Time Expressions with and without a particle

January 28, 2016 in Grammar, particle


timeexp

「明日は近所の犬と合コンがあるんだよ。」

= Ashita wa kinjo no inu to goukon ga arundayo.

= You know I have a group date with neighborhood dogs tomorrow.



Hi everyone! Today’s special guest teacher is Flama-sensei,  from Cataluña.
She is our friend and a really sweet doggie.

 

Flamaです。はじめまして!

= Flama desu. Hajimemashita.

= Jo em dic Flama. Molt de gust. (Català/Catalan)

= I am Flama.  Nice to meet you!

Maggie Sensei made two Time Related lessons in past.

1) 時の日本語 (= toki no nihongo) Time Related Japanese Part 1

2) 時間 (=jikan ) Time Related Japanese Part 2

I heard some of you still have a hard time figuring out what time expressions need a particle.

Let me help clear that up today.

★Time expression with  ( = ni): To do something at a specific time / on a specific day, month, year.

Ex. いつも5時仕事が終わります。

= Itsumo goji ni shigoto ga owarimasu.

= I always finish working at five.

Ex. 明日の6時お伺いします。

= Ashita no rokuji ni oukagai shimasu.

= I will visit you at six tomorrow.

(*伺う (= ukagau) is a polite way to say 行きます ( = ikimasu.)  to go (visit))

Ex. 明日は、何時いらっしゃいますか?

= Ashita wa, nanji ni irasshaimasu ka?

= What time are you coming tomorrow?

Ex. 木曜日また来ます。

= Mokuyoubi ni mata kimasu.

= I will be back on Thursday.

Ex. 来週の金曜日試験がある。

= Raishuu no kin’youbi ni shiken ga aru.

= I have an exam next Friday.

Ex. 6月1日結婚します。

= Rokugatsu tsuitachi ni kekkon shimasu.

= I will get married on June 1st.

Ex. 次のコンサートは3月あります。

= Tsugi no konsaato wa sangatsu ni arimasu.

= The next concert will be in March.

Ex. この家は1950年建てられた。

= Kono ie wa sen kyuhyaku gojuu nen ni taterareta.

= This house was built in 1950.

 

★ You don’t usually need the particle ( = ni) with the followings time words because they already function as an adverb.

!star! Note: There are cases that you use (=ni). I will explain when to use it later.

* = ima = now

* 今日 = kyou = today

* 今朝 = kesa = this morning

* 今晩 = konban = tonight

* 今週 = konshuu = this week

* 今月 =  kongetsu = this month

* 今年 = kotoshi = this year

* 明日 = ashita = tomorrow

* 明後日 = asatte = the day after tomorrow

* 来週 = raishuu = next week

* 再来週 = saraishuu = in two weeks

* 昨日 = kinou = yesterday

* 昨夜 = sakuya = last night

* 昨晩 = sakuban= last night

* 一昨日 = ototoi = the day before yesterday

* 去年 = kyonen = last year

* 一昨年 = ototoshi = two years ago

* 毎日 = mainichi = everyday

毎朝 = maiasa = every morning

毎晩 = maiban = every night

* この間 = kono aida = the other day

* 先日 = senjitsu = the other day

 

(X = wrong    ○= correct)

Ex. I will be back tomorrow.

X 明日また、来ます。 (wrong)

= Ashita ni mata kimasu.

明日、また来ます。

= Ashita, mata kimasu.

Ex. I have an exam next week.

X 来週試験がある。(wrong)

= Raishuu ni shiken ga aru.

来週、試験がある。

= Raishuu, shiken ga aru.

Ex. I buy flowers everyday.

X 毎日花を買います。

= Mainichi ni hana wo kaimasu.


毎日、花を買います。

= Mainichi, hana wo kaimasu.

Ex. I got married last year.

X 去年結婚しました。(wrong)

= Kyonen ni kekkon shimashita.

去年、結婚しました。

= Kyonen, kekkon shimashita.

 

★ You sometimes need ( = ni) and sometimes not in the following cases.

1) You  use   ( = ni)  with   ( = sue/matsu ) at the end.

