時の日本語(Toki no nihongo) : Time related Japanese



=Maggie sensei, repouto wa konshuu juuni teishutsu sureba iidesu ka?

“Miss Maggie, will it be OK if I turn in the report by the end of the week?”


=Iie, asu no hachiji juunanafun kikkari ni motte kite!

“No, bring it at 8:17 sharp tomorrow! “

Hi everyone! Today I will teach you time-related vocabulary.

🔹 Here are very basic time units :

( =とき or じ –  toki or ji) : time / hour(s)

( = じかん = jikan) : time / hour(s)

( = ふん/ぷん/っぷん =  fun / pun/ ppun) : minute(s)

( = びょう= byou) : second(s)

( =にち/ひ =  nichi / hi ) : day(s)

週  ( = しゅう=  shuu) : week(s)

月  ( = つき/げつ/がつ = tsuki / getsu/ gatsu ) : month(s)

年  ( = とし/ねん=  toshi / nen) : year(s)

  *How do you say “every ~” ? :

You simply put 毎  ( = まい= mai) on top.

every day : 毎日   ( = まいにち= mainichi)

every week : 毎週  ( = まいしゅう= maishuu)

every month :毎月  ( = まいつき= maitsuki)

every year : 毎年  ( = まいとし = maitoshi)

Ex. マギーは毎年ハワイに行きます。

(=Maggie wa maitoshi hawai ni ikimasu.)

Maggie goes to Hawaii every year.

Note : If you want to say “every Monday“ →毎週月曜日   ( = maishuu getsuyoubi)
and if you want to say “on the 10th of each month
毎月10日に ( = maitsuki touka ni)
and “on the January 1st every year
毎年1月1日に( = maitoshi ichigatsu tsuitachi ni)

  *How about “every other“?

Whether you put 隔 ( = kaku) on top or number+ time unit + おきに ( = okini)

every other week : 隔週  ( = かくしゅう= kakushuu)

every other month : 隔月 ( =かくつき=  kakutsuki)

every other day : 隔日 ( = かくじつ = kaku jitsu) or  一日おきに ( = いちにちおきに~ ichinichi oki ni)

every other year : 隔年 ( = かくねん = kaku nen) or 一年おきに  ( = いちねのきに=  Ichinen oki ni))

Note 1) :


= Kakushuu de piano wo narai ni itte iru.)


=Isshuukan oki i piano wo narai ni itteiru.

= I go take a piano lesson every other week

(=かく = kaku) is usually for written Japanese.

(Except 隔週 ( =かくしゅう=  kakushuu) as I showed in the above example.) So if we want to say “every other day” we use 一日おきに ( = いちにちおきに = ichinichi oki ni) more than 隔日 ( = かくじつ – kakujitsu) in conversation.


Note 2) : The difference between おきに ( = okini) and 毎に ( =ごとに =  gotoni)

二日おきに ( = ふつかおきに = futsuka oki ni) every three days二日毎に ( = ふつかごとに = futsuka gotoni) every two days


  *How do you say “next ~“?

You put “”( =らい =  rai) in front of the time unit.

next year : 来年 ( = らいねん = rainen)

next week : 来週  ( = らいしゅう = raishuu)

  Note : Coming week is 次週  ( = じしゅう = jishuu)

  When you want to say “the following day/week/year “, you put ( = よく = yoku)

the following day : 翌日  (= よくじつ = yokujitsu)

the following week : 週  (= よくしゅう=  yokushuu)

the following year : 年  (= よくとし = yokutoshi/yokunen)

  How about “last week/month/year”?

You add “” ( =せん =  sen)

last week : 先週  ( = せんしゅう= senshuu)

last month : 月  ( = せんげつ = sengetsu)

Note :日  ( = せんじつ = senjitsu) means “ the other day

Ex. 日はお世話になりました。

=Senjitsu wa osewa ni narimashita.

= Thank you for taking care of me / helping me the other day.

