How to use 〜に対して ( = ~ ni taishite)

「最近、私に対しての愛情表現が足りないんじゃないの?」

= Saikin, watashi ni taishite no aijou hyougen ga tarinain janai no?

= I feel the way you express your affections towards me is not enough.

「おやつ増やしてね。」

= Oyatsu fuyashite ne.

= Increase the amount of snack, OK?

 

 

Hi everyone!

I am your guest teacher,    ( = Ukko). はじめまして = Hajimemashite = Nice to meet you!

I am going to teach you how to use  ( 〜に) 対して ( = taishite) today.

Here we go!! 

***

First let’s look at the usage of   = たい = tai

  = たい = tai = versus, ratio, as opposed to

Ex. ワールドカップ決勝 日本アメリカ

= Waarudo kappu kesshou Nihon tai Amerika

= World Cup Final Japan vs. the U.S.

Ex. 1で勝った。

= San tai ichi de katta.

= We won 3 to 1.

Ex. 今、何何?

= Ima, nan tai nani?

= What’s the score now? 

Ex. 試合は、44で引き分けになった。

= Shiai wa yon tai yon de hikiwake ni natta.

= The game was tied 4-4

Ex. 「昨日の合コン何人きたの?」

 Kinou no goukon nannin kita no?

= How many people came to the Singles Mixers (party) yesterday?

「44だった。」

= Yon tai yon datta.

= 4 men and 4 women. 

 1) ~に対して ( = ni taishite ): against/ towards / to 

* How to form: 

 :rrrr: noun  +  ( = ni ) + 対して ( = taishite )  + adjective/verb

* to have some feelings + over / towards / on + something /someone

* one’s attitude  + towards / against / to   +  something /someone

OK, let’s compare the following two sentences.

 Haven’t you been a little cold towards him lately?

→A:  最近、ちょっと彼に冷たいんじゃない?

= Saikin, chotto kare ni tsumetain janai?

→B: 最近、ちょっと彼に対して冷たいんじゃない?

= Saikin, chotto kare ni taishite  tsumetain janai?

They mean the same but when you focus on who/what your action/ attitude/ feelings are directed to you use 対して ( = taishite)

Ex. マギー先生は宿題をやらない生徒に対していつも厳しい。

= Sensei wa shukudai wo yaranai seito ni taishite itsu mo kibishii .

= Teacher is always strict on the students who don’t do their homework.

Note: In the formal writing / speech you say ~対し ( = ni taishi) 

生徒に対し = seito ni taishi 

Ex. 10代の頃は、親に対して反抗的だった。

= Juudai no koro wa, oya ni taishite hankou teki datta.

= When I was a teenager, I used to be rebellious towards my parents. 

Ex. 親は子供に対して責任がある。

= Oya wa kodomo ni taishite sekinin ga aru.

= Parents are responsible for their children.

 Ex. 彼は誰に対しても礼儀正しい。

= Kare wa dare ni taishite mo reigi tadashii.

= He is polite to everybody. 

* to do some actions + towards / on / against  / to +  something /someone 

You use ~に対して ( = ~ ni taishite) to make the target of action clear  

Ex. X社は、住民に対して 謝罪会見を行った。

= X-sha wa, juumin ni taishite shazai kaiken wo okonatta.

= The company X gave a public apology towards the residents at a press conference. 

Ex.国は他国に対して関税を引き上げた。

 A koku wa takoku ni taishite kanzei wo hikiageta.

= The country A will raise the tax on other countries. 

Ex. 営業成績がいい人に対して*、特別賞与を出します。

= Eigyou seiseki ga ii hito ni taishite wa, tokubetsu shouyo wo dashimasu.

= We will give you a special bonus to the person who has a good sales record. 

(*You can say いい人には = ii hito niwa)  

Ex. 彼は私達に対してなんのお礼も言わなかった。

= Kare wa watashitachi ni taishite nan no orei mo iwanakatta.

= He didn’t thank us at all. 

