How to use 〜ていく+〜てくる ( = ~teiku + ~tekuru)

teiku

8-O 「雨が降ってきたのにそんなの着ていくの?」

= Ame ga futte kita noni sonnano kite iku no?

=“It has started to rain and  you’re going out like that?”

:maggie-small: 「いいの!お洒落していくの!」

= Iino! Oshare shite ikuno!)

“Leave me alone! I wanna go out dressed up!”

tekuru

:?:   「もう晴れてきたのにレインコート着てきたの?」

= Mou harete kita noni reinkouto kite kita no?

=  “How come you are wearing a raincoat? The weather has cleared up now.”

:maggie-small: 「悪い?」

= Warui?

“Is there any problem?”

Hi, everyone.
We have got a request from T-san.

“If possible, can you do a lesson about ~te iku and ~te kuru form? I have been having problems to understand when to use them or when to use one versus the other. “

OK, tough one, but I will try to make a lesson with lots of example sentences so that you’ll get the idea. 

がんばります! ( = ganbarimasu!) :P

As many of you already know, the verb 行く ( = iku) means to go somewhere and 来る ( = kuru) means to come from somewhere.

私は、明日、京都に行きます。

= Watashi wa ashita kyouto ni ikimasu.

I will go to Kyoto tomorrow.

彼は毎朝8時に会社に行きます。

= Kare wa maiasa hachiji ni kaisha ni ikimasu.

He goes to the office at 8:00 every morning.

明日、友達がうちに来ます。

= Ashita tomodachi ga kimasu.

My friend will come over tomorrow.

週末のパーティーには10人の人が来る予定です。

= Shuumatsu no paatii niwa juu nin no hito ga kuru yotei desu.

10 people are supposed to come to the party this weekend.

So far so good?
Now we see the form with other verbs!

<Basic grammar patterns >


:qq:
Verb + ていく ( = teiku)

<Present forms>

Verb + ていく ( = teiku)

negative form:

Verb + ていかない ( = te ikanai)

“masu” form (more polite):

Verb ていきます ( = te ikimasu)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

Verb ていきません ( = te ikimasen)

<Past  forms>


Verb + ていった  ( = teitta)

negative form:

Verb + ていかなかった ( = te ikanakatta)

“masu” form (more polite):

Verb ていきました ( = te ikimashita)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

Verb ていきませんでした ( = te ikimasendeshita)


:l: Verb +てくる ( = tekuru)

<Present forms>


Verb + てくる  ( = tekuru)

negative form:

Verb +てこない  ( = te konai)

“masu” form (more polite):

Verb +てきます   ( = te kimasu)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

Verb +てきません  ( = te kimasen)

<Past  forms>


Verb + てきた  ( = tekita)

negative form :

Verb + てこなかった  ( = te konakatta)

“masu” form (more polite):

Verb +てきました  ( = te kimashita)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

Verb +てきませんでした  ( = te kimasendeshita)

:u: (examples)

<Present forms>

• 帰って行く ( = kaette iku) to go home

negative form :

帰って行かない ( = kaette ikanai)

“masu” form (more polite) :

帰って行きます ( = kaette ikimasu.)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

帰って行きません ( = kaette ikimasen.)

<Past  forms>

• 帰って行った ( = kaette itta) to have left, gone

negative form :

帰って行かなかった  ( = kaette ikanakatta)

“masu” form (more polite) :

帰って行きました  ( = kaette ikimashita.)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

帰って行きませんでした ( = kaette ikimasen deshita.)

<Present forms>

帰って来る ( = kaette kuru) to come home, return

negative form :

帰って来ない  ( = kaette konai)

“masu” form (more polite) :

帰って来ます  ( = kaette kimasu.)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

帰って来ません  ( = kaette kimasen.)

<Past  forms>

•帰って来た ( = kaette kita) to have come home, return

negative form:

帰って来なかった  ( = kaette konakatta)

“masu” form (more polite):

帰って来ました  ( = kaette kimashita.)

negative“masu” form (more polite):

帰って来ませんでした  ( = kaette kimasen deshita)

Example sentences :

Ex. 暗くなってきたので子供たちは、家に帰っていった

= Kuraku natte kita node kodomotachi wa ie ni kaette itta.

Since it is getting dark outside, the children went home.

(You see them going home/going away.)


Ex. 暗くなってきたので子供たちは、家に帰ってきた

= Kuraku natte kita node kodomotachi wa ie ni kaette kita.  

Since it is getting dark outside, the children returned home.

(You are at home and you see them coming home.)

:rrrr: <How to use Verb + ていく  ( = teiku) and  Verb +てくる  ( = tekuru)>

*Sometimes you don’t use kanji  ( 行く ( = iku)  来る ( =  kuru))   for iku and kuru and just use hiragana,  いく( = iku) くる ( = kuru)

1)Verb    +   てくる  ( = te kuru):  to do something and return

Verb   +  ていく ( = te iku) : to go to do something

• 連れていく ( = tsurete iku)  to take someone with you somewhere

• 連れてくる ( = tsurete kuru) to bring someone

Ex. 明日、マギーを連れていってもいいですか?

=Ashita Maggie wo tsurete itte mo iidesu ka?

=“Can I take Maggie with me (from here to somewhere) tomorrow?”

Ex. 明日、マギーを連れてくるんですか?

=Ashita Maggie wo tsurete kurun desu ka?

=“Are you going to bring Maggie (here) tomorrow?”

買う ( = kau) to buy買って  ( = katte) + いく( = iku) or くる ( = kuru)

買っていく  ( = katte iku) to buy something and go somewhere

買ってくる ( = katte kuru) to buy something and bring it to the place where speaker is.

Ex.マギー、ドッグフードがないから買ってくるね。

= Maggie, doggu fuudo ga nai kara katte kuru ne.

= Maggie, there is no dog food left so  I will go get some and come back (home).

(The speaker is with Maggie right now and leave the house to get dog food.)

Ex.マギー、ドッグフードがないから買っていくね。

= Maggie, doggu fuudo ga nai kara katte iku ne.

= Maggie, there is no dog food left so I will get it and come to your house.

(The speaker is not with Maggie right now and will bring her dog food.)