Ex.来月の末*京都に行きます。

= Raigetsu no sue ni Kyoto ni ikimasu.

= I will go to Kyoto at the end of next month.

Ex. 週末*どこか(に)行かない?

= Shuumatsu ni doko ka (ni) ikanai?

= Do you want to go some place on the weekend?

Note: You also say without (=ni)

○ 来月の末、京都に行きます。(=raigetsu no sue, Kyouto ni ikimasu.)

○ 週末、どこか(に)行かない? (= Shuumatsu, dokoka (ni) ikanai?)

2)  ( = go) in ~  / (= chuu) by the end of ~ / ( = mae) before, ahead /  以内 ( = inai) within

*When you emphasize the time giving a specific condition for time,  you have to use ( = ni)

Ex. この旅行は出発の2ヶ月前申し込んで下さい。

= Kono ryokou wa shuppatsu no nikagetsu mae ni moushikonde kudasai.

= Please apply for this trip two months before the departure date.

Ex. それでは、また1週間後歯の治療に来て下さい。

= Soredewa, mata isshuukango ni ha no chiryou ni kite kudasai.

= OK, then please come back in a week for dental treatment.

Ex. 今年中新しい車を買いたい。

= Kotoshi juu ni atarashii kuruma wo kaitai.

= I would like to buy a new car by the end of this year.

Ex. 1時間以内帰って来てください。

= Ichijikan inai ni kaette kite kudasai.

= Please come back within an hour.

****
* If the indicated time simply modifies a verb or adjective as an adverb, you don’t need ( = ni)

Ex. 一晩中、子供の看病をしていた。

= Hitobanjuu, kodomo no kanbyou wo shiteita.

= I was taking care of my sick child all night long.

→X You don’t say 一晩中 ( = hitobanjuu ni)

Ex. ハワイは年中、暖かい。

= Hawai wa nenjuu atatakai.

= Hawaii is warm all through year.

→X  You don’t say 年中 ( = nenjuu ni)

*To do something in certain season → You can omit ( = ni)

Ex. 来年の春 ()大阪に引っ越します。

= Rainen no haru (ni) Ousaka ni hikkoushimasu.

= I will move to Osaka next spring.

→ You can omit ( = ni)

Ex. 今年の夏 ()フィンランドに行った。

= Kotoshi no natsu (ni ) finrando ni itta.

= I went to Finland this summer.

→ You can omit ( = ni)

**********************************

★ certain time / day / week / month year / season なる (= ni  naru)

The literal meaning of ~ なる ( = ninaru) is to turn, to become, to change into ~.

Certain time + になる ( = ni naru) = to be in that time/ passing that time

Ex. 3時なったらおやつを食べていいよ。

= Sanji ni nattara oyatsu wo tabete iiyo.

= You can have a snack when it turns 3:00.

Ex. 5時なるまで帰れない。

= Goji ni naru made kaerenai.

= I can’t go home until five.

Ex. 8時なっても仕事が山積みだ。

= Hachiji ni natte mo shigoto ga yamazumi da.

= Even at eight, I have tons of work.

Ex. 今日なってもまだ息子から連絡がない。

= Kyou ni natte mo mada musuko kara renraku ga nai.

= I haven’t heard from my son until today.

Ex. 明日なってももしまだ体調が悪かったらお医者さんに行った方がいいよ。

= Ashita ni natte mo moshi mada taichou ga warukattara oisha san ni itta hou ga ii yo.

= If you are still under the weather tomorrow, you should go see a doctor.

Ex. そんなにゆっくり宿題をやっていたら明日なっちゃうよ。(Casual)

= Sonnani yukkuri shukudai wo yatte itara ashita ni nacchau yo.

= If you are doing homework that slowly, it will be tomorrow (before you finish).

(At a restaurant)

Ex. すみません。2時なってもいらっしゃらなかったので他の方を先に通してしまいました。

= Sumimasen. Ni ji ni natte mo irassharanakatta node hoka no kata wo saki ni tooshite shimaimashita.

