時間 ( = jikan) : Time Related Japanese Part 2

April 10, 2015 in Beginners


timerelated

Cookie : 「ねえ、もう朝の5時だよ!起きて、起きて!」

= Nee, mou asa no goji dayo! Okite, okite!

= Hey, it’s already five in the morning. Wake up, already!

Hi everyone! I am Cookie.

僕は早起きです。(= Boku wa hayaoki desu. )  I am an early riser.

There is an old saying in Japanese

:u:

早起きは三文の徳 ( = Hayaoki wa sanmon no toku.) = The early bird catches the worm.

I hope I can get extra dog treats as a reward for getting up early. (^з<)

Today’s lesson is for beginners. I will teach you “time” related words and expressions.

 

Maggie sensei once made a lesson on 時の日本語(=Toki no nihongo). In this lesson I will just focus on how to tell time in Japanese.

First “time” in Japanese is

:u:

 !star! 時間 = じかん= jikan

Note: 時間 ( = jikan) also has a meaning of “hour(s)

★Telling time in Japanese

In English, 3:20 is “three twenty”.

You just say two numbers,  “3” = three, and “20”.= twenty.

In Japanese, you have to say 3時20分= sanji nijuppun

:rrrr: 3+ ( = ji) = hour and 20 + ( = pun) = minutes.

 number + number ( + number )

=number – ji + + number-fun/bun  ( + number + byou)

=numberhour + numberminutes + numberseconds

 !star! hour : number + (=ji)

*1:00 = 一時= 1時 = いちじ= ichi-ji

*2:00 = 二時= 2時 = にじ= ni-ji

*3:00 = 三時= 3時 = さんじ= san-ji

*4:00 = 四時= 4時 = よじ= yo-ji

*5:00 = 五時= 5時 = ごじ= go-ji

*6:00 = 六時= 6時 =ろくじ=  roku-ji

*7:00 = 七時= 7時 = しちじ/ななじ= shichi-ji / nanaji

*8:00 = 八時= 8時 = はちじ = hachi-ji

*9:00 = 九時= 9時 =くじ=  ku-ji

*10:00 = 十時= 10時 =じゅうじ= juu-ji

*11:00 =十一時= 11時 = じゅういちじ= juuichi-ji

*12:00 = 十二時= 12時 = じゅうにじ= juuni-ji

Now I think you all know how to count in Japanese but when you tell time, you only use certain way of reading

(Ex. You read 4 as “よん=yon” “=yo” or “=shi” but when you tell time, you read it “=yo”.

:rrrr: 四時= 4時=よじ= yoji = 4:00

And you read 9:00 as (=ku) not “きゅう=kyuu” 

 :rrrr: 九時=9時=くじ= kuji = 9:00

 !star! minutes : number + (fun/pun)

The way you read is ふん (=fun), ぷん (=pun) or っぷん (=ppun)

*1分 =いっぷん=  ippun = one minute

*2分 =にふん= ni-fun = two minutes

*3分 =さんぷん = san-pun = three minutes

*4分 =よんぷん = yon-pun = four minutes

*5分 = ごふん= go-fun = five minutes

*6分 = ろっぷん=  roppun = six minutes

*7分 = ななふん= nana-fun = seven minutes

*8分 = はっぷん= happun = eight minutes

*9分 =きゅうふん=  kyuu-fun = nine minutes

*******
*10分 = じっぷん(じゅっぷん)= jippun ( juppun) = ten minutes

*20分 =にじっぷん(じゅっぷん)=  nijippun( nijuppun0 = twenty minutes

*30分 =さんじっぷん(さんじゅっぷん)=  sanjippun(sanjuppun) =thirty  minutes

*40分 = よんじっぷん(よんじゅっぷん)=yonjippun( yonjuppun)= forty minutes

*50分 =ごじっぷん(ごじゅっぷん) = gojippun (gojuppun)= fifty minutes

*60分 = ろくじっぷん(ろくじゅっぷん)= rokujippun (rokujuppun)= sixty minutes

Ex. 55分 = ごじゅうごふん= gojuugo-fun = fifty minutes

Ex. 41分 =よんじゅういっぷん=  younju ippun = fort-one minutes

Ex. 32分 =さんじゅうにふん=  sanjuuni-fun = thirty-two minutes

 

Note: Again pay attention to the way you read the number. (4時 = yoji but 4分 = yon pun, etc.)
Also can be read ふん ( = fun)、ぷん ( = pun)、っぷん ( = pun)

How to read 10分 correctly :

It is said that the correct way of  reading  10分 is じっぷん(=jippun) and TV or radio announcers are supposed to read it じっぷん(=jippun) as well. But in conversation, many people use じゅっぷん(=juppun)

