How to use しか & だけ ( shika & dake) & だけしか ( = dakeshika)

June 8, 2016 in Beginners


shika

Conner「昨日は、9時間しか寝ていないからもっと寝させて。」

= Kinou wa, kujikan shika nete inai kara motto nesasete.]

= I ONLY slept for nine hours, so please let me sleep a little longer.

dake

Buster「ずるい!Connerだけ、かわいいの着てる!」

= Zurui! Conner dake, kawaii no kiteru.

= Not fair! Only you are wearing something cute.

Conner「今日だけくまにならせてよ。」

= Kyou dake kuma ni narasete yo.

= Let me be a bear just for today.

Hi everyone!
Today we have these wonderful guest teachers, Conner Sensei (Brown doggie) and Buster Sensei (black doggie).
We are angel buddies. They volunteered to make a lesson with me for their loving sister who has been self-studying Japanese.
Just looking at their pictures, we can tell they are much loved by their family.

*****

Hello!! We are Conner and Buster! Nice to meet you! はじめまして!= Hajimemashita.
We will teach you だけ ( = dake) and しか ( = shika) today.
They both mean  “only/ just” in Japanese but they are not interchangeable.

★The main difference:

You use だけ ( = dake) in both negative and affirmative sentences and しか ( = shika)  is only used in negative sentences.

A) 財布に百円だけある。

= Saifu ni hyaku-en dake aru.

= There is only 100 yen in the wallet. That’s all there is.

= I only have 100 yen in my wallet. That’s all I have.

B ) 財布に百円しかない。

= Saifu ni hyaku-en shika nai.

= There is only 100 yen in the wallet. There is nothing else.

= I only have 100 yen in my wallet. I have nothing else.

Note: The nuance difference:
The speaker feel more positive with 100 yen in A)

**
C) 百円だけあげる。

= Hyaku-en dake ageru.

= I will give you just 100 yen.

D)  百円しかあげない。

= Hyaku-en shika agenai.

= I will give you just 100 yen. (I won’t give you more than 100 yen.)

Note: C) is more positive. D) sounds cheap and C) sounds more generous.

**
E)  日本語は「お腹がすいた」だけ知っている。

= Nihongo wa  “Onaka ga suita” dake shitte iru.

= The only Japanese I know is “I’m hungry”

F) 日本語は「お腹がすいた」しか知らない。

= Nihongo wa “Onakaga suita” shika shiranai.

= I only know “I’m hungry” in Japanese. (Nothing else)

Note: E) is more positive and confident.

******
G)  このページだけ勉強した。

= Kono peeji dake benkyou shita.

= I just studied this page.

H) このページしか勉強していない。

= Kono peeji shika benkyou shiteinai.

= I didn’t study anything except this page.

Note: H) is more insecure.

*****

You can combine with other particles.

だけ( = ni dake) /だけ ( = dake ni)

だけ ( = to dake) だけ ( = dake to )

だけ( = dake wo)

だけ  (= dake ga )

**

しか ( = ni shika)

しか ( = de shika)

しか ( = to shika)

までしか (= made shika) , etc.

(X You don’t say しか ( = shikani) 、しか (= shika wo)、しか ( = shika ga)

Ex. 彼は女の子だけ優しい。/ 彼は女の子だけ優しい。

= Kare wa onna no ko dake ni yasashii. / Kare wa onna no ko ni dake yasashii.

= He is only nice to girls.

Ex. 彼は、女の子しか優しくない。

= Kare wa, onna no ko ni shika yasashiku nai.

= He is only nice to girls. (He is not nice to boys.)

****

Ex. Connerだけ愛している。

= Conner dake wo aishite iru.

= I only love Conner. (Nobody else)

Ex. Connerしか愛せない。

= Conner shika aisenai.

= I only love Conner. I can’t love anybody else./ I am not capable of loving anyone else other than Conner.

Note: You can’ t say Connerしか( = Conner shika wo)

****

Ex.だけ彼女の秘密を知っている。

= Watashi dake ga kanojo no himitsu wo shitte iru.

= I am the only one who knows her secret.

Ex. しか彼女の秘密を知らない。

= Watashi shika kanojo no himitsu wo shiranai.

= I am the only one who knows her secret. (Nobody else knows.)