= I am sorry. Since you weren’t here by 2:00, we let other guests in.

Ex. 11月なると急に寒くなる。

= Juuichigatsu ni naru to kyuu ni samuku naru.

= It suddenly becomes colder in November.

(month/ year) 入って = はいって ( = ni haitte) = Since the beginning of a month, year

Ex. 日本語能力試験の勉強をずっとさぼっていたが、12月はいって焦りはじめてきた。

= Nihongo nouryoku shiken no benkyou wo zutto sabotteita ga, juunigatsu ni haitte aseri hajimete kita.

=  I have been slacking off on studying for JLPT but I have started to feel uneasy since the beginning of December.

Ex. 今年はいってまだ一度も彼女に会っていない。

= Kotoshi ni haitte mada ichido mo kanojo ni atte inai.

= I haven’t seen her even once this year.

* ~から ( = kara) from ~~まで ( = made) until

Ex. 2時半からコンサートが始まります。

= Nijihan kara konnsaato ga hajimarimasu.

= The concert will start at 2:30.

Ex. このクラスは1時から2時までです。

= Kono kurasu wa ichiji kara niji made desu.

= The class is from 1:00 to 2:00.

Ex. 交換留学生の募集は2月から6月まで行っています。

= Koukan ryuugakusei no boshuu wa nigatsu kara rokugatsu made okonatte imasu.

= The application period for the foreign exchange students is from February to June.

Ex. 2010年から2012年まで日本に留学していました。

= Nisen juunen kara nisen juuninen made nihon ni ryuugaku shiteimashita.

= I was studying in Japan from 2010 to 2012.

Ex. 「いつまで日本にいるの?」

= Itsumade nihon ni iruno?

= Until when are you going to be in Japan?

「来年の春までいます。」

= Rainen no haru made imasu.

= I will be here until next spring.

Ex. 試験は明日までです。

= Shiken wa ashita made desu.

= (The exam is until tomorrow.)

= The exam will finish tomorrow.

Ex. 今日から冬休みだ。

= Kyou kara fuyuyasumi da.

= The winter holidays start today.

~頃 = ころ= koro /  くらい/ぐらい= kurai / gurai = “about / approximately”,

Ex. 昨夜、9時)、地震がありました。

= Sakuya, kuji goro (ni), jishin ga arimashita.

= There was an earthquake around nine o’clock last night.

Note: You can omit ( = ni)

Ex. 明日、大体、3時集まろうか?

= Ashita, daitai, sanji gurai ni atsumarou ka?

= Why don’t we get together tomorrow around three?

Note: You can omit ( = ni)

*You don’t use ( = ni) with 今頃 ( = ima goro) around this time of ~ / この頃 (= konogoro), 最近 ( = saikin) lately, these days

Ex. 去年の今頃、何をやっていた?

= Kyonen no imagoro, nani wo yatte ita?

= What were you doing around this time last year?

Ex. 彼はこの頃、ちょっと様子がおかしい。

= Kare wa konogoro, chotto yousu ga okashii.

= He has been strange lately.

Ex. 最近、日本語の勉強をがんばっています。

= Saikin, nihongo no benkyou wo ganbatteimasu.

= I have been studying Japanese hard lately.

*****

I said you don’t need a particle ( = ni) with 今日 (= kyou) today, 昨日 ( = kinou) yesterday , 明日 ( = ashita) tomorrow,  but the confusing part is we use a particle, ( = wa) with them.

* ( = wa): A subject marker emphasizing the mentioned time / to show contrast. (Maybe not contrasting one time with another but rather the mentioned time with unmentioned times. See the examples below.)

X 今日、いい天気です。(wrong)

= Kyou, iitenki desu.

Ex. 今日、いい天気です。

= Kyou wa,  ii tenki desu.

= (Today is nice weather.)

= It is nice today.

The weather changes everyday, but (at least) today is nice.

****

X 月曜日、忙しいです。(wrong)

= Getsuyoubi, isogashii desu.

Ex. 月曜日忙しいです。

= Getsuyoubi wa isogashii desu.

(= Mondays are busy days.)