持つ  ( = motsu) to hold持って  ( = motte)+いく  ( = iku) or くる ( = kuru)

持っていく  ( = motte iku) to take

持ってくる  ( = motte kuru) to bring

OK, imagine this situation. You’re home, and are just about to leave to go to a party. You want to bring something like wine or chips to the party so you call and ask him what you should bring.

Ex. 何を持っていったらいい?

=Nani wo motte ittara ii?

=What should I take?

And your friend may say something like,

Ex. ワインを持ってきて

=Wain wo motte kite!

Bring us a bottle of wine!

する ( = suru)  to doして  ( = shite) + いく  ( = iku) or くる ( = kuru)

宿題をしていく  ( = shukudai wo shiteiku) to do homework and go (to school)

宿題をしてくる  ( = shukudai wo shitekuru) to do homework and come (to school )

Ex. 息子は最近、宿題をしていきません

= Musuko wa saikin shukudai wo shiteikimasen.

= My son doesn’t do homework lately.

(=He doesn’t do homework and take it to school)

Ex. 最近、宿題をしてこない生徒が多いです。

= Saikin shukudai wo shite konai seito ga ooi desu.

= There are lots of students who don’t do homework at home and come to school lately.

(Many students come to school without doing homework.)

作る ( = tsukuru)  to make → 作って  ( = tsukutte) + いく  ( = iku) or くる ( = kuru)

• 作っていく  ( = tsukutte iku) to make something and go

作ってくる ( = tsukutte kuru) to make something and come

Ex. お弁当を作っていかなければいけません。

 = Obentou wo tsukutte ikanakereba ikemasen.)

= I have to prepare lunch and take it (to somewhere.)

Ex. お弁当を作ってきて下さい

= Obentou wo tsukutte kite kudasai.

= Please make lunch and bring it.

もらう ( = morau) →もらって  ( = moratte) いく  ( = iku) or くる ( = kuru)

もらっていく ( = moratte iku) to receive something and go somewhere

もらってくる ( = moratte kuru) to receive something and bring it here

Ex. これ美味しそうだからもらっていきます

= Kore oishisou dakara moratte ikimasu.

= This looks delicious so I will take it (home).

Ex. 母はいつも出かけると一杯ポケットティッシュをもらってくる。

= Haha wa itsumo dekakeru to ippai poketto tisshu wo moratte kuru.

 Whenever my mom goes out, she gets lots of pocket tissues and bring them back home.

2) Verb + ていく   ( = teiku) describe a motion going away from the place where the speaker is.

Verb  てくる   ( = tekuru) describe a motion coming towards the place where the speaker is.

カラスが飛んでいく

= karasu ga tonde iku

= Crows are flying away. (going away)

カラスが飛んでくる

= karasu ga tonde kuru

= Crows are flying towards. (coming towards)

マギーが教室から出て行く。

=Maggie ga kyoushitsu kara deteiku.

Maggie is leaving (from) the classroom. (walking out of the classroom)

マギーが教室から出て来る

=Maggie ga kyoushitsu kara dete kuru.

= Maggie is coming out of the classroom. (coming towards the speaker)

3)

Verb + ていく  ( = teiku) and てくる  ( = tekuru) / てきた  ( = tekita)  are sometimes related to the time flow from speaker’s point of view.

You have to focus on how  things have been changing or will change.

Verb + ていく  ( = teiku) From the time when speaker is thinking to the future. / habitual actions

:u: (past tense)

Verb + ていった  ( = teitta) From the past until the time when speaker is thinking.

Verbてくる  ( = tekuru) From the time when speaker is thinking to the future. / habitual actions

:u: (past tense)

Verb + てきた  ( = tekita) From the past until the time when speaker is thinking.

Ex. 人気があがってくる

=Ninki ga agatte kuru.

They will become popular from now.

(You are seeing their popularity subjectively.)

Ex. 彼らの人気があがってきた

= Karera no ninki ga agatte kita

They have been becoming popular until now, but we don’t know what will happen at this point. They may continue becoming more and more popular or they may stop being being popular.


Ex. 人気があがっていく

= Ninki ga agatte iku

= They will become  popular. (from now on )

(You are seeing their popularity objectively)

Ex. 人気があがっていった 

=Ninki ga agatte itta.

They became popular. / They have been popular.

• なっていく ( = natteiku)+なってくる ( = nattekuru) becoming to/start to/be getting

Ex. 暑くなってくる

= Atsuku natte kuru

= It will get  hotter. (from now)

Ex. 暑くなってきた

= Atsuku natte kita.

It is getting hotter/ It has been getting hotter. / I has became hotter. (until now.)

Ex. 暑くなっていく

= Atsuku natte iku

= It will get hotter. (from now on )

Ex. 暑くなっていった

=Atsuku natte itta.

= It got hotter.

Note: You use 暑くなってくる  ( = atsuku nattekuru) / 暑くなってきた( = atsuku natttekita) when you are/have been feeling the heat.

暑くなっていく( = atsuku natte iku) / 暑くなっていった ( = atsuku natte itta) is used when you describe the change of the climate more objectively.

So when you describe something (physically or mentally) far away from you , you use ていく( = teiku)・ていった  ( = teitta)

Ex. 景気がよくなってきています

= Keiki ga yoku natte kite imasu.)

= The economy has been getting better. (until now)

Ex. 景気がよくなっていきます

= Keiki ga yoku natte ikimasu.)

= The economy will get better. (from now on )


Ex. 1) あの子はだんだん可愛くなってくるね。

= Anoko wa dandan kawaiku natte kurune.

= She has been getting cuter and cuter. (until now and maybe in future as well)

Ex. 2) あの子はだんだん可愛くなってきたね。

= Anoko wa dandan kawaiku natte kitane.

= She has been getting cuter and cuter. (until now)

Ex. 3) あの子はだんだん可愛くなっていくね。

= Anoko wa dandan kawaiku natte ikune.

= She will be cuter and cuter. (from now on )

Note : Actually these three sentence may sound the same but the difference are

Ex.1 and Ex. 2) focusing on the past to present. /  when we see her subjectively and we are close to the girl.

(The difference between Ex.1 and Ex 2) Ex 1 is used when you want to emphasize the present time more. )

Ex.3 :  focusing on the present and future / when we see the girl objectively in a distance.