  *If you want to say “previous ~” you put “前の”  (  = まえの = mae no) or “”( =ぜん=  zen)

previous year : 前の  ( = まえのとし = mae no toshi) or年  ( = ぜんねん = zennen)

previous month : 前の( = まえのつき = mae no tsuki)

previous day: 前の( = まえのひ = mae no hi) or ( = ぜんじつ = zennjitu)

  How do you say once (or twice) a year/month/day?

once a year : (毎年)一年に一回 ( = (まいとし)いちねんにいっかい = (maitoshi) ichinen ni ikkai) / (毎年)一年に一度   (=(まいとし)いちねんにいちど =  (maitoshi) ichinen ni ichido)

twice a month : 毎月二回   ( = まいつきにかい = maitsuki nikai) or 毎月二度 ( = まいつきにど = maitsuki nido)

How do you say “for ~ days/weeks/months?

You add “” ( = kan) after the number.

Ex. for two days: 二日間  ( = ふつかかん = futsuka kan) / for two years : 3年間  ( = さんねんかん = san nenkan)

 *How to count days:

Even if you can count all the numbers in Japanese ex. ichi, ni, san, etc., you may have a little trouble remembering how to count a day or referring to certain dates.
For example, May 4th is not “gogatsu yon-nichi”. It is “gogatsu yokka”.
And if we want to say “I will stay in Tokyo for three days”, we usually say

Ex. 東京に三日間滞在します。

=Toukyou ni mikka kan taizai shimasu.

not “san-nichikan”.

Here are some more examples of how to read the dates.

(Note: We use both Arabic numbers and kanji when we write numbers.)

一日  ( = tsuitachi) the first / ( =  ichinichi) one day

Note: When you count a day, you don’t use ついたち  (=  tsuitachi). You use いちにち ( = ichinichi).

二日  ( =ふつか =  futsuka) the second, two days

三日   ( = みっか =  mikka) the third, three days

四日  ( =よっか =  yokka) the fourth, four days

五日  ( = いつか = itsuka) the fifth, five days

六日  ( =むいか=  muika) the sixth, six days

七日  ( = なのか = nanoka) the seventh, seven days

八日  ( =ようか=  youka) the eighth, eight days

九日  ( = ここのか= kokonoka) the ninth, nine days

十日  ( =とおか =  tooka) the tenth, ten days

二十日 ( =はつか =  hatsuka)the twentieth, twenty days

* However, in some occasions we hear people saying with regular way of reading numbers,

Ex. 8日間 (= はちにちかん = hachinichi kan) instead of “youka-kan”. (=for eight days.)

  How to count years:

Just add “”  ( = ねん = nen)

Ex. 3年  ( = san nen) three years

Note : “Three and a half years” is 三年半  ( = san nen han)

  How to count months:

You add “ヶ月”  ( = かげつ = kagetsu)in the end.

Ex. 1ヶ月  ( = いっかげつ =  ikkagetsu), 2ヶ月 (  = にかげつ =  ni kagetsu)

  How to count weeks:

〜週間 ( = しゅうかん=  shuukan)

Ex. 2週間 ( = にしゅうかん = ni shuukan) two weeks

OK, here are the basic units.

今日 ( =きょう =  kyou) : today (本日  ( = ほんじつ = honjitsu) more formal*)

明日  ( = あした/あす = ashita/asu) : tomorrow ( 明日 ( = みょうにちmyounichi) more formal*)

明後日  ( = あさって = asatte) : the day after tomorrow  ( 明後日 ( = みょうごにち = myougonichi) more formal*)

一昨日 ( = おととい = ototoi) : the day before yesterday ( 一昨日  ( = いっさくじつ = issakujitu) more formal*)

* You may hear/see this in a business situation or on the news

明々後日 ( = しあさって = shiasatte) three days from now

一昨々日( = さきおととい = sakiototoi) three days ago

 * How do you say “~ ago“?

You add “”  ( = まえ = mae) in the end.

二日前  ( = ふつかまえ =  futsuka mae) : two days ago

三日  ( = みっかまえ = mikka mae): three days ago

2、3日( =にさんにちまえ = ni san nichi mae) : a couple of days ago

9時間( =くじかんまえ = kujikan mae) : nine hours ago

一週間( = いっしゅうかんまえ = isshuukan mae) : a week ago

2ヶ月前  ( = にかげつまえ = nikagetsu mae) : two months ago.

4年  ( = よねんまえ =  yonen mae) four years ago

   How about “~ later” or “after ~“?