 !star! second(s): number + =びょう= byou

*1秒 =いちびょう=  ichi-byou = one second

*2秒 =にびょう= ni-byou = two seconds

*3秒 =さんびょう=  san-byou = three seconds

*5秒 = ごびょう= go-byou = five seconds

*6秒 =ろくびょう=  roku-byou = six seconds

*7秒 = ななびょう= nana-byou = seven seconds

*8秒 = はちびょう= hachi-byou = eight seconds

*9秒 = きゅうびょう= kyuu-byou = nine seconds

*10秒 =じゅうびょう=  juu-byou = ten seconds

************************************************************

When you describe the length / duration of time, you add ( = kan)

*10秒間 = じゅうびょうかん=juubyoukan = for 10 seconds / 10 seconds

*3分間 = さんぷんかん=for three minutes/ three minutes

*5時間 =ごじかん= gojikan = for five hours / five hours

Ex.カップヌードルにお湯を入れて3分間待ちます。

= Kappu nuudoru ni oyu wo irete sanpunkan machimasu.

= Add boiling water to a portion of Cup Noodles and  wait for three minutes.

Ex. マレーシアまでの飛行時間は8時間30分です。

= Mareishia made no hikoujikan wa hachijikan sanjuppun desu.

= The flight for Malaysia is 8 hours and 30 minutes.

Ex.2時間3分10秒

= nijikan sanpun juubyou

= two hours three minutes and ten seconds

 !star! How to tell a time

Ex. 今、何時ですか?

= Ima, nanji desu ka?

= What time is it now?
:u:
(casual)

Ex. 今、何時?

= Ima, nanji?

= What time is it now?

Ex. 今、3時です。

= Ima, sanji desu.

= It’s three o’clock now.

Ex. 5時です。

= Goji desu.

= It’s five o’clock

Ex. 6時30分です。

= Rokuji sanjuppun desu.

= It’s six thirty.

Note: We also say 30分 ( = sanjuppun) as ( = han)  “a half”

:rrrr: 6:30 = 6時半 = roku-ji han

*1:05 (= ichiji gofun)

:rrrr: You can also say 1時5分過ぎ ( = ichiji gofun sugi) Five past one.

*2:10 =2時10分 ( = niji juppun)

:rrrr:2時10分過ぎ ( = Niji juppun sugi) Ten past two

*7:50 = 7時50分 =  ( = shichiji gojuppun / nanaji gojuppun)

:rrrr:8時10分前 = hachiji juppun mae = Ten to eight

*2:45 = 2時45分 = niji yonjuugofun

:rrrr:3時15分前 = sanji juugofun mae = a quarter to three

Note: It is pretty common to use 24-hour notation in Japan. (Especially in written form).

Instead of *5:00 PM→you’ll say, 17:00 ( = juunanaji or goji)

Instead of *08:00 PM →you’ll say, 20:00 ( = nijuuji or hachiji)

*午前 = gozen = in the morning, a.m, AM, A.M.

*午後 = gogo = in the afternoon, p.m. PM, P.M.

Ex. 午前8時 = gozen hachiji = 8:00 AM

Ex. 午後6時 = gogo rokuji = 6:00 PM

 !onpu! How to say 12:00 and 24:00/0:00

*12:00 = juuniji or 正午=shougo = noon / 昼の12時 = hiru no juuniji

*00:00 = 零時= reiji /  午前0時= gozen reiji /正子=shoushi (not so common)

/ 夜中の12時 = yonaka no juuniji

 !yflower! Time ( + (=no) )+ noun

* = asa = morning

Ex. 6時= asa no rokuji = six in the morning

* = hiru = daytime/ afternoon

 :rrrr: polite お昼 = ohiru

* = yoru = night/ evening

Ex. 10時= yoru no juuji = ten in the evening

**************

Ex. 10時新幹線に乗った。

= Juuji no shinkansen ni notta.

= I took the ten o’clock (shinkansen) bullet train

Ex.午前11時飛行機

= Gozen juuichiji no hikouki

The 11 a.m. flight

Ex. 9時電車に乗る。

= Kuji no densha ni noru.

= to take the 9 o’clock train.

 

:purple: at = ( = ni)

Ex. 明日の午後5時会議があります。

= Ashita no gogo goji ni kaigi ga arimasu.

= I have a meeting at 5pm tomorrow.

Ex. 夜8時半駅前で待ち合わせしよう。

= Yoru hachiji han ni ekimae de machiawase shiyou.

= Let’s get together at 8:30 in front of the station.

 :qq: When you emphasize the time には ( = niwa)

Ex. 毎朝、6時には、起きます。

= Maiasa, rokuji niwa,  okimasu.

= I get up at six every morning.

Ex. 今日は疲れているから11時には寝たい。

= Kyouwa tsukarete iru kara juuichiji niwa netai.

= I am so tired today that I want to go to bed at (by)  eleven o’clock.

 :jjj: from = から ( = kara)

Ex. 今日の12時からチケットが発売される。

= Kyou no juuniji kara chiketto ga hatsubai sareru.

= They will start to sell tickets from twelve today.