(*You can say 私達に  ( = watashitachi ni) )

 

*****

*When you modify a noun:

 :rrrr: noun A ( = ni ) +  対しての ( = taishite no)/ 対する ( = taisuru)   + noun B 

 = noun (B) (action / feelings/attitude )  + over / against / for / towards +  noun (A)¥

Note: When you modify a noun, you can also use noun + + 対する( = taisuru) + noun 

The difference between 対して ( = ni  taishite) and 対する ( = ni taisuru):

They mean the same but while 対して ( = ni taishite) can be used when it modify a verb, you only use 対する( = ni  taisuru) when you modify a noun. 

 Ex. ここ数ヶ月で彼に対しての/ 対する気持ちが変わった。

= Koko suukagetsu de kare ni taishite no /taisurukimochi ga kawatta.

= My feelings towards him has changed in past few months.

Ex.あの人には他の人に対しての/ 対する思いやりがない。

= Ano hito niwa hoka no hito ni taishite no / taisuru  omoiyari ga nai.

= He/She is not considerate to other people. 

Ex. 地震に対しての/ 対する備えは十分ですか?

= Jishin ni taishite no/  taisuru sonae wa juubun desu ka?

= Are you prepared enough for the earthquake? 

Ex. 若い人の間には政治に対しての/ 対する不信感がある。

= Wakai hito no aida niwa seiji  ni taishite no / taisuru fushinkan ga aru.

= Young people have a feeling of distrust of politics.

 Note: * You can also say への  ( = eno) instead of  対しての ( = taishite no)/ 対する  ( = taisuru) in all these example sentences

対する ( = ni  taisuru) is used when you emphasize who/what the target of your action/feeling is. 

家族を思う

= Kazoku wo omou

= to think about one’s family

家族への思い

= Kazoku eno omoi

= feelings towards/for  one’s family

家族に 対しての/対する思い

= Kazoku ni  taishite no / taisuru  omoi

= feelings towards/for  one’s family 

地震に備える

= Jishin ni sonaeru

= to be ready for the earthquakes

地震への備え

= Jishin yeno sonae

= Preparation for the earthquakes.

地震に対しての/対する 備え

= Jishin ni taishite no / taisuru  sonae

= Preparation for the earthquakes.

* PTAに説明する

= PTA ni setsumei suru

= to explain to the PTA

PTAへの説明

= PTA eno setsumei

= explanation towards the PTA

PTA対しての/対する /説明

= PTA ni taishite no / taisuru setsumei

= explanation to the PTA

Note: You can learn how to nominalize a verb with a particle in this lesson

Particle +  ( = no) 

 

****

 2) ~に対して ( = ni taishi ): Showing the contrast: 

Now there is another usage of 対して ( = ni taishite). 

You use it when comparing two facts/ two things and want to show the contrast.

→While ~ / Whereas in contrast to / as opposed to 

* How to form: 

While the you only use 対して ( = ni taishite) with a noun in the first usage, you can use it with verbs and adjectives in this usage.

* noun対して ( =  ni taishite ) 

* noun(な)のに対して  ( (na) no ni taishite )

* nounだった ( = datta) + のに対し ( = no ni taishite)  past tense 

*  noun +  であるのに対して ( = de aru noni taishite) 

* nounであったのに対して ( = de atta no ni taishite) past tense

****

* verb  (present/ past)のに対して ( = no ni taishite )

***

* i-adjective ~い ( = i)  + のに対して  ( = no ni taishite )

* i-adjective ~かった ( = katta) + のに対して ( = no ni taishite)  past tense

***

* na-adjective  なのに対して ( = na noni taishite) 

* na-adjective ~だった ( = datta) + のに対して ( = no ni taishite) past tense

* na-adjective  + ~であるのに対して ( =  de aru noni taishite) more literal 

* na-adjective  + ~であったの 対して ( = de atta noni taishite) 

***

Ex. 父はとても物静かなのに対して母はいつも口うるさい。

= Chichi wa totemo monoshizuka nanoni taishite haha wa itsumo kuchiurusai.

= While  my father is very quiet, my mother is always nagging.

You can also say

Ex. 父はとても物静かだ。それに対して母はいつも口うるさい。

= Chichi wa totemo monoshizuka da . Soreni taishite haha wa itsumo kuchi urusai.