You put “” ( =ご =  go) in the end.

数年後  (  すうねんご = suunen go) a couple of (or several) years later

2週間後 ( =にしゅうかんご =  nishuukan go) two weeks later

How do you say “~end of (month, year)?

You put “” (  = まつ = matsu) in the end.

週末  ( = しゅうまつ = shuumatsu) weekend

月末  ( = げつまつ = getsumatsu) end of month

年末  ( =ねんまつ =  nenmatsu) year-end

世紀末  ( = せいきまつ = seikimatsu) end of the century


  Months : 月 ( = がつ = gatsu):

January : 一月 /1月  ( = いちがつ = ichigatsu)

February : 二月 /2月  ( =にがつ =  nigatsu)

March : 三月 /3月  (  = さんがつ = sangatsu)

April : 四月/4月  ( = しがつ = shigatsu)

May : 五月/5月  ( = ごがつ = gogatsu)

June : 六月/6月  ( = ろくがつ = rokugatsu)

July : 七月/7月  ( = しちがつ = shichigatsu/nanagatsu)

August : 八月/8月  ( = はちがつ = hachigatsu)

September : 九月/9月  ( = くがつ = kugatsu)

October : 十月/10月 ( = じゅうがつ =  juugatsu)

November : 十一月 /11月 ( = じゅういちがつ =  juuichigatsu)

December : 十二月/12月  ( = じゅうにがつ = juuni gatsu)

  The days of the week : 曜日  ( = ようび =   youbi):

Monday : 月曜日  ( =げつようび=  getsuyoubi)

Tuesday : 火曜日 ( =かようび =  kayoubi)

Wednesday : 水曜日  ( = すいようび = suiyoubi)

Thursday : 木曜日  ( = もくようび =  mokuyoubi)

Friday : 金曜日  ( = きんようび = kinyoubi)

Saturday : 土曜日  ( = どようび = doyoubi)

Sunday : 日曜日 ( = にちようび = nichiyoubi)


= Nichiyoubi wa nanimo shinai.

= “I don’t do anything on Sundays.”

  weekday(s) : 平日  ( = へいじつ = heijitsu) ↔ weekend : 週末  ( = しゅうまつ = shuumatsu)

  holidays :

休日  ( = きゅうじつ = kyuujitsu) 、祭日 ( = さいじつ = saijitsu) 、祝日 ( = しゅくじつ = shukujitsu) : holiday

国民の祝日 ( =こくみんのしゅくじつ =  kokumin no shukujitsu) National holidays

休み  ( = やすみ =  yasumi) holidays, day-off, vacation

夏休み ( = なつやすみ = natsuyasumi) summer holidays(vacation)

(お)盆休み ( =(お)ぼんやすみ =  (o)bon yasumi) obon holidays (around Aug.13~15)

冬休み ( = ふゆやすみ =  fuyu yasumi) winter holidays

(お)正月休み( = (お)しょうがつやすみ =  (o)shougatsu yasumi) New Year’s holidays

Ex. 夏休みに入ったらどこに行きますか?

=Natsuyasumi ni haittara dokoni ikimasu ka?

Where are you going on summer vacation?

Ex. 正月休みにスキーに行きました。

=Shougatsu yasumi ni sukii ni ikimashita.

=I went skiing during the New Year’s holiday.

  ★*Here are more example sentences:

Ex. 今日は何曜日ですか?

=Kyou wa nanyoubi desu ka?

= What day is today?

Ex. 今日は、月曜日です。

=Kyou wa getsuyoubi desu.

= It is Monday.

Ex. 今日は何日ですか?

=Kyou wa nannichi desu ka?

= What’s the date today?

Ex. 今日は8月15日です。

=Kyou wa hachigatsu juugonichi desu.

= It’s August 15th.

Ex. 今日は1月6日、水曜日です。

=Kyou wa ichigatsu muika suiyoubi desu.

= It’s January 6th, Wednesday.

★*Other time-related words:

時間  ( = じかん = jikan) : time (in general)

Ex. 「今、お時間ありますか?

=Ima, ojikan arimasu ka?

= Do you have some time now?

Ex. いえ、もう時間がありません

=Ie, mou jikan ga arimasen.

