Conditional : 〜たら = ~tara (*Request Lesson)

February 17, 2011 in Grammar, Sentence pattern


Maggie :「ゆかり、掃除が終わったらマッサージしてね。」

= Yukari, Souji ga owattara massaaji shitene.

= Hey, Yukari, when you finish cleaning, give me a massage, OK?

Yukari :「気が向いたらね。」

= Ki ga muitara ne.

= If I feel like it…

Hi, everyone!

Today’s lesson is for a loyal visitor of this site, Harin who left a following question in a comment last December…

Q : いつ「when…」という意味で「~たら」を使うか分かりません。
= Itsu “when..” toiu imi de “~ tara” wo tsukau ka wakarimasen.

= I don’t know when I can use “たら=tara” that means “when”

Also my lovely Twitter follower, Aki asked me recently how to use 〜たら(= ~tara) as well.

As you know there are a lot of ways to make conditional sentences, such as なら (=nara), ならば(= naraba), (=to), れば(=reba), etc.

I will just focus on たら=tara today.(You’ll understand why when you see how long it takes to explain just one of these! :) )

First we see…

 

 

!to right! How to form “if-clause” with “たら“=tara

:rrrr: もし〜たら = moshi ~ tara

If” in Japanese is もし(= moshi).

!star! You can omit もし(=moshi) if you think the condition is more certain or likely to happen.

もし(=moshi) + pronoun/noun + だったら = dattara

= watashi = I

もし+ 私だったら

= moshi watashi dattara

明日= ashita = tomorrow

もし+明日だったら

= moshi + ashita dattara

マギー= Maggie

もし+マギーだったら

= moshi + Maggie dattara

これ= kore = this

もし +これだったら

=moshi + kore dattara

日本人= nihonjin = Japanese people

もし+日本人だったら...

= (moshi) nihonjin dattara

私の家= watashi no ie = my house

もし +私の家だったら

=moshi watashi no ie dattara….

カレーライス =karei raisu  = Curry and rice

もし +カレーライスだったら

= moshi karei raisu dattara….

:l: negative sentences :

もし(=moshi) + pronoun/noun + で(は)なかったら = de(wa) nakattara

= watashi

もし+ 私で(は)なかったら

= moshi watashi de(wa) nakattara

(casual form ) + じゃなかったら= ja nakattara

= watashi

もし + 私じゃなかったら

=moshi watashi ja nakattara

もし=moshi + verb (past tense )+(=ra)

Note : We make the conditional form by using past tense but it can refer to the “simple present” or the “future“.

ある = aru = there is

(past tense) あった(=atta)+(=ra)

もし+あったら

= moshi + attara

読む= yomu = to read

(past tense) 読んだ(=yonda)+(=ra)

もし+ 読んだら

= moshi + yondara

!to right! Note : after the letter (=n),  たら(=tara) will be だら(=dara)

食べる = taberu = to eat

(past tense) 食べた(=tabeta)+(=ra)

もし+ 食べたら

= moshi + tabetara

読んでいる= yonde iru = to be reading, to have read

(past tense) 読んでいた(=yonde ita)+(=ra)

もし+ 読んでいたら

= moshi + yonde itara

食べている = tabete iru = to be eating, to have eaten

(past tense) 食べていた(=tabete ita)+(=ra)

もし+ 食べていたら

= moshi + tabete itara

:: How to make negative sentences :

もし(=moshi) + verb (past tense negative)+(=ra)

出来る(= dekiru ) = to be finished, to be done, to be made

(negative) 出来ない (= dekinai)

(past tense) 出来なかった = dekinakatta

もし+ 出来なかったら

= moshi + dekinakattara

変わる(=kawaru) = to change

negative 変わらない(=kawaranai)

(past tense) 変わらなかった = kawaranakatta

もし+ 変わらなかったら

= moshi + kawaranakattara

もし(=moshi) + adjective past tense +(=ra)

i-adjective

美味しい = oishii = delicious

(past tense) 美味しかった = oishikatta

もし+ 美味しかったら

= moshi + oishikattara

かわいい= kawaii = cute

(past tense) かわいかった = kawaikatta

もし+かわいかったら

= moshi + kawaikattara

:: negative sentences :