Ex. マギーが好きになってくる/きた

= Maggie ga suki ni natte kuru./kita.

= I’ve come to like Maggie. (until now)

Ex. マギーが好きになっていく

= Dandan Maggie ga sukini natte iku.

= I am getting to like Maggie. (from now on )


:i:

:s:てくる ( = tekuru) : Something (motion, action, change)  is coming/moving toward where you are or your  perspective.

:ii:ていく ( = teiku) : Something (motion, action, change)   is going away from where you are/ your perspective. (Or when you see something ( motion/change) is moving in some direction objectively.

 

Note: There are some cases that you only use てくる ( = tekuru) forms.

• お腹がすいてくる/きた

=Onaka ga suite kuru/kita

= to be getting hungry

腹が立ってくる/きた 

=Hara ga tatte kuru/kita

=to be getting angry

頭がおかしくなってくる/きた

=Atama ga okashiku natte kuru/kita

= to be going crazy

*きた  ( = kita) is a past tense of くる ( = kuru) but you can use  きた ( = kita) to describe what has been happening as well.

:kkk: I have made a listening lesson regarding the variation form of  てくる  ( = shitekuru) +くれる ( = kureru). Go check it out!

してきてくれる

:maggie-small: From the first picture above :

「雨が降ってきたのにそんなの着ていくの?」

= Ame ga futte kita noni sonnano kite iku no?

“It has started to rain and  you’re going out like that?”

• ~のに  ( = ~noni) even if, although

ていく ( = kite iku) to wear (something) and goes out


「いいの!お洒落していくの!」

= Iino! Oshare shite ikuno!

“Leave me alone! I wanna go out dressed up!”

• いいの!

= Iino!

I said it’s OK!/that’s OK.  Leave me alone!  / What I’m doing is OK, so just let me do it!)

お洒落(オシャレ/おしゃれ)( = oshare) to be dressed up, fashionable,

Ex. 彼女はお洒落だ。  

= Kanojo wa oshare da

=  She is fashionable.

Ex. 彼女はお洒落をして出かけた。

 = Kanojo wa oshare wo shite dekaketa.

She went out dressed up.

:rrrr: From the second picture above:

「もう晴れてきたのにレインコート着てきたの?」

=Mou harete kita noni reinkouto kite kita no?

“How come you are wearing a raincoat? The weather has cleared up now.”

晴れてきた ( = harete kita)  the weather has cleared up

てきた ( = kite kita) to have come here wearing (something)


「悪い?」 ( = Warui?) “Is there any problem?”

We use it when we talk back when someone criticizes you.

Also we say これのどこが悪いの? ( = Kore no doko ga warui no?) “What is wrong with this?”

:rrrr: The first picture : ていく  ( = ~teiku) : going out wearing something

:rrrr: The second picture :てくる ( = ~tekuru) : coming wearing something


maggie-senseiマギー先生より= Maggie sensei yori  From Maggie-sensei

「~ていく」と「てくる」の使い方、少しでもわかってきましたか?

=”~teiku” to “=tekuru” no tsukai kata, sukoshidemo wakatte kimashitaka?)

= Have you begun to lean how to use “teiku” and “tekuru”?

よかったらコメント欄を使って文章を作ってみて! チェックします!

=Yokattara komento ran wo tsukatte bunshou wo tukutte mite! chekku shimasu.)

= Please feel free to make a sentence and post it in a comment so that I can check it for you.





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80 Comments

  1. Maggie-sensei! Shouldn’t くる be and いく be switched in this part of your post?

    Ex.マギー、ドッグフードがないから買って :i: くる :i: ね。
    =Maggie, doggu fuudo ga nai kara katte kuru ne.
    = Maggie, there is no dog food left so I will go get some and come back (home).
    (The speaker is with Maggie right now and leave the house to get dog food.)

    Ex.マギー、ドッグフードがないから買って :i: いく :i: ね。
    =Maggie, doggu fuudo ga nai kara katte iku ne.
    = Maggie, there is no dog food left so I will get it and come to your house.
    (The speaker is not with Maggie right now and will bring her dog food.)

    1. @Michelle

      Hi Michelle,

      OK, here is the situation.
      買ってくる = Maggie and the speaker(X) are togehter. →X will go get dog food and comes back to Maggie with dog food.
      Vてくる= the speaker or a doer will come back where they originally are.
      買っていく = Maggie and the speaker (X) are in difference places. →X will go get dog food and goes to where Maggie is.
      Vていく= the speaker or a doer will move from one place to the other place.

      1. あ、なるほど!
        I was a bit confused but after you explained it like that, it made more sense!
        マギー先生、ありがとうございます! 

  2. “You want to bring something like wine or chips to the part” :rrrr: “party”
    “Kore oishisou dakara moratta ikimasu.” :rrrr: “moratte”
    “お弁当を作ってきて下さい。(=Ensoku ni obentou wo tukutte kite kudasai.)
    Please make lunch and bring it.” :rrrr: “Ensoku ni” is missing or to much
    “Maggie ga kyoushitu kara deteiku” :rrrr: “kyoushitsu”
    “Maggie ga kyoushitu kara dete kuru” :rrrr: “kyoushitsu”
    “Whenever my mom goes out, she gets lots of pocket tissues and bring them back home.” :rrrr: “brings” (and where is the lesson about pocket tissues, I can’t find it :cryingboy: )
    “Ex. 暑くなってくる (=atsuku natte kuru)
    It will get hotter.(until now)” :rrrr: it should be “from now on”, right?

    This lesson is reeeeeeeeeeeealy difficult, I read all the comments and still don’t get it. I’ve got two big problems:
    1. So te-kuru/iki can mean basically three things: 1. movement of the subject 2. movement of the object in relation to the subject 3. movement of time in realtion to the subject. But how do you know which one is meant, if the verb isn’t a motion verb? You gave the example:
    • 宿題をしていく(=shukudai wo shiteiku) to do homework and go (to school)
    • 宿題をしてくる(=shukudai wo shitekuru) to do homework and come (to school )
    but couln’t it also mean: to do homework in the future? Especially if you don’t write いく or くる in kanji?

    And what about: お茶をのんでいってください。 Does this describe the movement of the objekt (Please drink tea!) or the subject (Please drink tea and go!). And then お茶をのんできました。 Does it mean “I drank tea.” or “I drank tea and than came here” or “I have started/getting used to drink tea.”

