〜ずに (=zuni) & 〜ないで(=naide)

October 22, 2013 in Beginners, Grammar

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zuni
「これ並ばずに買えたの?」
= Kore narabazu ni kaetano?
 
= Did you get this without standing in line?
 
 
Hi everyone. Do you know what this cake is called?
 
It’s バームクーヘン (=baamukuuhen) = Baumkuchen.
 
Though Baumkuchen is originally from Germany, for some reason it is very common in Japan.  You can find it just about anywhere. There are a lot of variations such as chocolate, maccha , lemon cream and etc.

This one is covered with caramel sauce, just like crème brûlée and it’s  my favorite! !heart3!

They have been selling like the proverbial “hot cakes”.

Since it is very popular, people have to wait in long lines to get one.
Yukari got this today for me.  She said the line wasn’t too long. Lucky! 

So today, we will learn how to say:

!to right! “(to do something) without doing something”

You’ve probably already learned  ないで(=naide).

Note : ないで(=naide) is slightly more casual than ずに(=zuni)

Yukari bought this sweet cake without waiting in line.

Ex. . ゆかりはこのお菓子を並ばないで買った。

= Yukari wa kono okashi wo narabanai de katta.

:u:

Just change ない(=nai) to (=zu)

Ex. ゆかりはこのお菓子を並ばずに買った。

= Yukari wa kono okashi wo narabazu ni katta.

!star! How to form : ないで(=naide) and ずに(=zuni)

:ii: verb negative form

 

食べない = tabenai

:u:

add (=de)

:u:

食べないで

Ex. 1-a) 何も食べないで一日過ごす。

= Nani mo tabezu ni ichinichi sugosu.

= to spend a day without eating anything.

:u:

Switch ないで(=naide) with ずに(=zuni)

:u:

食べずに = tabezuni

:u:

Ex. 1-b) 何も食べずに一日過ごす。

= Nani mo tabezu ni ichinichi sugosu.

= to spend a day without eating anything.

*******

調べない =shirabenai = not to check

:u:

調べないで = shirabenai de = without checking

Ex. 中身を調べないで送った

= Nakami wo shirabenai de okutta.

= I sent it without checking the contents.

:u:

調べずに= shirabezu ni = without checking

:u:

Ex. 中身を調べずに送った

= Nakami wo shirabezu ni okutta.

= I sent it without checking the contents.

******

する(=suru)

:u:

しないで = shinaide = without doing

Ex. 2-a) 勉強しないで試験に受かった。

= Benkyou shinai de shiken ni ukatta.

= I passed the exam without studying.

:u:

Now this one is irregular. Instead of saying ずに(=shizu ni), you say
ずに (= sezuni) without doing

Ex. 2-b) 勉強せずに試験に受かった。

= Benkyou sezu ni shiken ni ukatta.

= I passed the exam without studying.

****************************

苦労をする(=kurou wo suru) to have a hardship

Ex. 私はなんの苦労もないでずに育った。

= Watashi wa nanno kurou mo shinaide/ sezuni sodatta.

= I was raised without any hardship.

***

電気を消す(=denki wo kesu ) to turn off the light

Ex. 妹はいつも電気を消さないで/ 消さずに寝る。

= Imouto wa itsumo denki wo kesanaide/ kesazu ni neru.

= My little sister always leaves the light on when she goes to sleep.
(She doesn’t turn off the light when she goes to sleep.)

***

飽きる(=akiru) to get tired of ~

Ex. よく同じものばかり飽きないで/ 飽きずに食べられるね。

= Yoku onaji mono bakari akinaide/ akizu ni taberareru ne.

= How can you eat the same thing all the time (without getting tired of it)?

Don’t you get tired of it?

***

Ex. 私のことは気にないでずに先に行って下さい。

= Watashi no koto wa kini shinaide / sezu ni saki ni itte kudasai.

= (Please go ahead without worrying about me.)

= Don’t worry about me, and please go ahead.

Ex. 今日はお化粧をないでずに出かけた。

= Kyou wa okeshou wo shinaide/ sezuni dekaketa.

= I went out without putting make-up on.

Ex. 今年も病気にかからないでかからずに過ごすことができた。

= Kotoshi mo byouki ni kakaranide / kakarazu ni sugosu koto ga dekita.

= I got by this year without getting sick.

Ex. 今から言うことを怒らないで怒らずに聞いて下さい。

= Ima kara iu koto wo okoranai de / okorazu ni kiite kudasai.

=(Please  listen to what I am about to tell you now without getting offended.)

= Please don’t get offended, and listen to me.

Ex. 彼からのメールを読まないで読まずに捨てた。

= Karekara no meiru wo yomanaide / yomazu ni suteta.

= I trashed his email without reading.

You can make soft negative imperative sentences.

Ex. これからも変わらないで変わらずにいて下さい。

= Korekara mo kawaranaide / kawarazu ni ite kudasai.

Please stay the same. (without any changes.)

 

Ex. 私が言ったことを忘れないでね/忘れずにね。( suffix here may sound feminine.)

= Watashi ga itta koto wo wasurenai de ne/ wasurezunine.

= Don’t forget what I told you.

Note :  You can say ないで下さい(=naide kudasai) but you can’t say ~ずに下さい。(=~zuni kudasai.)

*****
Another expression with ないで(=naide) and ~ずに(=zuni)

!to right!ないではいられない(=naide wa irarenai) / ずにはいられない(=zuni wa irarenai)

= can’t help but ~, it is difficult not to ~

(When you are craving for something or you really want to do something and you can’t control your emotions, urges or actions.)

Ex. マギーのことを愛さないで/ 愛さずにいられない。

= Maggie no koto wo aisanaidewa/ aisazu niwa  irarenai.

= I can’t help loving Maggie.

Ex. お酒を飲まないで/ 飲まずにいられない。

= Osake wo nomanaidewa / nomazu ni wa irarenai.

= I can’t help drinking alcohol.

Ex. この曲を聞くと歌わないで歌わずにいられない。

= Kono kyoku wo kikuto utawanai dewa / utawazu ni wa irarenai.

= Every time I hear this song, I can’t help singing along.

:qq: Note 1 )

Though ~ずに(=zuni) is considered to be  a written form  and slightly more formal than ないで(=naide) , many of the expressions are more natural with ずに(=zuni)

!yflower! Note 2 )

For advanced learners :

You may wonder what  the difference between 〜ずにはいられない(=zuni wa irarenai) and〜 ざるをえない(=zaru wo enai) is because they are both translated “cannot help but

I won’t teach you all the details of 〜ざるをえない(=zaru wo enai) here today but it is used when you don’t want to do something but you are obliged to do that  because  you have no choice

Ex. 走らずにはいられなかった。

= Hashirazu niwa irarenakatta.

= I couldn’t help running.

Ex. 走らざるをえなかった

=Hashirazaru wo enakatta.

= I had to run. (I had no choice.)

マギー先生maggie-senseiより= Maggie sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

 運動せずに痩せる方法なにか、ないかなあ。

= Undou sezuni  yaseru houhou nanika naikanaa.

= I wonder if there is any way to lose weight without exercising…