= My father is very quiet. On the contrary, my mother is always nagging. 

past tense:

Ex. 父は物静かだったのに対して母はいつも口うるさい。

= Chichi wa monoshizuka datta noni taishite haha wa kuchiurusai.

= While my father was very quiet, my mom is always nagging. 

Note: You see or hear 対して ( = ni taishite)  in formal writing / speech  so you may not hear that in casual conversation. 

You can connect two sentence with  ( = ga) 

more casual けど ( = kedo) which means “but

父はとても物静かだけど(or 物静かが母はいつも口うるさい。

= Chichi wa totemo monoshizuka da kedo ( or mono shizuka da ga)  haha wa itsumo kuchiurusai.

Ex. 犬は飼い主に従順であるのに対して猫は自由気ままだ。

= Inu wa kainushi ni juujun de aru noni taishite neko wa jiyuu kimama da.

= While dogs are obedient to their owner, cats do what they like.

Note: You can also say →従順だが  ( = jujun daga)

/ more conversational従順だけど ( = juujun dakedo) 

 

Ex. この言葉は書き言葉で使われることが多いのに対して話し言葉で使われることはあまりない

= Kono kotoba wa kaikotoba de tsukawareru koto ga ooi noni taishite hanashi kotoba de tsukawareru koto ha amari nai.

= While this word is often used as a written word, it is rarely used as a spoken word. 

Note: You can also say →多いが (= ooi ga) / more conversational 多いけど ( = ooikedo ) 

 

Ex. 彼らの新しい曲は、日本では好評だったのに対して海外では不評だった。

= Karera no atarashii kyoku wa, Nihon de wa kouhyou datta no ni taishite kaigai dewa fuhyou datta.

= While their new song was very popular in Japan, it was unpopular overseas.

Note: You can also say →好評だったが ( = kouhyou dattaga) / more conversational 好評だったけど ( = kouhyou datta kedo) 

 

Ex. マギー先生は好きなものしか食べなかったのに対してクッキー先生はなんでも食べる。

= Maggie sensei wa sukina mono shika tabenakatta noni taishite Cookie sensei wa nandemo taberu

= While Maggie Sensei was picky about food Cookie Sensei eats anything.

Note: You can also say →食べなかったが ( = tabenakatta ga)  / more conversational 食べなかったけど ( = tabenakatta kedo)

3)  per 

The last usage is to use 対して ( = ni taishite )  to express  some ratio / proportion 

* How to form: number / amount / quantity ( + counter) + 対して ( = ni taishite)

 

Ex. 小麦粉カップ1杯に対して塩を小さじ一杯入れてください。

= Komugiko kappu ippai ni taishite shio wo kosaji ippai wo irete kudasai.

= Add a teaspoon of salt per a cup of flour.

 

Ex. 開店日には、お客さん一人に対して一つずつ粗品を用意しています。

= Kaitenbi niwa, okyaku san hitori nitaishite hitotsu zutsu soshina wo youi shiteimasu.

= We prepared one small gift per customer on the opening day.

 

Ex. 残業時間5時間に対して1万円が払われることになった。

= Zangyou jikan gojikan ni taishtie ichiman ga harawareru koto ni natta.

= They decided that they would pay us 10,000 yen per five-hour-overtime 

 

Ex. 醤油1対して2を入れてください。

= Shouyu ichi ni taishite mizu ni wo irete kudasai.

= Put soy sauce and water with 1:2 ratio. 

****

マギー先生より = Maggie sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

先生、ありがとう!

= Ukko Sensei, arigatou!

= Thank you, Ukko -Sensei!

みなさん、 このサイトに対しての「いい」ご意見がありましたらいつでもコメント欄に書いてくださいね

= Minasa, kono saito ni taishite no “ii” goiken ga arimashtiara itsudemo komento ran ni kaite kudasaine.

= If you have a “good” opinion on this site, please feel free to leave a comment anytime.

 

I REALLY appreciate your support!  サポートありがとう! !CHECKHEART! 

