時の日本語(Toki no nihongo) : Time related Japanese

September 24, 2009 in Vocabulary


time-related

:P  マギー先生、レポートは今週中に提出すればいいですか?」

=Maggie sensei, repouto wa konshuu juuni teishutsu sureba iidesu ka?

“Miss Maggie, will it be OK if I turn in the report by the end of the week?”

:maggie-small: 「いいえ、明日の8時17分きっかりに持って来て!」

=Iie, asu no hachiji juunanafun kikkari ni motte kite!

“No, bring it at 8:17 sharp tomorrow! “


Hi everyone! Today I will teach you time related vocabulary.

:s: Here are very basic time units :

(=toki or ji) : time / hour(s)

(=jikan) : time / hour(s)

(=fun / bun/ pun/ ppun) : minute(s)

(=byou) : second(s)

(=nichi / hi ) : day(s)

(=shuu) : week(s)

(=tsuki / getsu/ gatsu ) : month(s)

(=toshi / nen) : year(s)

  *How do you say “every ~” ? :

You simply put (=mai) on top.

Everyday : 毎日 (=mainichi)

Every week : 毎週 (=maishuu)

Every month :毎月 (=maitsuki)

Every year : 毎年 (=maitoshi)

Ex. マギーは毎年ハワイに行きます。

(=Maggie wa maitoshi hawai ni ikimasu.)

Maggie goes to Hawaii every year.

Note : If you want to say “every Monday“ →毎週月曜日 (=maishuu getsuyoubi)
and if you want to say “on the 10th of each month
毎月10日に (=maitsuki touka ni)
and “on the January 1st every year
毎年1月1日に(maitoshi ichigatsu tsuitachi ni)

  *How about “every other“?

Whether you put (=kaku) on top or number+ time unit + おきに ( = okini)

Every other week : 隔週  (= kakushuu)

Every other month : 隔月 (= kakutsuki)

Every other day : 隔日 ( = kaku jitsu) or  一日おきに ( = ichinichi oki ni)

Every other year : 隔年 ( = kaku nen) or 一年おきに  ( = Ichinen oki ni))

Note 1) :

隔週でピアノを習いに行っている。

= Kakushuu de piano wo narai ni itte iru.)

一週間おきにピアノを習いに行っている。

=Isshuukan oki i piano wo narai ni itteiru.

I go take a piano lesson every other week

(=kaku) is usually for written Japanese.

(Except 隔週(=kakushuu) as I showed in the above example.) So if we want to say “every other day” we use 一日おきに ( = ichinichi oki ni) more than 隔日 ( = kaku jitsu) in conversation.


Note 2) : The difference between おきに (= okini) and 毎に (=gotoni)

二日おきに ( = futsuka oki ni) every three days二日毎に(= futsuka gotoni) every two days


  *How do you say “next ~“?

You put “”( = rai) in front of the time unit.

Next year : 来年( = rainen)

Next week : 来週 ( = raishuu)

  Note : Coming week is 次週 (=jishuu)

  *When you want to say “the following day/ week / year “, you put (=yoku)

The following day : 翌日 (= yokujitsu)

The following week : (= yokushuu)

The following year : (= yokutoshi/yokunen)

  *How about “last week/month/year”?

You add “”(=sen)

Last week : 先週 ( = senshuu)

Last month : ( = sengetsu)

Note : ( = senjitsu) means ” the other day

Ex. 日はお世話になりました。(Senjitsu wa osewa ni narimashita.) Thank you for taking care of me / helping me the other day.

  *If you want to say “previous ~” you put “前の” ( = mae no) or “”( = zen)

Previous year : 前の  ( =mae no toshi) or( = zennen)

Previous month : 前の( = mae no tsuki)

Previous day: 前の( = mae no hi) or ( = zennjitu)

  *How do you say once (or twice) a year/month/day?

Once a year : (毎年)一年に一回(= (maitoshi) ichinen ni ikkai) / (毎年)一年に一度  (= (maitoshi) ichinen ni ichido)

Twice a month : 毎月二回  ( = maitsuki nikai) or 毎月二度( = maitsuki nido)

*How do you say “for ~ days/weeks/months”?

You add ““(=kan) after the number.