    2. Concerning the time meaning, you say that te-kuru could mean both past or/and future. But how do you know what is meant? だんだん切望してくる! So will I get desperate or did I already get desperate? Also, if you add the continous form, does that change the meaning? Then there are eight formes and I don’t know which means what. So what would be the differences between:
    彼女は可愛くなって~ /暑くなって~
    ~ kuru
    ~ kite iru
    ~ kita
    ~ kite ita
    ~ iku
    ~ itte iru
    ~ itta
    ~ itte ita

    気が触れてしまってくる。 :l:

    1. @Zetsuboumanadeshi

      Thank you so much for helping me fix the typos.

      “Whenever my mom goes out, she gets lots of pocket tissues and bring them back home.” “brings”

      Actually I translated “get” and “bring back” so I will leave the way it is.

      And here is the link for the lesson.

      Listening and Reading practice 花粉症+ポケットティッシュ

      http://bit.ly/1GFk91x

      ******

      1.

      • 宿題をしていく ( = shukudai wo shiteiku) to do homework and go (to school)

      • 宿題をしてくる ( = shukudai wo shitekuru) to do homework and come (to school )

      As for the tense, you use 宿題をしていく/ 宿題をしてくる to describe one’s habitual actions or future.

      And what about: お茶をのんでいってください。
      When you say this line to someone, you want them to stop by your house and have some tea before they go somewhere.
      お茶をのんできました。I already had tea and came here.
      2.

      First you don’t say 切望してくる.

      How about
      だんだん焦ってくる
      I am getting desperate. / I have become desperate

      For the rest of the questions, I think I already explained the differences in the lesson. But I will add more explanation when I have more time.

  3. Hello, Maggie-sensei!

    Thanks a lot for such a detailed lesson! It’s really helpful!

    But I have a question. Lately, I’ve stumbled upon a phrase, that was like that:

    左からItem1、Item2、Item3、Item4と高価になっていく。

    Could it mean ‘From left (to right) the least expensive Item to the most expensive one’? In other words, could なっていく be used in such a fashion or I’m just making a wrong assumption here?

    1. @TWarrior

      Hello TWarrior!!
      左から〜〜〜〜〜〜と高価になっていく
      means
      It gets more expensive from the left.
      (So Item 1 is the cheapest and Item 4 is the most expensive one.)
      It is the same pattern as
      (だんだん)〜っていく = It (gradually) gets/grows ~~

  4. thank you much dear maggie sensei and 天人さん. i am really grateful to the two of you. thank you for spending your time, clearing up my confusions. it really means a lot to me. n_n. have a nice day

  5. hi everyone and to dear maggie sensei. thank you so much dear maggie sensei. you really are a sensei. oh by the way, i would like to seek help for some clarifications (if you have sometime). based on the examples given, the usage of tekuru/teiku is divided by 3 categories. (please correct me if i am wrong). for:

    a) there is always an object/person to go/come with after a certain verb has been completed.
    b) there is a motion verb from one place to another by the subject(without object to go or come with) before tekuru/teiku.
    c) both object/person to come/go with and motion are absent.

    does that mean,verbs like taberu,kiku-to listen, wakaru, miru, miseru, au and other verbs with au (tsukiau, dakishimeau, wakariau, and etc) will automatically fall for category #3 or is it case-to-case basis?

    thank you so much in advance dear maggie sensei and everyone…..

    1. Hello obakasan000

      ~てくる and ~ていく have many meanings. I have listed below every meaning of ~てくる and ~ていく I know. Let this be a (/the best) guide on how to use ~てくる and ~ていく. No division is needed. The best way to fully understand the usage of these forms is to memorize my lovely guide. Here we go!

      1. 行って戻る ==> Speaker goes somewhere and will be back soon. Used only use with ~てくる.
      – ちょっとトイレへ行ってきます!

      2. 順次 ==> Speaker first has to do something and then they can move on. Used with ~てくる and ~ていく.
      – 日本へ行く前に、日本語を勉強していきます。(First learn Japanese, then go to Japan)
      – よしよし、ルーシー、もう泣くのやめてよ、ママはお菓子をもらってきてあげるからね。 (In this sentence mother says to Lucy [her child] that she will bring her some candies [lit. bring and give her some candies])

      3. 変化/継続 ==> a) Shows a change made in past. This change continues to the present. Used with ~てくる. b) Shows a change made in the present. This change will continue to the future. Used only with ~ていく.
      – マギー先生のサイトのお陰で、日本語がだんだん楽しく、易しくなってきました。ありがとうマギー^^
      – マギー先生のサイトがますます面白くなっていくでしょね。ね?

      4. 移動の状態 ==> Shows the direction of moving. Used only with special verbs of movement like: 連れる、持つ. ~ていく implies that the speaker takes/carries something away. ~てくる implies that the speaker brings something along.
      – 水を 1 杯持って来てくれ (Person X goes from destination A to destination B, takes the glass of water, comes back to destination A and gives the water to person Y)
      – 水を 1 杯持って行ってくれ (Person X takes the glass of water away from destination A, because – for example – person Y doesn’t need water now)

      5. 方向性 ==> Shows the direction of moving towards the speaker. Used with verbs of movement: 歩く、走る、飛ぶ、逃げる、集まる、引っ越す, etc. Used with ~ていく (something moves away from speaker) and ~てくる (something comes closer to speaker).
      – 「A: あ、SUPERMANが飛んできますよ!見てよ」「B: 見てるよ、すごいな!」
      – 「A: あ!SUPERMANだ!見て見て」「B: どこどこ?」「A: 遅いよ!もう飛んでいきました」「B: し、しまった・・・」

      6. 話者への接近(1) ==> Shows approaching or leaving towards the speaker. Used with verbs like: 出る、入る. Used with ~ていく (away) and ~てくる (closer).
      – 先生:授業が終わって、学生たちが出ていきます。(This sentence implies that the students go away from the classroom, where the teacher is)
      – 先生:授業が終わって、学生たちが出てきます。(This sentence implies that the teacher is outside the classroom. The students come closer to him)