Ex. 「嵐にしやがれ」は何時から始まるの?

= “Arashi ni shiyagare” wa nanji kara hajimaru no?

= What time does it start (the TV show) “Arashi ni shiyagare”?

 :yy: until = まで (迄) ( = made)

Ex. 今朝は11時まで寝ていた。

= Kesa wa juuichiji made nete ita.

= I slept until eleven today.

Ex. あの店は9時から17:00まで開いています。

= Ano mise wa kuji kara goji made aite imasu.

= That store is open from nine to five.

 :n: by = までには ( = madeniwa)

Ex. 明日の3時までには仕事を終わらせないといけない。

= Asu (Ashita) no sanji madeniwa shigoto wo owarasenai to ikenai.

= I have to finish my work by three tomorrow.

 :kkk: around = = goro /   = gurai/ kurai

Ex. 彼はいつも1時にやってきます。

= Kare wa itsumo ichijigoro ni yatte kimasu.

= He always come around one.

Ex. 3時には迎えにきます。

= Sanji gurai niwa mukae ni kimasu.

= I will pick you (or someone) up around three.

 :k: past = 過ぎ= sugi

Ex. 6時過ぎには家にいます。

= Rokuji sugi niwa ie ni imasu.

= I will be home after six.

Ex.もう8時過ぎだ。

= Mou hachiji sugida.

= It is already passed eight.

 :s: before = = mae

Ex. 10時にはそちらに着きます。

= Juuji mae niwa sochira ni tsukimasu.

= I will be there before ten.

!yflower!after  = = go

Ex. 1時間に会いましょう。

=Ichijikan go ni aimashou.

= I will see you in an hour.

 !yflower! just = ちょうど = choudo

Ex. 今、5時ちょうどです。

= Ima, goji choudo desu.

= It’s five o’clock sharp.

 :mm: exactly = きっかり= kikkari

Ex. きっかり4時には伺います。

= Kikkari yoji niwa ukagaimasu.

or

4時きっかりには伺います。

= Yoji kikkari niwa ukagaimasu.

= I will be there 4:00 on the dot.

 :ii: on time, with punctuality = 時間通り= jikan doori

Ex. 電車は時間通りに横浜に着いた。

= Densha wa jikan doori ni Yokohama ni tsuita.

= The train arrived in Yokohama on time.

******************************
!star! Other time related expressions

*to have time

= 時間がある = jikan ga aru

*not to have time

= 時間がない = jikan ga nai

Ex. 今日はあまり時間がないのでまた明日話しましょう。

= Kyou wa amari jikan ga nai node mata ashita hanashimashou.

= I don’t have much time today so let’s talk about it tomorrow.

Ex. 今、時間がありますか?

= Ima, ikan ga arimasu ka?

= Do you have time?

(casual)  :u: 

Ex. 今、時間ある?

= Ima, jikan aru?

= You got time?

Ex. 時間はたっぷりあるのにお金がない。

= Jikan wa tappuri aru noni okane ga nai.

= I have plenty of time but no money.

*to take time = 時間がかかる = jikan ga kakaru

Ex. ハワイから日本まで飛行機で9時間位かかります。

= Hawai kara nihon made hikouki de kujikan gurai kakarimasu.

= It takes nine hours from Hawaii to Japan by airplane.

Ex. 家から学校まで30分かかります。

= Ie kara gakkou made sanjuppun kakarimasu.

= It takes 30 minutes from my house to school.

Ex. 会社から駅までどの位かかりますか?

= Kaisha kara eki made donogurai kakarimasu ka?

= How long does it take to get from your company to the station?

Ex. 家まで歩いて、何分かかる?

= Ie made nanpun kakaru?

= How long does it take to get to your house on foot?

Ex. 大体、10分ぐらいかかります。

= Daitai, juppun gurai kakarimasu.

= It takes about 10 minutes.

Ex.そこまで自転車で行くと何時間かかりますか?

= Sokomade jitensha de iku to nanjikan kakarimasu ka?

= If I go there by bike, how long will it take?

*to pass time = 時間が経つ = jikan ga tatsu

Ex. 時間が経ったら楽になるでしょう。

= Jikan  ga tattara raku ninaru deshou.

= It will pass with time.

 :rrrr: For literal expression, you use = toki = (the concept of) time/ time in general

Ex. 時が経つのは早いもの

= Toki ga tatsu no wa hayai mono.

= Time flies.

Ex. 時は金なり

= Toki wa kane nari.

= Time is money.

maggie-senseiマギー先生より = Maggie Sensei yori= From Maggie Sensei

Cookie先生はいつも早起きだよね。

= Cookie sensei wa itsumo hayaoki dayone.

= Cookie Sensei always gets up early.

でもゆかりがかわいそうだからもう少し寝せてあげてね。

= Demo Yukari ga kawaisou dakara mousukoshi nesete agetene.

= But I feel sorry for Yukari so please let her sleep a little more.