I will go get some and come back (home).
    (The speaker is with Maggie right now and leave the house to get dog food.)

    Ex.マギー、ドッグフードがないから買って :i: いく :i: ね。
    =Maggie, doggu fuudo ga nai kara katte iku ne.
    = Maggie, there is no dog food left so I will get it and come to your house.
    (The speaker is not with Maggie right now and will bring her dog food.)

    1. @Michelle

      Hi Michelle,

      OK, here is the situation.
      買ってくる = Maggie and the speaker(X) are togehter. →X will go get dog food and comes back to Maggie with dog food.
      Vてくる= the speaker or a doer will come back where they originally are.
      買っていく = Maggie and the speaker (X) are in difference places. →X will go get dog food and goes to where Maggie is.
      Vていく= the speaker or a doer will move from one place to the other place.

      1. あ、なるほど!
        I was a bit confused but after you explained it like that, it made more sense!

    2. You are amazing. Thank u so much for these lessons. Ur saving me at 2am here in Japan and have a test today.

  36. “You want to bring something like wine or chips to the part” :rrrr: “party”
    “Kore oishisou dakara moratta ikimasu.” :rrrr: “moratte”
    “お弁当を作ってきて下さい。(=Ensoku ni obentou wo tukutte kite kudasai.)
    Please make lunch and bring it.” :rrrr: “Ensoku ni” is missing or to much
    “Maggie ga kyoushitu kara deteiku” :rrrr: “kyoushitsu”
    “Maggie ga kyoushitu kara dete kuru” :rrrr: “kyoushitsu”
    “Whenever my mom goes out, she gets lots of pocket tissues and bring them back home.” :rrrr: “brings” (and where is the lesson about pocket tissues, I can’t find it :cryingboy: )
    “Ex. 暑くなってくる (=atsuku natte kuru)
    It will get hotter.(until now)” :rrrr: it should be “from now on”, right?

    This lesson is reeeeeeeeeeeealy difficult, I read all the comments and still don’t get it. I’ve got two big problems:
    1. So te-kuru/iki can mean basically three things: 1. movement of the subject 2. movement of the object in relation to the subject 3. movement of time in realtion to the subject. But how do you know which one is meant, if the verb isn’t a motion verb? You gave the example:
    • 宿題をしていく(=shukudai wo shiteiku) to do homework and go (to school)
    • 宿題をしてくる(=shukudai wo shitekuru) to do homework and come (to school )
    but couln’t it also mean: to do homework in the future? Especially if you don’t write いく or くる in kanji?

    And what about: お茶をのんでいってください。 Does this describe the movement of the objekt (Please drink tea!) or the subject (Please drink tea and go!). And then お茶をのんできました。 Does it mean “I drank tea.” or “I drank tea and than came here” or “I have started/getting used to drink tea.”

    2. Concerning the time meaning, you say that te-kuru could mean both past or/and future. But how do you know what is meant? だんだん切望してくる! So will I get desperate or did I already get desperate? Also, if you add the continous form, does that change the meaning? Then there are eight formes and I don’t know which means what. So what would be the differences between:
    彼女は可愛くなって~ /暑くなって~
    ~ kuru
    ~ kite iru
    ~ kita
    ~ kite ita
    ~ iku
    ~ itte iru
    ~ itta
    ~ itte ita

    気が触れてしまってくる。 :l:

    1. @Zetsuboumanadeshi

      Thank you so much for helping me fix the typos.

      “Whenever my mom goes out, she gets lots of pocket tissues and bring them back home.” “brings”

      Actually I translated “get” and “bring back” so I will leave the way it is.

      And here is the link for the lesson.

      Listening and Reading practice 花粉症+ポケットティッシュ



      • 宿題をしていく ( = shukudai wo shiteiku) to do homework and go (to school)

      • 宿題をしてくる ( = shukudai wo shitekuru) to do homework and come (to school )

      As for the tense, you use 宿題をしていく/ 宿題をしてくる to describe one’s habitual actions or future.

      And what about: お茶をのんでいってください。
      When you say this line to someone, you want them to stop by your house and have some tea before they go somewhere.
      お茶をのんできました。I already had tea and came here.