      7. 話者への接近(2) ==> Things or sensations (sounds, smells, etc) approach the speaker. Used only with ~てくる (closer).
      「A: あのさー、夜中の12時になると、この部屋から何か変な泣き声が聞こえてくるらしいね。ここは人が殺された場所という話が・・・」「B: わああ、やめて、怖いのよ。何であたしにそんなこと、言ってるの?酷いよ ・゚・・゚・(⊃´Д`泣)・゚・・゚・」

      8. 変化の出現 ==> Shows that something (usually a natural phenomena or a psychological or emotional state) has just started. Used only with ~てくる.
      – ったく、またこの忌々しい雨が降ってきたかよ!
      – 「A:マギーのこと、何となく恋に落ちてきた・・・。」「B:なんだって?!絶対にだめだよ!マギーはもう結婚してるって知らないの?」、「A:あ、そう・・・」

      Ufff, that was a long reply ^^
      ご参考に。

      1. @obakasan000 & 天人

        Good job, 天人!
        (This is a little note for you. Your Japanese is really good! I would change just these.
        7 : 何であたしにそんなこと、言ってるの? →そんなこと言うの?will be more natural
        8 : マギーのこと、何となく恋に落ちてきた・・・→someone に恋に落ちる. When you are talking about just that experience, we say 恋に落ちた(past tense). So you may want to say 好きになってきた.
        (You can say 恋に落ちてきた when you are talking about your experiences up to now Ex. 今まで何度となく恋に落ちてきた))
        Hahaha love your example sentences.

        1. マギー先生、日本語の誤りを訂正してくれてありがとう!

          “何であたしにそんなこと、言ってるの? →そんなこと言うの?will be more natural” ==> Ah, because 「何であたしにそんなこと、言ってるの?」 would imply habituation (a habit), right? (= why are you always telling me that?). I thought it would be “why are you tellING me this NOW?”.

          マギーのこと、何となく恋に落ちてきた・・・ Long time ago the speaker felt in love with Maggie and he still loves herと言う意味で. In 恋に落ちた we don’t know, if the speaker still loves her、ね.

          私の例文がお気に入りでよかったです。おおきにありがとう^^

          1. @天人

            Right. We use 言って(い)る if the person always say the same thing.

            Ex. 彼は文句ばかり言っている。

            Or someone has been saying something (for a certain period of time.)
            Ex. まだそんなことを言って(い)るの?
            Are you still talking about that?

            *It is possible to say 恋に落ちて来た but usually you just fall in love. Not gradually.And if you say 何となく, it will be more natural to say 好きになってきた

            ということですよ〜。:)

  6. ohhhh okay. so てくる has two meanings then? 1. has been ing
    2. has started to

    Is it alright if you translate these couple of sentences into English for me :)

    1: 近年、空き缶を無駄遣いしてしまう人数は増えてきた
    2: 最近、この番組が嫌いになってきた
    3: 地球温暖化のため、動物が何匹絶滅してきたの?

    sorry for asking so many questions and taking up your time :(

    1. @Campbell Carsley

      ~てくる can be translated 1) “to have been ~ ing” 2) “to have+ pp” “3) “be ing” and it changes depending on the sentence.

      As for the translation, I am sorry but I don’t do the translation. (So many people have asked me to do the translations so.. Hope you understand..)
      But I can help you translating the verb parts. Hope it’s OK with you.

      1. has been increasing/ has increased
      2. have come to hate~
      3. have become extinct

      1. I understand that you are busy and get constantly harassed by people like me to translate sentences so it’s okay! thank you so much for the explanations and making me have a better understanding on this topic. ご迷惑をかけてすみませんでした。

  7. hey Maggie :) I read through this blog again and I just got a little confused. it was described that てきた means has been doing (from a certain point in the past until the present). So, how come in examples like these –> (気温が下がってきた or 雨が止んできた ) the meanings aren’t, “The temperature has been dropping” and “the rain has been stopping”?

    1. @Campbell Carsley
      I think your translation would work.
      The temperature has been dropping” / “the rain has been stopping”?
      But to be more precise,
      The temperature has been dropping” = 気温が下がってきている 
      “The rain has been stopping” = 雨が止んできている
      might work better. What do you think?

      and “the rain has been stopping”?

      1. Thank you for explaining. “The rain has been stopping” might not make sense now that I think about it. It would be “the rain has stopped” which I think in Japanese is 雨が止んだ。
        Is it alright if I ask one more question? :)

        What is the difference between てくる and stem+始める? Like if I wanted to say, “It has started to increase”, in Japanese would that be 増えてきた or 増え始めた?

        Thank you in advance:)

        1. @Campbell Carsley

          I agree. Maybe “The rain has been stopping” sounds strange in English.
          We do say “雨がやんできた”. “雨がやんできている” is possible to use as well. (Another way to say this is “小雨になってきた/きている”)

          増えてきた and 増え始めた
          They can be the same but there is a slight difference.
          増えてきた is “It has been increasing”. It focusing the current condition. It is going on right now.
          and 増え始めた is “It (has) started to increase. You are talking about the past when it started to increase)
          But 増えてきた and 増え始めてきた are the same.

          増えてきた &増え始めてきた
          Still you can not switch each other all the time.
          You can describe how things have started to change with ~てくる and ~始める but you can’t use ~てくる when you describe people’s action.
          Ex. 赤ちゃんが歩き始める
          You can’t use 〜てくる/きた

          Ex. 学校に行き始める
          You can’t use 〜てくる/きた

  8. HI, I’m having a little trouble

    From what I read in the lesson, てくる and ていく both deal with the future right?
    You said: Verb + ていく(=teiku) From the time when speaker is thinking to the future. / habitual actions

    てくる(=tekuru) From the time when speaker is thinking to the future. / habitual actions

    In this example:

    Ex. 1)あの子はだんだん可愛くなってくるね。

    =Anoko wa dandan kawaiku natte kurune.
    = She has been getting cuter and cuter. (until now)

    Ex. 2)あの子はだんだん可愛くなっていくね。

    =Anoko wa dandan kawaiku natte ikune.
    = She will be cuter and cuter. (from now on )

    Why isn’t なってきた used in the first example? She has been getting cuter and cuter until this point.

    I was under the impression that てくる is she will continue to get cuter and cuter in the future and she has been cute this whole time.