もし(=moshi) + past negative + (= ra)

美味しくない

(past tense) 美味しくなかった (= oishiku nakatta)

もし+ 美味しくなかったら

= moshi + oishiku nakattara

na-adjective

綺麗 = kirei = beautiful, pretty

(past tense) 綺麗だった = kireidatta

もし+ 綺麗だったら

= moshi +kirei dattara


元気 = genki = energetic, healthy

(past tense) 元気だった = genkidatta

もし+ 元気だったら

= moshi +genki dattara

:: negative sentences :

もし(=moshi) + past negative + (= ra)

元気で(は)ない

= genki de (wa)nai

(past tense) 元気で(は)なかった

= genki de (wa) nakatta

もし + 元気で(は)なかったら

= moshi + genki de (wa) nakattara

(more casual)

もし + 元気じゃなかったら

= Moshi genki ja nakattara

************************

Conditional Sentences:


:kkk: もし(= moshi) + condition + たら(=tara) + possible consequences, what you are going to do

Theoretically possible to fulfill a condition which is given in the if-clause.

(You can omit もし=moshi: Check the notes below)

Ex. もし明日晴れたら、ゴルフに行きます。
= Moshi ashita haretara gorufu ni ikimasu.
= If the weather is good tomorrow, I will go play golf.

Ex. もし雨が降ったら中止です。
= Moshi Ame ga futtara chuushi desu.
= If it rains, it will be canceled.

Ex. もし試験に落ちたら他の学校を受ける。
= Moshi Shiken ni ochitara hoka no gakkou wo ukeru.
= If I fail the exam, I will take an exam for other school.

Ex. もしわからないことがあったらいつでも聞いて下さい。
=
Moshi Wakaranai koto ga attara itsudemo kiite kudasai.
= If there is anything that you don’t understand, please ask me anytime.

Ex. もしもっと勉強したら日本語が上手になるよ!
= (Moshi) Motto benkyou shitara nihongo ga jouzu ni naruyo!
= If you study more, your Japanese will improve.

Ex. もしマギーに会ったら宜しく伝えてね。

= (Moshi) Maggie ni attara yoroshiku tsutaete ne.

= If you see Maggie, please tell her “hello” for me.

Ex. それ美味しかったら私も食べたい。

= Sore oishikattara watashi mo tabetai.

= If it’s good, I want to eat it, too.

Ex. もし忙しかったら明日でもいいです。

= Moshi isogashikattara ashita demo iidesu.

= If you are busy, tomorrow is fine.

Ex. もしマギーの電話番号知っていたら教えて。

= Moshi Maggie no denwa bangou shitte itara oshiete.

= If you know Maggie’s phone number, please give it to me.

:i: Note : When do we omit もし= moshi.

As I mentioned above, when the speaker feels the condition is more likely to happen or certain, we tend to omit もし= moshi

a) もしよかったらどうぞ
= Moshi yokattara douzo.

= Please help yourself

(Literal meaning : If you want, please help yourself.)

:rrrr: よかったらどうぞ

= Yokattara douzo

:rrrr: In this case using もし (=moshi) is more subtle and it could be more polite and without もし=moshi is more direct.

Ex. もし日本に来たら連絡してね。
= Moshi nihon ni kitara renraku shitene.
= If you come to Japan, let me know.

(The speaker thinks the possibility is higher)
:rrrr: 日本に来たら連絡してね。

= Nihon ni kitara renraku shitene.

= When you come to Japan, let me know.

Ex. もし嫌だったらやらなくていいよ。
= Moshi iyadattara yaranakute iiyo.
= If you don’t want to do it, don’t do it.

:rrrr: 嫌だったらやらなくていいよ。(sounds stronger)

= Iyadattara yaranakute iiyo.

When you give directions, you don’t need もし=moshi

Ex. この道をまっすぐいったらすぐわかります。

= Kono michi wo massugu ittara sugu wakarimasu.

= Go straight down this road and you can’t miss it.

Ex. 食べ終わったら自分で片付けてね。

= Tabeowattara jibun de katazukete ne.