      First you don’t say 切望してくる.

      How about
      I am getting desperate. / I have become desperate

      For the rest of the questions, I think I already explained the differences in the lesson. But I will add more explanation when I have more time.

  37. İt’s so simple lesson. I haven’t read text through. Arigatou Gozaimasu Sensei. (Çok Teşekkür Ederim Sensei.)

  38. Hello, Maggie-sensei!

    Thanks a lot for such a detailed lesson! It’s really helpful!

    But I have a question. Lately, I’ve stumbled upon a phrase, that was like that:


    Could it mean ‘From left (to right) the least expensive Item to the most expensive one’? In other words, could なっていく be used in such a fashion or I’m just making a wrong assumption here?

    1. @TWarrior

      Hello TWarrior!!
      It gets more expensive from the left.
      (So Item 1 is the cheapest and Item 4 is the most expensive one.)
      It is the same pattern as
      (だんだん)〜っていく = It (gradually) gets/grows ~~

  39. thank you much dear maggie sensei and 天人さん. i am really grateful to the two of you. thank you for spending your time, clearing up my confusions. it really means a lot to me. n_n. have a nice day

  40. hi everyone and to dear maggie sensei. thank you so much dear maggie sensei. you really are a sensei. oh by the way, i would like to seek help for some clarifications (if you have sometime). based on the examples given, the usage of tekuru/teiku is divided by 3 categories. (please correct me if i am wrong). for:

    a) there is always an object/person to go/come with after a certain verb has been completed.
    b) there is a motion verb from one place to another by the subject(without object to go or come with) before tekuru/teiku.
    c) both object/person to come/go with and motion are absent.

    does that mean,verbs like taberu,kiku-to listen, wakaru, miru, miseru, au and other verbs with au (tsukiau, dakishimeau, wakariau, and etc) will automatically fall for category #3 or is it case-to-case basis?

    thank you so much in advance dear maggie sensei and everyone…..

    1. Hello obakasan000

      ~てくる and ~ていく have many meanings. I have listed below every meaning of ~てくる and ~ていく I know. Let this be a (/the best) guide on how to use ~てくる and ~ていく. No division is needed. The best way to fully understand the usage of these forms is to memorize my lovely guide. Here we go!

      1. 行って戻る ==> Speaker goes somewhere and will be back soon. Used only use with ~てくる.
      – ちょっとトイレへ行ってきます!

      2. 順次 ==> Speaker first has to do something and then they can move on. Used with ~てくる and ~ていく.
      – 日本へ行く前に、日本語を勉強していきます。(First learn Japanese, then go to Japan)
      – よしよし、ルーシー、もう泣くのやめてよ、ママはお菓子をもらってきてあげるからね。 (In this sentence mother says to Lucy [her child] that she will bring her some candies [lit. bring and give her some candies])

      3. 変化/継続 ==> a) Shows a change made in past. This change continues to the present. Used with ~てくる. b) Shows a change made in the present. This change will continue to the future. Used only with ~ていく.
      – マギー先生のサイトのお陰で、日本語がだんだん楽しく、易しくなってきました。ありがとうマギー^^
      – マギー先生のサイトがますます面白くなっていくでしょね。ね?

      4. 移動の状態 ==> Shows the direction of moving. Used only with special verbs of movement like: 連れる、持つ. ~ていく implies that the speaker takes/carries something away. ~てくる implies that the speaker brings something along.
      – 水を 1 杯持って来てくれ (Person X goes from destination A to destination B, takes the glass of water, comes back to destination A and gives the water to person Y)
      – 水を 1 杯持って行ってくれ (Person X takes the glass of water away from destination A, because – for example – person Y doesn’t need water now)

      5. 方向性 ==> Shows the direction of moving towards the speaker. Used with verbs of movement: 歩く、走る、飛ぶ、逃げる、集まる、引っ越す, etc. Used with ~ていく (something moves away from speaker) and ~てくる (something comes closer to speaker).
      – 「A: あ、SUPERMANが飛んできますよ!見てよ」「B: 見てるよ、すごいな!」
      – 「A: あ!SUPERMANだ!見て見て」「B: どこどこ?」「A: 遅いよ!もう飛んでいきました」「B: し、しまった・・・」