Note: You can’t say しか ( = watashi shika ga )

★How to form:

*noun + だけ (= dake)

Ex. (= neko)  a cat  + だけ (= dake)

* verb plain form (present/past)

Ex. する( = suru) to do

した ( = shita)/ していた ( = shiteita) ,etc. + だけ  ( = dake)

*verb plain form + こと (=koto) + だけ (= dake)

したこと (= shite ita koto) / していたこと(=shiteita koto ) + だけ ( = dake) 

* i-adjective plain form ( present/ past)

* ( = i) / past かった ( = katta) + だけ (= dake)

Ex. 怖い ( = kowai) scary

怖い ( = kowai ) / past tense 怖かった ( = kowakatta ) + だけ  ( = dake) 

* a-adjective plain form (present/past)  ~な

*きれいな ( =kireina) beautiful

きれいな (= kireina )/ past tense きれいだった ( = kiredatta ) + だけ (= dake) 

☆How to form しか ( = shika)

* noun + しか ( = shika)

*( = inu) a dog  + しか ( = shika)

* verb plain form /  noun form ~ こと ( = koto)

Ex. する (= suru) + しか ( = shika)

Ex. すること ( = surukoto) doing  + しか ( = shika)

* adjective noun form ~さ (= sa)  若さ(= wakasa) youth  + しか ( = shika)

OK, I will give you more examples:

* だけ ( = dake): You can use it in affirmative sentences

(You also use のみ ( = nomi) in formal sentences. I will explain this later.)

Ex. 「1時間だけ時間をちょうだい。」

= Ichijikan dake jikan wo choudai.

= Give me just one hour. (That’s all I need.)

「1時間だけならいいよ。」

= Ichijikan dake nara iiyo.

= If it just takes one hour, then fine.

Ex. 美味しいものだけ食べたい。

= Oishii mono dake tabetai.

= I just want to eat delicious things.

Ex.  ちょっとの間だけそっとしておいて。

= Chotto no aida dake sotto shiteoite.

= Please leave me alone for a moment.

Ex. お砂糖、少しだけいれてください。

= Osatou, sukoshi dake irete kudasai.

= Please add just a little bit of sugar.

Ex. その時だけはみんな静かだった。

= Sono toki dake wa minna shizuka datta.

= Everyone was quiet just at that moment.

Ex. 子供だけで出かける。

= Kodomo dake de dekakeru.

= Going out just kids

Ex. このお菓子はここだけで食べられます。

= Kono okashi wa koko dake de taberaremasu.

= You can eat this sweet only here. (nowhere else)

Ex.  「今度の土曜日、空いてる?」

= Kondo no doyoubi, aiteru?

= Are you free this coming (or next) Saturday?

「ごめんなさい。その日だけは忙しいです。」

= Gomennasai. Sono hi dake wa isogashii desu.

= I’m sorry. I am busy on that particular day.

***

Ex. 玉ねぎだけ食べられない。

= Tamanegi dake taberarenai.

= I can eat anything but onions.

Ex. この漢字だけ読めない。

= Kono kanji dake yomenai.

= I can’t read just this kanji.

Ex. 食べることだけが楽しみだ。

= Taberu koto dake ga tanoshimi da.

= Eating is the only pleasure I have.

Ex. 納豆だけは嫌いだ。

= Nattou dake wa kirai da.

= I just don’t like Natto.  (fermented soybeans)

= I like anything but Natto.

Ex. あいつだけは許さない。( rough)

= Aitsu dake wa yurusanai.

= I will never forgive him.

Ex. 一緒にコーヒーだけ飲んで家に帰った。

= Issho ni koohii dake nonde ie ni kaetta.

= We just had some coffee and went back home.

Ex. あの子はかわいいだけで中身がない。

= Anoko wa kawaii dake de nakami ga nai.

= She is just cute. She has no substance.

Ex. 彼はうちが貧しいだけで心は貧しいわけではない。

= Kare wa uchi ga mazushii dake de kokoro ga mazushii wake dewa nai.

= He is only from a poor family, but that doesn’t mean his heart is poor.

Ex. メールを見なかっただけで無視をしたんじゃないよ。

= Mairu wo minakatta dake de mushi wo shitan ja nai yo.

= It’s simply because I didn’t see your text. I didn’t ignore you.

Ex. 彼とは家が近かっただけです。

= Kare to wa ie ga chikakatta dake desu.

= I used to live close to him. That’s all.

Ex. ゲスト先生は、犬と猫だけなんですか?

= Gesuto sensei wa, inu to neko dake nan desuka?

= Are the guest teachers just dogs and cats?

From Maggie: That’s not true. Other animals are welcome! :maggie-small:

*だけではなく ( = dake dewa naku) Not only ~ but also

Ex. これは、子供だけではなく大人も楽しめるゲームです。

= Kore wa kodomo dake dewa naku otona mo tanoshimeru geimu desu.

= Not only children but adults can also enjoy this game.

Ex. Busterは今日だけではなく昨日もよく寝ていた。

= Buster wa kyou dake dewa naku kinou mo yoku nete ita.

= Buster was sleeping a lot not just today but also yesterday.

Ex. マギーはかわいいだけではなく心も美しい。 :) 

= Maggie wa kawaii dake dewa naku kokoro mo utsukushii.