= When you finish eating, clean up after yourself.

2) When you bring up a hypothetical condition which is impossible or difficult to be fulfilled (or something emotionally hard to imagine) :

Ex. もし宝くじに当たったらこの車を買えるのに。
= Moshi takara kuji ni atattara kono kuruma wo kaeru noni.
= If I won the lottery, I could buy this car…

Ex. もし私がマギーだったらあんなことは言わない(のに)。
= Moshi watashi ga Maggie dattara anna koto wa iwanai (noni).
= If I were Maggie, I wouldn’t have said such a thing.

Ex. (もし)お天気だったら洗濯が出来た(のに)。
= (Moshi) Otenki dattara sentaku ga dekita (noni).
= If the weather had been nice, I could have done the laundry.

Ex. もしあなたが死んでしまったら生きていけない。

= Moshi anataga shinde shimattara ikite ikenai.

= If you die, I wouldn’t be able to survive.

Ex. 父が生きていたら喜んでくれたのに。

= Chichi ga ikite itara yorokonde kuretanoni.

= If my father were alive, he would be very happy for me.

Note:  のに (= noni) stresses the meaning and you can express your feelings of accusation or regrets.

When you express your desire :

(* You don’t need もし= moshi)

Ex. JLPTの1級に受かったらいいのに。

= JLPT no ikyuu ni ukattara iinoni.

= I wish I could pass JLPT Level 1.

Ex. マギーも来たらよかったのに。

= Maggie mo kitara yokatta noni.

= You (Maggie) should have come,too.

Ex. 明日、お天気だったらいいね。

= Ashita otenki dattara iine.

= Hope the weather is nice tomorrow.

Now besides “if”,   たら(=tara) has a meaning of “when

:u:

When you bring up a possible condition and consequence and then asking for a favor or giving a direction:

Ex. 給料が出たらおごってあげるよ!
= Kyuuryou ga detara ogotte ageruyo.
= When I get paid, I will treat you.

Ex. ご飯できたら呼んで!
= Gohen dekitara yonde!
= Call me when dinner is ready.

Ex. その本、読み終わったら貸してくれる?
= Sono hon yomiowattara kashite kureru?
= When you finish reading the book, can you lend it to me?

Ex. 落ち着いたら電話をかけ直します。
= Ochitsuitara denwa wo kakenaoshimasu.
= I will call you back when things settle down.

Ex. 春が来たら旅行に行こう。
= Haru ga kitara ryokou ni ikou.
= When spring comes, let’s go traveling!

Ex.それ終わったら教えて!
= Sore owattara oshiete!
= Tell me when you are done/you finish it.

Ex. 駅に着いたら電話を頂戴。

= Eki ni tsuitara denwa wo choudai.

= When you get to the station, give me a call.

Ex. あと10分経ったらケーキが焼き上がります。

= Ato juppun tattara keiki ga yakiagarimasu.

= The cake will be finished baking in 10 more minutes.

When you make a suggestion, you can also use たら= tara

Ex. 歯が痛いんだったら歯医者さんに行ったら

= Haga itain dattara haisha san ni ittara?

= If you have a toothache why don’t you go to the dentist?

Ex. マギー先生に優しくしたら

= Maggie Sensei ni yasahiku shitara?

= Why don’t you be nice to Maggie Sensei

Ex. もう寝たらいいのに!

= Mou netara iinoni!

= You should go to bed already!


:maggie-small: From the picture above :

「ゆかり、掃除が終わったらマッサージしてね。」

= Yukari, Souji ga owattara massaaji shitene.

= Hey, Yukari,  when you finish cleaning, give me a massage, OK?

「気が向いたらね。」

= Ki ga muitara ne.

= If I feel like it…

* 気が向く = ki ga muku = to feel like doing something


マギー先生より= Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

マッサージが終わったらご飯作ってね。
= Massaaji ga owattara gohan tsukutte ne.
= When you finish massage, fix my meal, OK?

Do you want to practice  ”~たら~tara” with me? Then follow me on Twiter

Maggie Sensei

もしよかったらフォローしてね:maggie-small:

= Moshi yokattara follow shitene.