= No, I don’t have any time left.

( = いま = ima): now

先ほど  ( = さきほど = sakihodo) : a little while ago さっき( =  sakki):more casual)

午後 ( = ごご = gogo) in the afternoon P.M.午前 ( = ごぜん = gozen) in the morning A.M.

朝  ( = あさ =  asa) morning

昼  ( = ひる = hiru) daytime

夕方( = ゆうがた = yuugata)  evening

   ( = ばん = ban) evening/night

夜  ( = よる =  yoru) night

Related words:

*朝食  ( = choushoku) or 朝ご(or 御)飯  ( = asa gohan) : breakfast

*昼食  ( = chuushoku)/ 昼ご(or 御)飯 ( = hirugohan) : lunch

*夕食 (=yuushoku) 夕飯 ( = yuuhan) 夕ご(or 御)飯 ( =  yuugohan)

or 晩(or 御)飯   dinner(  = bangohan) / 夜食( =  Yashoku) late dinner

早朝 ( = souchou) early in the morning

Ex.早朝割引  ( = souchou waribiki) early bird discount(specials)

正午  ( = しょうご = shougo) at noon

夜中  ( =よなか =  yonaka) middle of the night

真夜中  ( = まよなか =  mayonaka) midnight

今朝  ( = けさ = kesa) this morning

今夜  ( = こんや = kon-ya) tonight

or 今晩  ( = こんばん = konban) tonight

昨夜  ( = さくや =  sakuya) last night or 昨晩  ( = さくばん =  sakuban) last night

Ex. 昨晩は冷えましたね。

= Sakuban wa hiemashita ne.

= “It was cold last night, wasn’t it?”


= Kesa nani wo tabemashita ka?

= “What did you eat this morning?”

年  (ねん = nen) year:

1年 ( = いちねん = ichinen) one year2年  ( = にねん =  ninen) two years

1年間  ( = いちねんかん= ichinenkan) for a year 2年間 ( = にねんかん = ninenkan) for two years

1年目  ( =いちねんまえ =  ichinen-me) the first year 2年 目 ( = にねんめ = ninen-me) the second year

今年 ( = ことし = kotoshi) this year

去年  ( = きょねん = kyonen) & 昨年 ( = さくねん = sakunen) last year  昨年  ( = さくねん = sakunen) is more formal.)

一昨年 ( = ototoshi/issakunen) two years ago

来年 ( = らいねん = rainen) next year 再来年  ( = さらいねん = sarainen) year after next

2年後  ( = にねんご = ninen go) two years later

3年前  ( = さんねんまえ = san nen mae) three years ago

数年 ( = すうねん = suunen) a couple of (several) years

Note: 数 ( =すう =  suu) means a couple (of) or several

数ヶ月 ( =すうかげつ =  suukagetsu) a couple of (several)months

数日 ( =すうじつ =  suujitsu) a couple of (several) days

時間  ( =じかん =  jikan)   time, hour(s)

1時  ( = いちじ = ichiji) one o’clock 2時  ( = にじ = niji) two o’clock3時  (  =さんじ =  sanji) three o’clock

Ex. 今、何時ですか?

=Ima nanji desu ka?

= What time is it now?

Ex. 8時10分前です。

=hachiji jippun (juppun) mae desu.

= It’s 10 minutes before eight.

Ex. 今、4時ちょうどです。

=Ima yoji choudo desu.

= It’s just four o’clock sharp.

Ex. 7時半です

= Shichiji han desu.

= It’s seven thirty.

Ex. 2時過ぎ

=niji sugi

= It’s past two.

Ex. 6時前

=rokuji mae

=It’s before six.

Ex. 5時頃

=goji goro

=Around 5 o’clock. 5ish

Note: In Japan, it is very common to use 13:00~24:00 for the timetable instead of 1:00 P.M ~ 12:00 A.M.

🔹 What particle do we need to use when we say “at +number+ o’clock”?

Usually, we use “”  ( = ni).

Ex. 明日何時会いましょうか?

=Ashita nanji niaimashou ka?

= What time shall we meet tomorrow?

Ex. 7時会いましょう

=Shichiji ni aimashou.

= Let’s get together at 7 o’clock!