= I am busy on Mondays.

***

Ex. 去年の今頃シンガポールにいました。

= Kyonen no imagoro wa shinagpooru ni imashita.

= I was in Singapore around this time last year.

So you can simply emphasize a certain period of time, a certain day, a certain month, a certain week, or a certain year by using   ( = wa).
Or you can show contrast when you do something special at a particular time period.

 :maggie-small: From the picture above:

Flama「明日近所の犬と合コンがあるんだよ。」

= Ashita wa kinjo no inu to goukon ga arundayo.

= You know I have a group date with neighborhood dogs tomorrow.

Note: You can omit( = wa).

By adding ( = wa) , you can express tomorrow is a special day or doing something different on that day.

Ex. 今日、学校に行きます。

= Kyou, gakkou ni ikimasu.

= I will go to school today.

(regular statement)

↓Emphasizing 今日( = kyou) today

今日、学校に行きます。

= Kyou wa, gakkou ni ikimasu.

Ex. 今日、学校は休みです。

= Kyou, gakkou wa yasumi desu.

= There are no classes at school today.

(regular statement)

Ex. 今日学校は休みです。

= Kyou wa gakkou wa yasumi desu.

= There are no classes at school today.

(You usually have a class on other days but not today.)

Ex. 昨日、買い物に行った。

= Kinou, kaimono ni itta.

= I went shopping yesterday.

(regular statement)

↓Emphasizing 昨日 ( = kinou) yesterday

昨日買い物に行った。

= Kinou wa kaimono ni itta.

Ex. 明日、釣りに行きます。

= Ashita , tsuri ni ikimasu.

= I will go fishing tomorrow.

↓Emphasizing 明日 ( = ashita) tomorrow

Ex. 明日、釣りに行きます。

= Ashita wa, tsuri ni ikimasu.

Ex.2週間、同じホテルに滞在します。

= Nishuukan, onaji hoteru ni taizai shimasu.

= I will stay at the same hotel for two weeks.

(regular statement)

↓ Emphasizing 2週間 (=nishuukan) two weeks. (at least two weeks.)

Ex.2週間、同じホテルに滞在します。

= Nishuukan wa, onaji hoteru ni taizai shimasu.

Ex. 来週、会議があります。

= Raishuu, kaigi ga arimasu.

= We have a meeting next week.

(regular statement)

↓Emphasizing 来週 (= raishuu) next week

Ex. 来週会議があります。

= Raishuu wa kaigi ga ariamsu.

Note: You can also say:

* 会議来週です。

= Kaigi wa raishuu desu.

= The meeting will be held next week.

* ( = niwa) / まで ( = made niwa) by: When you try to do something by a certain period of time

Ex.「明日間に合わせます。」

= Ashita niwa maniawasemasu.

= I will manage to make it by tomorrow.

「今日まで間に合わせると言ったじゃないですか。」

= Kyou made niwa maniawaseru to ittajanai desu ka?

= But you told me that you would make it by today.

「すみません。明日の2時まで必ずすべて終わらせます。」

= Suminasen. Ashita no niji made niwa kanarazu subete owarasemasu.

= I am sorry. I promise to finish everything by 2:00 tomorrow.

Ex. 3週間後もう日本にいて愛ちゃんの横にいるよ。

= Sanshuukango niwa mou nihon ni ite Aichan no yoko ni iruyo.

= I will be with you in Japan in three weeks, Ai-chan.

Ex. ご心配をかけましたが、明日もうよくなっていると思います。

= Goshinpai wo kakemashitaga, ashita niwa mou yoku natte iruto omoimasu.

= I am sorry to make you worry but I think I will be better by tomorrow.

Ex. 来年の春会おうね。

= Rainen no haru niwa aou ne.

= Let’s get together (at latest) in next spring.

**
maggie-senseiマギー先生より = Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

Moltes gràcies, Flama!

ありがとう、Flama!

= Arigatou, Flama!

= Thank you, Flama!

明日の合コン、楽しんでね!

= Ashita no goukon, tanoshinde ne.

= Enjoy your group date tomorrow!