      6. 話者への接近(1) ==> Shows approaching or leaving towards the speaker. Used with verbs like: 出る、入る. Used with ~ていく (away) and ~てくる (closer).
      – 先生:授業が終わって、学生たちが出ていきます。(This sentence implies that the students go away from the classroom, where the teacher is)
      – 先生:授業が終わって、学生たちが出てきます。(This sentence implies that the teacher is outside the classroom. The students come closer to him)

      7. 話者への接近(2) ==> Things or sensations (sounds, smells, etc) approach the speaker. Used only with ~てくる (closer).
      「A: あのさー、夜中の12時になると、この部屋から何か変な泣き声が聞こえてくるらしいね。ここは人が殺された場所という話が・・・」「B: わああ、やめて、怖いのよ。何であたしにそんなこと、言ってるの?酷いよ ・゚・・゚・(⊃´Д`泣)・゚・・゚・」

      8. 変化の出現 ==> Shows that something (usually a natural phenomena or a psychological or emotional state) has just started. Used only with ~てくる.
      – ったく、またこの忌々しい雨が降ってきたかよ!
      – 「A:マギーのこと、何となく恋に落ちてきた・・・。」「B:なんだって?!絶対にだめだよ!マギーはもう結婚してるって知らないの?」、「A:あ、そう・・・」

      Ufff, that was a long reply ^^

      1. @obakasan000 & 天人

        Good job, 天人!
        (This is a little note for you. Your Japanese is really good! I would change just these.
        7 : 何であたしにそんなこと、言ってるの? →そんなこと言うの?will be more natural
        8 : マギーのこと、何となく恋に落ちてきた・・・→someone に恋に落ちる. When you are talking about just that experience, we say 恋に落ちた(past tense). So you may want to say 好きになってきた.
        (You can say 恋に落ちてきた when you are talking about your experiences up to now Ex. 今まで何度となく恋に落ちてきた))
        Hahaha love your example sentences.

        1. マギー先生、日本語の誤りを訂正してくれてありがとう!

          “何であたしにそんなこと、言ってるの? →そんなこと言うの?will be more natural” ==> Ah, because 「何であたしにそんなこと、言ってるの?」 would imply habituation (a habit), right? (= why are you always telling me that?). I thought it would be “why are you tellING me this NOW?”.

          マギーのこと、何となく恋に落ちてきた・・・ Long time ago the speaker felt in love with Maggie and he still loves herと言う意味で. In 恋に落ちた we don’t know, if the speaker still loves her、ね.


          1. @天人

            Right. We use 言って(い)る if the person always say the same thing.

            Ex. 彼は文句ばかり言っている。

            Or someone has been saying something (for a certain period of time.)
            Ex. まだそんなことを言って(い)るの?
            Are you still talking about that?

            *It is possible to say 恋に落ちて来た but usually you just fall in love. Not gradually.And if you say 何となく, it will be more natural to say 好きになってきた


  41. ohhhh okay. so てくる has two meanings then? 1. has been ing
    2. has started to

    Is it alright if you translate these couple of sentences into English for me :)

    1: 近年、空き缶を無駄遣いしてしまう人数は増えてきた
    2: 最近、この番組が嫌いになってきた
    3: 地球温暖化のため、動物が何匹絶滅してきたの?

    sorry for asking so many questions and taking up your time :(

    1. @Campbell Carsley

      ~てくる can be translated 1) “to have been ~ ing” 2) “to have+ pp” “3) “be ing” and it changes depending on the sentence.

      As for the translation, I am sorry but I don’t do the translation. (So many people have asked me to do the translations so.. Hope you understand..)
      But I can help you translating the verb parts. Hope it’s OK with you.

      1. has been increasing/ has increased
      2. have come to hate~
      3. have become extinct

      1. I understand that you are busy and get constantly harassed by people like me to translate sentences so it’s okay! thank you so much for the explanations and making me have a better understanding on this topic. ご迷惑をかけてすみませんでした。

  42. hey Maggie :) I read through this blog again and I just got a little confused. it was described that てきた means has been doing (from a certain point in the past until the present). So, how come in examples like these –> (気温が下がってきた or 雨が止んできた ) the meanings aren’t, “The temperature has been dropping” and “the rain has been stopping”?