Ex. for two days: 二日間 ( = futsuka kan) / for two years : 3年間 (=san nenkan)

:mm: *How to count days:

Even if you can count all the numbers in Japanese ex. ichi, ni, san,etc, you may have a little trouble remembering how to count a day or refering certain dates.
For example, May 4th is not “gogatsu yon-nichi”. It is “gogatsu yokka”.
And if we want to say “I will stay in Tokyo for three days”, we usually say

Ex. 東京に三日間滞在します。

=Toukyou ni mikka kan taizai shimasu.

not “san-nichikan”.

Here are some more examples of how to read the dates.

(Note: We use both Arabic number and kanji when we write numbers.)

一日 ( = tsuitachi) The first / (= ichinichi) one day

Note: When you count a day, you don’t use tsuitachi. You use ichinichi.


二日 ( =futsuka) The second, two days

三日  ( =mikka) The third, three days

四日 (= yokka) the fouth, four days

五日 (= itsuka) The fifth, five days

六日 (= muika) The sixth, six days

七日 (= nanoka) the seventh, seven days

八日 (= youka) the eighth, eight days

九日 (= kokonoka) the ninth, nine days

十日 (= touka) the tenth, ten days

二十日(= hatsuka)the twentieth, twenty days

* However, in some occasions we hear people saying with regular way of reading numbers,

Ex. 8日間 (= hachinichi kan) instead of “youka-kan”. (=for eight days.)

  *How to count years:

Just add “” (=nen)

Ex. 3年  ( = san nen) Three years

Note : “Three and a half years” is 三年半  ( = san nen han)

  *How to count months:

You add “ヶ月” ( = kagetsu)in the end.

Ex. 1ヶ月 ( = ikkagetsu), 2ヶ月( = ni kagetsu)

  *How to count weeks:

〜週間 ( ~shuukan)

Ex. 2週間 ( = ni shuukan) two weeks

OK, here are the basic units.

今日 ( = kyou) : today (本日 ( = honjitsu) more formal*)

明日 ( = ashita/asu) : tomorrow ( 明日 ( = myounichi) more formal*)

明後日 ( = asatte) : the day after tomorrow  ( 明後日 ( = myougonichi) more formal*)

一昨日 ( = ototoi) : the day before yesterday ( 一昨日 ( = issakujitu) more formal*)

* You may hear/see this in a business situation or on the news

明々後日(しあさって)( = shiasatte) three days from now

一昨々日(さきおととい( = sakiototoi) three days ago

 * How do you say “~ ago“?

You add “” ( = mae) in the end.

二日前  ( = futsuka mae) : two days ago

三日  ( =mikka mae) : three days ago

2、3日( =ni san nichi mae) : a couple of days ago

9時間( =kujikan mae) : nine hours ago

一週間( = isshuukan mae) : a week ago

2ヶ月前  ( = nikagetsu mae) : two months ago.

4年  ( = yonen mae) four years ago

  * How about “~ later” or “after ~“?

You put “”( = go) in the end.

数年後 (  = suunen go) a couple of (or several) years later

2週間後 ( = nishuukan go) two weeks later

* How do you say “~end of (mohth, year)?

You put “”( = matsu) in the end.

週末 (= shuu matsu) weekend

月末 (= getsu matsu) end of month

年末 (= nenmatsu) year-end

世紀末 (= seikimatsu) end of the century


  Months : (=tsuki):

January : 一月 /1月 (= ichigatsu)

February : 二月 /2月 (= nigatsu)

March : 三月 /3月 ( = sangatsu)

April : 四月/4月 ( = shigatsu)

May : 五月/5月 ( =gogatsu)

June : 六月/6月 ( = rokugatsu)

July : 七月/7月 ( = shichigatsu/nanagatsu)

August : 八月/8月 (hachigatsu)

September : 九月/9月 (=kugatsu)

October : 十月/10月 ( =juugatsu)

November : 十一月 /11月(=  juuichigatsu)

December : 十二月/12月 (= juuni gatsu)

  The days of the week : 曜日 (= youbi):

Monday : 月曜日 (= getsuyoubi)

Tuesday : 火曜日 (= kayoubi)

Wednesday : 水曜日 (= suiyoubi)

Thursday : 木曜日 (= mokuyoubi)

Friday : 金曜日 (= kinyoubi)

Saturday : 土曜日 (= doyoubi)

Sunday : 日曜日(= nichiyoubi)

Ex.日曜日は何もしない。(= Nichiyoubi wa nanimo shinai.) “I don’t do anything on Sundays.”