= Maggie is not only a cute but also has a beautiful heart.

From Maggie: Well said, Conner and Buster! !niconico!

* しか ( = shika) : You use it in negative sentences.

Ex. この車は二人しか乗れない。

= Kono kurumwa wa futari shika norenai.

= This car only sits two people. (Only 2 people fit.)

Ex. 朝は、ヨーグルトしか食べない。

= Asa wa, youguruto shika tabenai.

= I only eat yogurt for breakfast. (Nothing else.)

Ex. あなたのことしか考えられない。

= Anata no koto shika kangaerarenai.

= I only can think about you. (Nobody else)

Ex. この部屋は (or には)犬しか入れません。

= Kono hewa wa (or niwa) inu shika hairemasen.

= Only dogs can come in the room.

Ex. マギー先生のサイトでしか勉強しない。

= Maggie Sensei no saito de shika benkyou shinai.

= I only study with Maggie Sensei’s site. (Nowhere else.)

Ex. 私には若さしかない。

= Watashi ni wa wakasa shikanai.

= I only have youth. (That’s all I have.)

Ex. 彼女のために、祈ることしかできない。

= Kanojo no tame ni, inoru koto shika dekinai.

= The only thing I can do for her is to just pray.

Ex. 今の彼女には彼しか見えない。

= Ima no kanojo ni wa kare shika mienai.

= (She can’t think about anything else) She only can see him. (She only thinks about him.)

Ex. 今は、待つことしかできない。

= Ima wa, matsu koto shika dekinai.

= The only thing I can do now is wait.

Ex. 私なんてただの犬の先生でしかない。

= Watashi nante tada no inu no sensei de shika nai.

= After all, I am just a dog teacher. That’s all I am.

Ex. あの子は着飾ることしか考えていない。

= Anoko wa kikazaru koto shika kangaete inai.

= She just thinks about dressing up. (That’s the only thing that she can think of. Nothing else.)

Ex. もう彼と話し合うしかないね。

= Mou kare to hanashiau shika naine.

= We just need to talk to him. (There are no other options.)

***
だけしか ( = dake shika) only, just, just limited to ~.

Now, you can combine だけ ( = dake) and しか ( = shika) .

だけしか ( = dakeshika)

The function is the same as しか ( = shika).  だけ ( = dake) emphasizes しか ( = shika)

You only use だけしか ( = dakeshika) in negative sentences.

だけしか ( = dakeshika) and しか ( = shika)

Basically they mean the same but だけしか ( = dakeshika) emphasize the meaning more.

Note: You only use だけしか   ( = dakeshika) in a negative sentence.

Ex. 1) 朝から、パンしか食べていない。

= Asa kara, pan shika tabete inai.

= I only ate a piece of bread. That’s all I had.

→Emphasizing the fact that you only had a piece of bread more.

Ex. 2) 朝から、パンだけしか食べていない。

= Asa kara, pan dake shika tabete inai.

= I only ate a piece of bread. That’s all I had.

Ex. 前売り券を持った人だけしか入れません。

= Maeuriken wo motta hito dake shika hairemasen.

= Only the people who have advanced tickets are allowed to enter.

Ex. 自分にだけしかできないことがある。

= Jibun ni dake shika dekinai koto ga aru.

= There are things that only you can do.

 !star! Sometimes you put a particle between だけ ( = dake) and しか ( = shika)

Ex.同じ経験をした人だけしか私の気持ちは、わからない。

= Onaji keiken wo shita hito dakeni shika watashi no kimochi wa wakaranai.

= The only people who would understand my feelings are the one who had the same experiences. (Nobody else.)

Ex. このお菓子は北海道だけしか買えないの?

= Kono okashi wa Hokkaidou dakede shika kaenaino?

= You can buy these sweets only in Hokkaido?

***
:w: のみ ( = nomi)

のみ ( = nomi) is a formal way to say だけ ( = dake)

Ex. 日曜日だけ休みです。

= Nichiyoubi dake yasumi desu.

= I only have a day off on Sundays.

(more formal/literal)

日曜日のみ休みです。

= Nichiyoubi nomi yasumi desu.

You often see it in a written form.

Ex. 飲み放題!女性のみ千円。

= Nomihoudai! Josei nomi sen en.

= All you can drink. ¥1,000 only for women.

*****
maggie-senseiギー先生より = Maggie sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

Conner先生、Buster先生、ありがとう! !heart3! 

= Conner Sensei, Buster Sensei arigatou!

= Thank you, Conner Sensei, Buster Sensei!

またこのサイトでしか勉強できないレッスンを一緒に作りましょうね。

= Mata kono saito de shika benkyou dekinai ressun wo issho ni tsukurimashou ne.

= Let’s make a lesson together again that you can only find here.

 

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