    1. @Campbell Carsley
      I think your translation would work.
      The temperature has been dropping” / “the rain has been stopping”?
      But to be more precise,
      The temperature has been dropping” = 気温が下がってきている 
      “The rain has been stopping” = 雨が止んできている
      might work better. What do you think?

      and “the rain has been stopping”?

      1. Thank you for explaining. “The rain has been stopping” might not make sense now that I think about it. It would be “the rain has stopped” which I think in Japanese is 雨が止んだ。
        Is it alright if I ask one more question? :)

        What is the difference between てくる and stem+始める? Like if I wanted to say, “It has started to increase”, in Japanese would that be 増えてきた or 増え始めた?

        Thank you in advance:)

        1. @Campbell Carsley

          I agree. Maybe “The rain has been stopping” sounds strange in English.
          We do say “雨がやんできた”. “雨がやんできている” is possible to use as well. (Another way to say this is “小雨になってきた/きている”)

          増えてきた and 増え始めた
          They can be the same but there is a slight difference.
          増えてきた is “It has been increasing”. It focusing the current condition. It is going on right now.
          and 増え始めた is “It (has) started to increase. You are talking about the past when it started to increase)
          But 増えてきた and 増え始めてきた are the same.

          増えてきた &増え始めてきた
          Still you can not switch each other all the time.
          You can describe how things have started to change with ~てくる and ~始める but you can’t use ~てくる when you describe people’s action.
          Ex. 赤ちゃんが歩き始める
          You can’t use 〜てくる/きた

          Ex. 学校に行き始める
          You can’t use 〜てくる/きた

  43. HI, I’m having a little trouble

    From what I read in the lesson, てくる and ていく both deal with the future right?
    You said: Verb + ていく(=teiku) From the time when speaker is thinking to the future. / habitual actions

    てくる(=tekuru) From the time when speaker is thinking to the future. / habitual actions

    In this example:

    Ex. 1)あの子はだんだん可愛くなってくるね。

    =Anoko wa dandan kawaiku natte kurune.
    = She has been getting cuter and cuter. (until now)

    Ex. 2)あの子はだんだん可愛くなっていくね。

    =Anoko wa dandan kawaiku natte ikune.
    = She will be cuter and cuter. (from now on )

    Why isn’t なってきた used in the first example? She has been getting cuter and cuter until this point.

    I was under the impression that てくる is she will continue to get cuter and cuter in the future and she has been cute this whole time.

    While I thought that, ていく meant she will get cuter and cuter in the future, from this point on, and she really hasn’t been cute until now.

    So てくる she has been cute and will continue being cute and hasn’t reached her peak of cuteness yet.

    While ていく means she will start becoming cute from now on (she really hasn’t been cute until now)

    てきた She has become cuter and cuter until now, and we don’t know if she will get any cuter, stay the same etc etc

    Thank you.

    1. @Amit Moondra

      Hello, Amit,

      I added some more information. I made this lesson a long time ago but I guess I wanted to just focus on the difference between 〜てくる and 〜ていく that time in that example.
      As you said, ~てくる deals with future time. But we also use it to describe what has been happening or what is happening right now in certain cases.

      1. Thank you so much. I had a few more questions, but I will take a look again at the lesson and see if things become more clear.

        I really appreciate the hardwork and details you incorporate into each lesson.
        Your numerous examples really, really help with the nuance of many words.

        Last time I checked there wasn’t a lesson on -ても。 Is this grammar point on your “requested list”? I read through a lesson on this grammar point, but it was a little confusing, maybe I just need to read the lesson again.

        Once again, thank you so much for your hardwork!