    While I thought that, ていく meant she will get cuter and cuter in the future, from this point on, and she really hasn’t been cute until now.

    So てくる she has been cute and will continue being cute and hasn’t reached her peak of cuteness yet.

    While ていく means she will start becoming cute from now on (she really hasn’t been cute until now)

    てきた She has become cuter and cuter until now, and we don’t know if she will get any cuter, stay the same etc etc

    Thank you.

    1. @Amit Moondra

      Hello, Amit,

      I added some more information. I made this lesson a long time ago but I guess I wanted to just focus on the difference between 〜てくる and 〜ていく that time in that example.
      As you said, ~てくる deals with future time. But we also use it to describe what has been happening or what is happening right now in certain cases.

      1. Thank you so much. I had a few more questions, but I will take a look again at the lesson and see if things become more clear.

        I really appreciate the hardwork and details you incorporate into each lesson.
        Your numerous examples really, really help with the nuance of many words.

        Last time I checked there wasn’t a lesson on -ても。 Is this grammar point on your “requested list”? I read through a lesson on this grammar point, but it was a little confusing, maybe I just need to read the lesson again.

        Once again, thank you so much for your hardwork!

        1. @Amit Moondra

          You’re welcome! I was going to go through the lesson again to make sure if everything was clear but I have been verry busy so will do that some other time.
          And I will tell 〜ても on the request lesson.
          Last but not least thank you for the nice message! :)

  9. thank you so much! that makes a lot more sense now :) when you say habitual, would the English equivalent be ‘has been’. So like 雨が降ってくる could also mean it has been raining but not necessarily raining right now. ずこく役に立つコメントを書いてくれてありがとうございます。本当に感謝しています。

    1. @Campbell Carsley

      Umm when I said “habitual”, I meant “present tense” can also describe future actions and also habitual actions just like English.
      Ex. 1) もうすぐ雨が降ってくる。= It will rain soon. (future)
      Ex. 2) 私が海に行くといつも雨が降ってくる= Whenever I go to the beach, it rains. (something habitual)

      Note : However with certain verbs and situations, ~くる can be used to describe the action what is happening/has been happening.
      From the example sentences in the lesson.
      Ex. 1)あの子はだんだん可愛くなってくるね。
      =Anoko wa dandan kawaiku natte kurune.
      =She has been getting cuter and cuter. (until now)

      Ex. マギーが好きになってくる/きた
      =Maggie ga suki ni natte kuru./kita.
      =I’m getting like Maggie/ I’ve come to like Maggie. (until now)

      But 降ってくる is just strange to use to describe when it has been raining/it is raining.

  10. Hey maggie! I’m still having a little trouble understanding the てくる and てきた. I can understand ていく fairly easily but it’s the other two I can’t quite seem to grasp. What would be the difference between 雨が降ってくる and 雨が降ってきた. And how come even though the てきた is in its past tense it doesn’t mean ‘had been or was’? One more question :) This is an example situation I made up. A: 最近、上司の性格が変わってくるんだよね。B: お前も気付いていたの?まあねー1週間前ぐらい彼女と別れたんじゃない?A: あっ、そうですね。そういうことかも。。In that example situation, what would be the difference if you used 変わってきた instead? Sorry for the very long comment and lots of questions, it’s just I am really having a hard time working this out. Hope you can answer this for me!

    1. @Campbell Carsley

      Hello CC!
      OK the first question.
      1) The difference between A) 雨が降ってくる and B) 雨が降ってきた
      They both have a verb くる
      Basically 降ってくる is for future or something habitual and 降ってきた is used in the form of present perfect or the past.
      A) 雨が降ってくる : It will rain (soon). It is not happening yet. You are talking about future or possibility
      B) 雨が降ってきた : It has started to rain. So it is raining now.
      This is present perfect but you can also use it when you talk about the past.
      昨日、雨が降ってきたときにどこにいましたか?
      = Where were you when it started to rain yesterday?

      Now your example sentence.
      A: 最近、上司の性格が変わってくるんだよね。
      For the same reason as above, you can’t use くる here because his personality has been changed and you should say 変わってきたんだよね。
      But if the boss always changes his personality when he drinks (habitual actions or behavior)you can use くる
      上司はいつもお酒を飲むと性格が変わってくるんだよね。

  11. さすがマギー先生!
    素晴らしいレッスンを作ってくれてありがとうございます!元気ですか?
    少し質問がありますね
    ・「-てくる」は、現在形か過去形の方が使ってはいいかどうわかりますか?(I tried to ask “About -てくる、How do you know wether it’s better to use present tense or past tense?”)
    ・Is 「V+てくる」 similar to 「いままでV...」? Is 「V+ていく」 similar to 「これからもV...」?

    残り休み日に楽しんでね^^

    1. @Orti

      こんにちは、Orti! 元気でしたか?
      返事が遅くなってごめんなさい。
      1) てきた can be used to describe what has been happening right now and くる is for the event from now to the future.
      So when you are talking about what has been happening, use きた.
      お腹がすいてきた/マギーが好きになってきた/腹が立ってきた
      and when you simply describe the current condition, say
      お腹がすいている/マギーが好きだ/腹が立っている。

      2) 「V+てくる」 similar to 「いままでV...」?→Can you give me an example.
      When you use 今まで, we use the past tense : 今までOrtiはここにいました。
      but 「V+てくる」for the action which will happen now. So they are not the same.

      3) Is 「V+ていく」 similar to 「これからもV...」

      But you can also say これからもV+ていく

      Ortiの日本語は上手くなっていく
      これからもOrtiの日本語はうまくなる, うまくなっていく

    2. @Orti

      こんにちは、Orti! 元気でしたか?
      返事が遅くなってごめんなさい。
      1) Usually きた is a past tense and describe some past event but てきた can be used to describe what has been happening right now and くる is from now to the future.
      So when you are talking about what has been happening, use きた.
      お腹がすいてきた/マギーが好きになってきた/腹が立ってきた
      and when you simply describe the current condition, say
      お腹がすいている/マギーが好きだ/腹が立っている。

      2) 「V+てくる」 similar to 「いままでV...」?→Can you give me an example.
      When you use 今まで, we use the past tense : 今までOrtiはここにいました。
      but 「V+てくる」for the action which will happen now. So they are not the same.