  Weekday(s) : 平日 (= heijitsu) ↔ Weekend : 週末 (= shuumatsu)

  Holidays :

休日 (=kyuujitsu) 、祭日 (=saijitsu) 、祝日 (=shukujitsu), : holiday

国民の祝日(=kokumin no shukujitsu) National holidays

休み (=yasumi) Holidays, day-off, vacation

夏休み (=natsuyasumi) summer holidays(vacation)

(お)盆休み (=(o)bon yasumi) obon holidays (around Aug.13~15)

冬休み (=fuyu yasumi) winter holidays

(お)正月休み(=(o)shougatsu yasumi) New Year’s holidays.

Ex. 夏休みに入ったらどこに行きますか?

=Natsuyasumi ni haittara dokoni ikimasu ka?

Where are you going in summer vacation?

Ex. 正月休みにスキーに行きました。

=Shougatsu yasumi ni sukii ni ikimashita.

I went skiing during the New Year’s holiday.

  ★*Here are more example sentences:

Ex. 今日は何曜日ですか?

=Kyou wa nanyoubi desu ka?

= What day is today?

Ex. 今日は、月曜日です。

=Kyou wa getsuyoubi desu.

= It is Monday.

Ex. 今日は何日ですか?

=Kyou wa nannichi desu ka?

= What’s the date today?

Ex. 今日は8月15日です。

=Kyou wa hachigatsu juugonichi desu.

= It’s August 15th.

Ex. 今日は1月6日、水曜日です。

=Kyou wa ichigatsu muika suiyoubi desu.

= It’s January 6th, Wednesday.

★*Other time related words:

時間 (=jikan) : time (in general)

Ex. 「今、お時間ありますか?

=Ima, ojikan arimasu ka?

= Do you have some time now?

Ex. いえ、もう時間がありません

=Ie, mou jikan ga arimasen.

= No, I don’t have any time left.

(=ima) : now

先ほど (=sakihodo) : a little while ago さっき(=sakki):more casual)

午後 ( =gogo) in the afternoon P.M.午前 (=gozen) in the morning A.M.

(=asa) morning

(=hiru) daytime

夕方 evening

  (=ban) evening/night

夜  (=yoru) night

Related words:

*朝食 (=choushoku) or 朝ご(or 御)飯 (=asa gohan) : breakfast

*昼食 (=chuushoku)/ 昼ご(or 御)飯(=hirugohan) : lunch

*夕食 (=yuushoku) 夕飯(=yuuhan) 夕ご(or 御)飯 (=yuugohan)

or 晩(or 御)飯 dinner(= bangohan) / 夜食(=Yashoku) late dinner

早朝 (=souchou) early in the morning

Ex.早朝割引 (=souchou waribiki) early bird discount(specials)

正午 (=shougo) at noon

夜中 (=yonaka) middle of the night

真夜中 (=mayonaka) midnight

今朝 (=kesa) this morning

今夜 (=kon-ya) tonight

or 今晩 (=konban) tonight

昨夜(=sakuya) last night or 昨晩(=sakuban) last night

Ex. 昨晩は冷えましたね。

=Sakuban wa hiemashita ne.

= “It was cold last night, wasn’t it?”

Ex.今朝、何を食べましたか?

=Kesa nani wo tabemashita ka?

= “What did you eat this morning?”

(nen) year:

1年 (=ichinen) one year2年 (=ninen) two years

1年間 (=ichinenkan) for a year 2年間(=ninenkan) for two years

1年目 (=ichinen-me) the first year2年 (=ninen-me) the second year

今年(=kotoshi) this year

去年 (=kyonen) & 昨年 (=sakunen) last year  (昨年 (=sakunen) is more formal.)

一昨年(=ototoshi/issakunen) two years ago

来年(=rainen) next year 再来年 (=sarainen) year after next

2年後 (=ninen go) two years later

3年前 (=san nen mae) three years ago

数年(=suunen) a couple of (several) years

Note: (=suu) means a couple (of) or several

数ヶ月(=suukagetsu) a couple of (several)months

数日(=suujitsu) a couple of (several) days

時間(=jikan) time, hour(s)

1時 (=ichiji) one o’clock2時 (=niji) two o’clock3時 (sanji) three o’clock、

Ex. 今、何時ですか?