        1. @Amit Moondra

          You’re welcome! I was going to go through the lesson again to make sure if everything was clear but I have been verry busy so will do that some other time.
          And I will tell 〜ても on the request lesson.
          Last but not least thank you for the nice message! :)

  44. thank you so much! that makes a lot more sense now :) when you say habitual, would the English equivalent be ‘has been’. So like 雨が降ってくる could also mean it has been raining but not necessarily raining right now. ずこく役に立つコメントを書いてくれてありがとうございます。本当に感謝しています。

    1. @Campbell Carsley

      Umm when I said “habitual”, I meant “present tense” can also describe future actions and also habitual actions just like English.
      Ex. 1) もうすぐ雨が降ってくる。= It will rain soon. (future)
      Ex. 2) 私が海に行くといつも雨が降ってくる= Whenever I go to the beach, it rains. (something habitual)

      Note : However with certain verbs and situations, ~くる can be used to describe the action what is happening/has been happening.
      From the example sentences in the lesson.
      Ex. 1)あの子はだんだん可愛くなってくるね。
      =Anoko wa dandan kawaiku natte kurune.
      =She has been getting cuter and cuter. (until now)

      Ex. マギーが好きになってくる/きた
      =Maggie ga suki ni natte kuru./kita.
      =I’m getting like Maggie/ I’ve come to like Maggie. (until now)

      But 降ってくる is just strange to use to describe when it has been raining/it is raining.

  45. Hey maggie! I’m still having a little trouble understanding the てくる and てきた. I can understand ていく fairly easily but it’s the other two I can’t quite seem to grasp. What would be the difference between 雨が降ってくる and 雨が降ってきた. And how come even though the てきた is in its past tense it doesn’t mean ‘had been or was’? One more question :) This is an example situation I made up. A: 最近、上司の性格が変わってくるんだよね。B: お前も気付いていたの?まあねー1週間前ぐらい彼女と別れたんじゃない?A: あっ、そうですね。そういうことかも。。In that example situation, what would be the difference if you used 変わってきた instead? Sorry for the very long comment and lots of questions, it’s just I am really having a hard time working this out. Hope you can answer this for me!

    1. @Campbell Carsley

      Hello CC!
      OK the first question.
      1) The difference between A) 雨が降ってくる and B) 雨が降ってきた
      They both have a verb くる
      Basically 降ってくる is for future or something habitual and 降ってきた is used in the form of present perfect or the past.
      A) 雨が降ってくる : It will rain (soon). It is not happening yet. You are talking about future or possibility
      B) 雨が降ってきた : It has started to rain. So it is raining now.
      This is present perfect but you can also use it when you talk about the past.
      = Where were you when it started to rain yesterday?

      Now your example sentence.
      A: 最近、上司の性格が変わってくるんだよね。
      For the same reason as above, you can’t use くる here because his personality has been changed and you should say 変わってきたんだよね。
      But if the boss always changes his personality when he drinks (habitual actions or behavior)you can use くる

  46. さすがマギー先生!
    ・「-てくる」は、現在形か過去形の方が使ってはいいかどうわかりますか?(I tried to ask “About -てくる、How do you know wether it’s better to use present tense or past tense?”)
    ・Is 「V+てくる」 similar to 「いままでV...」? Is 「V+ていく」 similar to 「これからもV...」?


    1. @Orti

      こんにちは、Orti! 元気でしたか?
      1) てきた can be used to describe what has been happening right now and くる is for the event from now to the future.
      So when you are talking about what has been happening, use きた.
      and when you simply describe the current condition, say

      2) 「V+てくる」 similar to 「いままでV...」?→Can you give me an example.
      When you use 今まで, we use the past tense : 今までOrtiはここにいました。
      but 「V+てくる」for the action which will happen now. So they are not the same.

      3) Is 「V+ていく」 similar to 「これからもV...」

      But you can also say これからもV+ていく

      これからもOrtiの日本語はうまくなる, うまくなっていく

    2. @Orti

      こんにちは、Orti! 元気でしたか?
      1) Usually きた is a past tense and describe some past event but てきた can be used to describe what has been happening right now and くる is from now to the future.
      So when you are talking about what has been happening, use きた.
      and when you simply describe the current condition, say

      2) 「V+てくる」 similar to 「いままでV...」?→Can you give me an example.
      When you use 今まで, we use the past tense : 今までOrtiはここにいました。
      but 「V+てくる」for the action which will happen now. So they are not the same.