      3) Is 「V+ていく」 similar to 「これからもV...」
      But you can also say これからもV+ていく,too.

      Ortiの日本語は上手くなっていく
      これからもOrtiの日本語はうまくなる, うまくなっていく

  12. Hello ! welcome back

    I wonder what is the negative form from this grammar…
    Can you give me some examples please ?

    thank you

    1. @jo

      Hello Jo! It has been a long time!
      The negative form of 〜ていく is 〜ていかない? I think I mentioned in the lesson.
      ~ていかない 〜てこない Is that what you want to know?

  13. Maggie-sensei,

    Thank you very much! Your lessons are the most comprehensive among all the explanations I find online. They’re such a big help! :)

    How does this work using the verb ‘kaku’ (to write)? I can imagine ‘kaiteiku’ to mean go and write (start writing something), but I’m pretty confused with ‘kaitekuru’…

    1. @Emma

      Hi Emma! I am very happy to hear you think my lessons are helpful.
      Yes, ていく form for “to write” = 書くis “書いていく” and てくる form for “to write” = 書くis “書いてくる
      Ex. 作文を家で書いてくる = to write composition at home (and come to the class / to be ready for the class,etc.)

  14. マギー先生、すばらしいのポースト ありがとう!ちょっとすこしだけど、somehow わかってきました。チェックすることを本当にありがとう、そしてお疲れさまでした。Sorry if I did some silly mistake :) Thank you!! かたじけない!

    1. @Bearz314熊314

      わかってきましたか?よかった〜♩
      (Your sentences are good! Just let me correct you a little : すばらしいの→すばらしい・チェックすることを→チェックしてくれて)
      Haha, where did you learn かたじけない??

      1. も一度ありがとう、マギー先生。
        まめしばの CM から習った!http://www.youtube.com/watch?gl=JP&v=5hTp10yVZ8M&hl=ja

        先生、do you know any other children’s materials? I find them very interesting :D

        Thank you! :)

          1. Hyaaa!! <3

            ありがとう、マギー先生! I will have a look at them! And actually no, I haven't read まめしばレッスン yet :D I am reading (only) a lesson a day because I find it easier to absorb and also for motivation purpose..

            Once again, thank you! :D ¡gracias!

  15. Could you use tekuru/teiku to say, for example, “are you coming/going to do something”?

    So like:
    明日にクラブしてくるの?(are you coming clubbing tomorrow?)

    ^^ thank you

    1. @hanoi_j

      Ah, in that case you can say, 明日クラブに行ってくるの?
      Other future examples :
      明日、彼の家でご飯を食べてくるの?
      = Are you going to eat at his house tomorrow?

  16. 先生、have I told you that you are the best? :)
    最近、お元気ですか?
    and so, if I am using an adjective then I should use the “-ku” adjective ending right? like in, [暑くなってくる]?

    1. @Aki

      Hi, Aki! 元気ですよ〜!でも先週はすっごく忙しくてブログもTwitterもなかなかできなかったの。これからはもっと時間できると思います。
      そうそう!!暑くなってくる * 寒くなってくる * 痛くなってくる etc.

      1. そっか^^先生はもっと時間できる、嬉しい(@^▽^@)ノ ということ、あげぽよ~~!!!
        マギー先生は忙しくなってきた
        けど、これからはもっと暇になっていくね!(←これは練習の文章ww)

        1. @Aki

          ああ〜〜今日からもっと暇になると思ったけれどもまだまだ忙しい一日でした。さげぽよ〜〜〜! :-|
          練習の文章きちんと書けてるよ。Akiの日本語はどんどん上手になってきたね。

          1. え??!本当にそう思う?よかったね~!
            先生!有り難う!<3実は、先生のサイトは最高!!^O^
            あの、これからも、頑張ろう!
            マギーが大好きよ!
            I love you Maggie!
            Te amo Maggie!
            Ti amo!
            Ich Liebe Dich!
            Je t’aime!
            Я тебя люблю !
            Ja te volim!
            我爱你
            사랑해

            うふ<333

          2. @Aki

            わ〜〜〜いっぱいの I love you ありがとう!!
            Big love from Maggie boucingheart!

  17. マギー先生、この文章いいですか?
    “あの子は私にタメ口で話してきたからタメ口で話すように慣れすぎていくでしょう”
    Sorry i posted this comment on a another lesson by accident.

  18. マギー先生, ありがとう!

    Recently I’ve learned this at school, but I didn’t get it at all; now I understand this ていく – てくるbetter.

    1. Kronekodowさん

      こちらこそ、来てくれてありがとう!!
      何か質問あったらいつでも聞いてね。ていく – てくるの文章作ったら直します!
      If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to ask me. I can correct your sentence using ていく – てくる!

  19. は~い 頑張ります ^_^
    応援してくれてありがとう
    今年の1級試験を取るのはまだ決めていないけど。。合格できるかどうかまだ自信が低いだから。
    でも勉強を続けます。 合格したらもちろん先生に教えます。
    そうです、先生のいう通り、コメント欄をよく使うつもりです。
    最近はいろいろなアニメを見ています。鋼の錬金術士ってのアニメは知りますか?いいアニメです、ストリーは面白い。

    1. LadySapphireさん
      鋼の錬金術士? 面白い?今度チェックしてみますね。1級合格の通知を今から楽しみにしていますよ!!

      (Note : 自信が低いだから→低いから /でも自信が低いとはあまり言わないかな…「まだ自信があまりないから」の方がいいです。
      アニメは知りますか?→知っていますか?)

  20. Maggie 先生 今日は =)
    いろいろ添削してくれてありがとう

    ”仕事を休まなければいけませんでした”->はい、そう言いたいです

    そうですね、留守は家にいない場合に使うのは忘れてしまいました。。
    覚えさせてくれてありがとう (Thanks for letting me remember)

    日本語に上手になるために、本当にいつも使えらなければなりませんね。。私は最近日本語の練習時間はあまりないんです、なんか残念だとおもいます。。

    でもMaggie先生のwebsiteを見つけました、それは良かった、big help for me.(日本語で? 大助かる?)