My supporters can access an audio file for this lesson on my Pateron page and some mini lessons and quiz.

Audio File for this lesson

:rrrr: Click here.

 

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15 Comments

      1. こんにちは先生!

        Btw, this grammar point is used in daily conversation? Or only in documents, books, etc(as a written form only I mean)?

        Thank you in advance:)

        1. こんばんは!
          〜に対して is often used in documents, books, news or formal speech but like some example sentences,
          私に対して冷たい
          彼女に対して優しい/厳しい, etc. are very common in daily conversation.

  1. こんばんは先生!
    Thank you so much for your answers and for adding a note for me
    As for 2. Haha it makes sense now.^^
    As for 3. I’m confused about how to use the particle の in this lesson.

    Because in this sentence “地震に対しての/対する 備え” the particleの comes after に対して, but not after に対する. This point really confuses me. Why in some examples に対するis followed by の like “家族に 対して/対するの思い”
    and some other examples like are not?

    ありがとう in advance.

    1. You can modify a noun with a dictionary form.

      これは私が寝るベッドです。
      This is the bed where I sleep.
      彼が読む本
      The book that he reads.

      and some other examples like are not?

      Did I forget to add the 対する?  Let me recheck the lesson later.

    2. こんばんは先生! and thank you for your reply.
      haha now I’m confused more than before.

      Now, I don’t know which example from all the examples that you mentioned in this lesson, is used in daily conversation.

      From you point of view, since you said it’s often used in books, news, etc, do you think it’s very formal to use even between friends?

      Is there another grammar point that is less formal/neutral and has the same meaning?

      Thank you in advance.

      1. I can’t specify all the example sentences which one is formal and which one can be used for conversational.
        But you know.. if it deals with country, politics, earthquakes and stuff, it is formal.

        Many of my examples in
        * to have some feelings + over / towards / on + something /someone

        are pretty conversational

        and the most of my example sentences in
        * to do some actions + towards / on / against / to + something /someone

        are very formal.
        How’s that?

  2. こんばんは先生!^^
    元気?

    I have some questions please.

    1. “対する/対しての”
    I’m confused. What is the difference between them and “~に対して”
    I’d really appreciate it if you could include more examples for “対する/対しての” section.

    2. “地震に対する*備えは十分ですか?” why not “~に対しての?”

    3. “~に対する” it’s not always followed by “の”?

    Thank you so much in advance.

    1. Hi Kuroineko

      1) I added the note for you.
      They mean the same.
      As for 2. I knew someone would ask…haha. From a native point of view, 地震に対する備えは十分ですか?” sounds slightly more natural because ~ that is why I didn’t include 対しての but yes, there are people who use 地震に対しての備えは十分ですか。so I added 対しての

      I don’t quite get your 3) question..

    2. こんにちは先生!I don’t think you forgot to add it.

      As for this sentence “and some other examples like are not?”

      I added “like” by mistake.

      So the question was about the “の” particle, “Why in some sentences of ~に対するis followed by ”の” For example, “家族に 対して/対するの思い”

      and in some other sentences are not. For example, “地震に対しての/対する 備え”

      本当にありがとう^^

        1. こんばんは!

          It’s ok please don’t worry.

          So just to make sure:

          1. ~に対する+noun
          But ~に対して+”の”+noun

          Is it right?

          2.”に対して ( = ni taishite) can be used when it modify a verb”
          Can you please explain more about modifying a verb, with an example?
          Is there a lesson on modifying verbs here?

          Thank you so much and I appreciate your efforts always.^^

          1. 1. Yes
            2. Yes. To be more precise, verb and adjective

            Ex. Aは、 Bに対して抗議(こうぎ)した。
            = A protest against B

            →Against B, A does “protesting” (verb)

            Ex. AはBに対して優(やさ)しい。
            = A is nice to/towards B.

            →Towards B, A is sweet (adjective)

    3. こんにちは先生!How are you today?

      Thank you for your explanation. The most important thing is that it can be used in daily conversation or between friends. I thought it was only used formally in news, books, etc.

      I’m glad you corrected my information.

      I really appreciate your help.^^

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