      3) Is 「V+ていく」 similar to 「これからもV...」
      But you can also say これからもV+ていく,too.

      これからもOrtiの日本語はうまくなる, うまくなっていく

  47. Hello ! welcome back

    I wonder what is the negative form from this grammar…
    Can you give me some examples please ?

    thank you

    1. @jo

      Hello Jo! It has been a long time!
      The negative form of 〜ていく is 〜ていかない? I think I mentioned in the lesson.
      ~ていかない 〜てこない Is that what you want to know?

  48. Maggie-sensei,

    Thank you very much! Your lessons are the most comprehensive among all the explanations I find online. They’re such a big help! :)

    How does this work using the verb ‘kaku’ (to write)? I can imagine ‘kaiteiku’ to mean go and write (start writing something), but I’m pretty confused with ‘kaitekuru’…

    1. @Emma

      Hi Emma! I am very happy to hear you think my lessons are helpful.
      Yes, ていく form for “to write” = 書くis “書いていく” and てくる form for “to write” = 書くis “書いてくる
      Ex. 作文を家で書いてくる = to write composition at home (and come to the class / to be ready for the class,etc.)

  49. マギー先生、すばらしいのポースト ありがとう!ちょっとすこしだけど、somehow わかってきました。チェックすることを本当にありがとう、そしてお疲れさまでした。Sorry if I did some silly mistake :) Thank you!! かたじけない!

    1. @Bearz314熊314

      (Your sentences are good! Just let me correct you a little : すばらしいの→すばらしい・チェックすることを→チェックしてくれて)
      Haha, where did you learn かたじけない??

      1. も一度ありがとう、マギー先生。
        まめしばの CM から習った!

        先生、do you know any other children’s materials? I find them very interesting :D

        Thank you! :)

          1. Hyaaa!! <3

            ありがとう、マギー先生! I will have a look at them! And actually no, I haven't read まめしばレッスン yet :D I am reading (only) a lesson a day because I find it easier to absorb and also for motivation purpose..

            Once again, thank you! :D ¡gracias!

          2. @Bearz314熊314

            OK, OK One lesson per day is more than enough. Take your time.
            And “De nada!” !happyface!

  50. Could you use tekuru/teiku to say, for example, “are you coming/going to do something”?

    So like:
    明日にクラブしてくるの?(are you coming clubbing tomorrow?)

    ^^ thank you

    1. @hanoi_j

      Ah, in that case you can say, 明日クラブに行ってくるの?
      Other future examples :
      = Are you going to eat at his house tomorrow?

  51. 先生、have I told you that you are the best? :)
    and so, if I am using an adjective then I should use the “-ku” adjective ending right? like in, [暑くなってくる]?

    1. @Aki

      Hi, Aki! 元気ですよ〜!でも先週はすっごく忙しくてブログもTwitterもなかなかできなかったの。これからはもっと時間できると思います。
      そうそう!!暑くなってくる * 寒くなってくる * 痛くなってくる etc.

      1. そっか^^先生はもっと時間できる、嬉しい(@^▽^@)ノ ということ、あげぽよ~~!!!

        1. @Aki

          ああ〜〜今日からもっと暇になると思ったけれどもまだまだ忙しい一日でした。さげぽよ〜〜〜! :-|

          1. え??!本当にそう思う?よかったね~!
            I love you Maggie!
            Te amo Maggie!
            Ti amo!
            Ich Liebe Dich!
            Je t’aime!
            Я тебя люблю !
            Ja te volim!


          2. @Aki

            わ〜〜〜いっぱいの I love you ありがとう!!
            Big love from Maggie boucingheart!

  52. マギー先生、この文章いいですか?
    Sorry i posted this comment on a another lesson by accident.

  53. マギー先生, ありがとう!

    Recently I’ve learned this at school, but I didn’t get it at all; now I understand this ていく – てくるbetter.

    1. Kronekodowさん

      何か質問あったらいつでも聞いてね。ていく – てくるの文章作ったら直します!
      If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to ask me. I can correct your sentence using ていく – てくる!