    今JLPT1級の合格を狙いますけど。。いまの日本語はなんか下手になってきた。。特に聴解のほう。。いいLearning materialとかListening practiceのWebsiteが知ったら私に教えてくれてお願いします m(--)m

    Maggie先生のレッスンと指導をいつも感謝しています

    1. LadySapphire-san,

      いいえ、こちらこそ!いつも来てくれてありがとう。リスニングは好きなJ-dramaとか映画を集中して見てみるのもいいかと思いますよ。
      big help for me.->大変助かりました。ではどうでしょうか?

      Note from today’s comment : 覚えさせてくれて=>”覚える” はto memorizeだからremind meは、”思い出させてくれて”
      使えらなければ->使わなければ

      できるだけコメント欄使って練習してね。1級合格したら是非教えてね。応援してますよ!p(^^)q がんばって〜!!

  21. お久しぶりです
    Hi Maggie 先生 ^_^

    私はひどい風邪を引いたんです。
    二日も仕事に留守させられてしまった。
    でも今はもう元気になってきた。
    風邪と咳がまだありますけど。。。
    すぐ直されるといいなあ。。

    とにかく、これはいいレスンでした。

    It refreshed my memory on ~te iku / ~te kuru
    (上の文章は日本語でどうやって言いますか?)

    レスンはいつも役に立ってありがとう =)

    1. LadySapphireさん

      お久しぶりです!!風邪引いていたんですか?大丈夫?早く治して下さいね。
      まず質問ですが、It refreshed my memory on ~te iku / ~te kuru
      refresh one’s memory on ~~は日本語で「〜の記憶を新たにする」ですが、かなり堅い表現になります。
      ちょっとニュアンスは違ってきますが、
      (前に勉強した)「〜ていく」「〜てくる」のいい復習になりました。
      位の方が、伝わるかと思いますが、どうでしょうか?
      せっかくだから他の文章も下に添削しておきますね〜!早く風邪を治して、また来て下さい!
      (Note :
      仕事に留守させられてしまった。->仕事を休まなければいけませんでした。
      absentって言いたかったのかな?留守は家にいないことを言います。仕事は「休む」、学校は「欠席する。」を使いましょう。
      すぐ直されるといいなあ。。->早く治るといいなあ…: 病気、風邪は”治る”の方の漢字を使います。それから〜されるは<使役>になりますのでここでは使いません。
      レスン->レッスン
      いつも役に立ってありがとう->いつも役に立つレッスンをありがとう!)

      これからも一杯日本語書いてね!お手伝いします!!

  22. ありがとう!僕もブログにマギー先生のリンクを加えた。うん、これからこそよろしくお願い!

    おっ!新しいレッスンができていたね、ちょっと見に行きます〜。

    1. chokochokoさん

      スッキリしたかな?よかった!
      さっそくMaggie’s recommendationにリンクしておいたよ〜! :maggie-small:
      これからもヨロシクね!

  23. 3)あっ、違います、ごめん。「移動を表す動詞」って、「走る」とか「乗る」とか「飛ぶ」などということ。
    これを「〜ていく/〜てくる」と合わせて、「motionを示す」という意味になることです。でしょう?

    サンキュー!

    1. chokochokoさん

      そうです!
      移動や動きを表す動詞に「〜ていく/〜てくる」を付けると「〜して行く/来る(〜しながら行く/来る)」または「〜という手段で行く/来る」という意味が出せます。
      走っていく+走ってくる/歩いていく+歩いてくる/飛んでいく+飛んでくる /電車に乗ってくる+車に乗っていく/(橋を)渡っていく+渡ってくる
      などはどの様な動きをして、またはどの様な手段で行ったり来たりするか表現できますよね。

  24. 速い!文章を直してもらってありがとう。
    1)そうそう、上司の所で叱られて、という意味。

    2)「生活していって」、「〜いって」の部分は「time flow」で「これから」という意味を示しているでしょう?

    3)「〜ていく/〜てくる」の「motionを示す」の意味はやっぱり一般に移動を表す動詞と使うんでしょう?

    はい、合掌ということです。やっぱりマギー先生は頭がものすごくいいです!

    ごめんね、質問がこんなにたくさんあります。

    1. chokoochokooさん

      2)その通り! 「生活していく」は「これから」のことです。
      3)動詞と使うんでしょう?->「動詞として使うでしょうか?」ってことかな?
      だったら、そうですね 「〜ていく/〜てくる」にはレッスンにある様に移動を表す動詞として使うことも多いし(Ex.1 (マギーが)チョコチョコのブログに遊びに行く Ex. 2 チョコチョコがマギーのブログに遊びに来た。)時間や変化を表す時にもよく使いますよ。(Ex. 3 チョコチョコの日本語はどんどんうまくなっていく Ex.4 チョコチョコ、日本語がどんどんうまくなってきたね)

      なるほど、合掌ですか!!すごい言葉知ってますねえ。
      (Note : 直してもらって->直してくれて)

  25. マギー先生が作った例文が豊富で分かりやすいと思う!ありがとう!
    えっと〜文章を作ってって:

    「昨日仕事で、上司に叱れてきて首になったから、今月の家賃はどうすればいいかな。あ〜、生活は悩んでいく。」

    「友達に良いニュースを伝えて行く。」

    最後の文章は正しいかどうかちょっと迷っているけれど、伝えたい意味は「I will (go and) tell my friend the good news」ということ。

    *手を合わせている*
    よろしくお願いします!

    1. Chokochokoさん
      また来てくれてありがとう!!
      じゃあ今日は直すよ〜!
      作ってって->作っていて

      1)「叱られてきて首になった」というとまず 上司の所に行って (You went to your boss)->叱られて(He reprmimanded you)->(帰って You returned to your place)->首になる (And he fired you) という順序になります。
      もし上司の所に行ってそこで首になったのならば 「叱られて首になってしまったから」の方が自然です。

      2)生活は悩んでいく->”悩む”(worry)のは”人”で”生活”ではないので 「どうやって(これから)生活していっていいのか悩むなあ。」
      3)「友達に良いニュースを伝えて行く。」->惜しい!(Almost!) 「伝えに行く」にしてみて。

      *手を合わせている*-> なに?合掌(=gasshou)?お願いしてくれてるの?

      またいつでも文章つくってみてね。直すから!

  26. Maggie Sensei,
    Thank you so much for tackling my request. This detailed lesson makes me understand it much better now.

    T.

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