=Ima nanji desu ka?

= What time is it now?

Ex. 8時10分前です。

=hachiji jippun (juppun) mae desu.

= It’s 10 minutes before eight.

Ex. 今、4時ちょうどです。

=Ima yoji choudo desu.

= It’s just four o’clock sharp.

Ex. 7時半です

= Shichiji han desu.

= It’s seven thirty.

Ex. 2時過ぎ

=niji sugi

= It’s past two.

Ex. 6時前

=rokuji mae

=It’s before six.

Ex. 5時頃

=goji goro

=Around 5 o’clock. 5ish

Note : In Japan, it is very common to use 13:00~24:00 for the time table instead of 1:00 P.M ~ 12:00 A.M.

:: * What particle do we need to use when we say “at +number+ o’clock”?

Usually we use “”(=ni).

Ex. 明日何時会いましょうか?

=Ashita nanji niaimashou ka?

= What time shall we meet tomorrow?

Ex. 7時会いましょう

=Shichiji ni aimashou.

= Let’s get together at 7 o’clock!

Ex. 9時頃会いましょう。

=Kuji goro ni aimashou.

= Let’s meet around nine.

Ex. 昨夜、2:40東京で地震がありました

= Sakuya niji yonjyuppu ni toukyou de jishin ga arimashita.

= There was an earthquake at 2:40 last night. in Tokyo.

Ex. 8時約束があります。

=Hachiji ni yakusoku ga arimasu.

= I have an appointment (an engagement) at 8:00 tomorrow.

Ex. 9時に予定が入っています。

=Kuji ni yotei ga haitte imasu.

= I have plans for 9:00 tomorrow.

Note : Cookie Sensei made a sequel lesson just focusing on how to tell time. Please go check that lesson. 時間(=jikan) Time Related Lesson Part 2

早い (=hayai) early まだ早い(です)(=mada hayai (desu)) It is still early.

Ex. 彼は、朝早く出かけた。(=Kare wa asa hayaku dekaketa) He left early in the morning.

遅い (=osoi)  late

Ex. もう遅い(です)(=mou osoi( desu)) It is already late.

:: • 季節 (=kisetsu) Season(s)

Ex. 季節の挨拶 (=kisetsu no aisatsu) Season’s greetings

Ex. 季節の変わり目 (=kisetsu no kawarime.) changing seasons, turn of the year

四季(=shiki) four seasons:

Spring :   (=haru)

Summer : (=natsu)

Fall :(=aki)

Winter : (=fuyu)

Ex. 今は秋です。

=Ima wa aki desu.

= It’s autumn now.

Ex. もうすぐ冬が来ます

=Mousugu fuyu ga kimasu.

= Winter is coming soon.

Ex. 春が来たら、会いましょう。

=Haru ga kitara, aimashou.

= Let’s get together in spring.

From the picture above :

:h: 「マギー先生、レポートは今週中に提出すればいいですか?」

(=Maggie sensei, repouto wa konshuu juu ni teishutsu sureba iidesu ka?)

“Miss Maggie, is it all right if I submit the report by the end of the week?”

提出する (=teishutsu suru) to submit, to turn in

〜すればいいですか?(=sureba ii desu ka?) Will it be OK if I + verb

今週中 (=konnshuu chuu): sometime within the weekbefore the week is over.

~中 (=chuu/juu) :Within ~ 今年中(kotoshi juu)、今月中  (kongetsu chuu)

:maggie-small: 「いいえ、明日の8時17分きっかりに持って来て!」

(=Iie, asu no hachiji juunanafun kikkari ni motte kite!)

“No, bring it at 8:17 sharp tomorrow! “

きっかり(=kikkari) = 丁度(ちょうど)(=choudo) : just, on the dot, sharp.

Note : You can also use it for money.

Ex. Just 100 yen. →きっかり(ちょうど)100円。(=kikkari (choudo) hyakuen)


frenchbulldogMaggie先生より (=Maggie-sensei yori) From Maggie-sensei

今日のレッスンも長くなっちゃったなあ。でも明日も明後日も毎日ここに来て勉強してね。

(=Kyou no ressun mo nagaku nacchatta naa.. Demo asshita mo asatte mo mainichi koko ni kite benkyou shitene.)

It ended up a long lesson again today. But plese come back here tomorrow, the day after tomorrow…well, every day to study!