  54. は~い 頑張ります ^_^
    でも勉強を続けます。 合格したらもちろん先生に教えます。

    1. LadySapphireさん
      鋼の錬金術士? 面白い?今度チェックしてみますね。1級合格の通知を今から楽しみにしていますよ!!

      (Note : 自信が低いだから→低いから /でも自信が低いとはあまり言わないかな…「まだ自信があまりないから」の方がいいです。

  55. Maggie 先生 今日は =)


    覚えさせてくれてありがとう (Thanks for letting me remember)


    でもMaggie先生のwebsiteを見つけました、それは良かった、big help for me.(日本語で? 大助かる?)

    今JLPT1級の合格を狙いますけど。。いまの日本語はなんか下手になってきた。。特に聴解のほう。。いいLearning materialとかListening practiceのWebsiteが知ったら私に教えてくれてお願いします m(--)m


    1. LadySapphire-san,

      big help for me.->大変助かりました。ではどうでしょうか?

      Note from today’s comment : 覚えさせてくれて=>”覚える” はto memorizeだからremind meは、”思い出させてくれて”

      できるだけコメント欄使って練習してね。1級合格したら是非教えてね。応援してますよ!p(^^)q がんばって〜!!

  56. お久しぶりです
    Hi Maggie 先生 ^_^



    It refreshed my memory on ~te iku / ~te kuru

    レスンはいつも役に立ってありがとう =)

    1. LadySapphireさん

      まず質問ですが、It refreshed my memory on ~te iku / ~te kuru
      refresh one’s memory on ~~は日本語で「〜の記憶を新たにする」ですが、かなり堅い表現になります。
      (Note :
      すぐ直されるといいなあ。。->早く治るといいなあ…: 病気、風邪は”治る”の方の漢字を使います。それから〜されるは<使役>になりますのでここでは使いません。


  57. ありがとう!僕もブログにマギー先生のリンクを加えた。うん、これからこそよろしくお願い!


    1. chokochokoさん

      さっそくMaggie’s recommendationにリンクしておいたよ〜! :maggie-small:

  58. 3)あっ、違います、ごめん。「移動を表す動詞」って、「走る」とか「乗る」とか「飛ぶ」などということ。


    1. chokochokoさん

      走っていく+走ってくる/歩いていく+歩いてくる/飛んでいく+飛んでくる /電車に乗ってくる+車に乗っていく/(橋を)渡っていく+渡ってくる

  59. 速い!文章を直してもらってありがとう。

    2)「生活していって」、「〜いって」の部分は「time flow」で「これから」という意味を示しているでしょう?




    1. chokoochokooさん

      2)その通り! 「生活していく」は「これから」のことです。
      だったら、そうですね 「〜ていく/〜てくる」にはレッスンにある様に移動を表す動詞として使うことも多いし(Ex.1 (マギーが)チョコチョコのブログに遊びに行く Ex. 2 チョコチョコがマギーのブログに遊びに来た。)時間や変化を表す時にもよく使いますよ。(Ex. 3 チョコチョコの日本語はどんどんうまくなっていく Ex.4 チョコチョコ、日本語がどんどんうまくなってきたね)

      (Note : 直してもらって->直してくれて)

  60. マギー先生が作った例文が豊富で分かりやすいと思う!ありがとう!



    最後の文章は正しいかどうかちょっと迷っているけれど、伝えたい意味は「I will (go and) tell my friend the good news」ということ。


    1. Chokochokoさん

      1)「叱られてきて首になった」というとまず 上司の所に行って (You went to your boss)->叱られて(He reprmimanded you)->(帰って You returned to your place)->首になる (And he fired you) という順序になります。
      もし上司の所に行ってそこで首になったのならば 「叱られて首になってしまったから」の方が自然です。

      2)生活は悩んでいく->”悩む”(worry)のは”人”で”生活”ではないので 「どうやって(これから)生活していっていいのか悩むなあ。」
      3)「友達に良いニュースを伝えて行く。」->惜しい!(Almost!) 「伝えに行く」にしてみて。

      *手を合わせている*-> なに?合掌(=gasshou)?お願いしてくれてるの?


  61. Maggie Sensei,
    Thank you so much for tackling my request. This detailed lesson makes me understand it much better now.


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