Ex. 9時頃会いましょう。

=Kuji goro ni aimashou.

= Let’s meet around nine.

Ex. 昨夜、2:40東京で地震がありました

= Sakuya niji yonjyuppu ni toukyou de jishin ga arimashita.

= There was an earthquake at 2:40 last night. in Tokyo.

Ex. 8時約束があります。

=Hachiji ni yakusoku ga arimasu.

= I have an appointment (an engagement) at 8:00 tomorrow.

Ex. 9時に予定が入っています。

=Kuji ni yotei ga haitte imasu.

= I have plans for 9:00 tomorrow.

Note: Cookie Sensei made a sequel lesson just focusing on how to tell time. Please go check that lesson. 時間(=jikan) Time Related Lesson Part 2

Also there is a lesson on particles with time-related expressions. Time-related Expressions with and without particles.

早い  ( = はやい = hayai) early まだ早い(です) ( = mada hayai (desu)) It is still early.

Ex. 彼は、朝早く出かけた。

= Kare wa asa hayaku dekaketa.

= He left early in the morning.

•  遅い ( = おそい = osoi)  late

Ex. もう遅い(です) ( = mou osoi( desu)) It is already late.

 • 季節  ( = きせつ = kisetsu) season(s)

Ex. 季節の挨拶  ( =きせつのあいさつ =  kisetsu no aisatsu) Season’s greetings

Ex. 季節の変わり目   ( =きせつのかわりめ =  kisetsu no kawarime.) changing seasons, turn of the year

四季 ( = しき = shiki) four seasons:

spring : 春   ( = はる = haru)

summer : 夏  (  = なつ = natsu)

fall/autumn: 秋   ( = あき =  aki)

winter : 冬   ( = ふゆ = fuyu)

Ex. 今は秋です。

=Ima wa aki desu.

= It’s fall/autumn now.

Ex. もうすぐ冬が来ます

=Mousugu fuyu ga kimasu.

= Winter is coming soon.

Ex. 春が来たら、会いましょう。

=Haru ga kitara, aimashou.

= Let’s get together in spring.

From the picture above :


( = Maggie sensei, repouto wa konshuu juu ni teishutsu sureba iidesu ka?)

“Miss Maggie, is it all right if I submit the report by the end of the week?”

提出する  ( = ていしゅつする = teishutsu suru) to submit, to turn in

〜すればいいですか?( = sureba ii desu ka?)  Will it be OK if I + verb

今週中  ( =こんしゅうちゅう =  konnshuu chuu): sometime within the week before the week is over?

~中  ( = ちゅう/じゅう = chuu/juu) :within ~ 今年中(  = ことしじゅう = kotoshi juu)、今月中  ( =こんげつちゅう =  kongetsu chuu)


( = Iie, asu no hachiji juunanafun kikkari ni motte kite!)

“No, bring it at 8:17 sharp tomorrow! “

きっかり ( = kikkari)  = 丁度(ちょうど)( = choudo) : just, on the dot, sharp.

Note : You can also use it for money.

Ex. Just 100 yen →きっかり(ちょうど)100円。( = kikkari (choudo) hyakuen)

Note: If you want to learn “what particle you need/you don’t need with time expressions” go check this lesson. →Time Expressions with and without a particle.

frenchbulldogMaggie先生より ( = Maggie-sensei yori) From Maggie-sensei


( = Kyou no ressun mo nagaku nacchatta naa.. Demo asshita mo asatte mo mainichi koko ni kite benkyou shitene.)

It ended up being a long lesson again today. But please come back here tomorrow, the day after tomorrow…well, every day to study!




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  1. Maggie sensei, I have a question.

    1/ 3ヶ月間日本語を勉強している。
    2/ 3ヶ月日本語を勉強している。
    Is there any difference between these two sentences? Why do we need to use “間” when “3ヶ月” is already the duration of month? Can I omit it? I don’t really get how it works tho..

    Btw, thank you for such detailed lesson! 🙏

    1. Hello Mimi
      For your example sentences, you can use both 3ヶ月・3ヶ月間 and they mean the same.
      I have been studying Japanese for three months.
      You can omit 間 and just say ヶ月.
      The nuance difference is you tend to use 〜間 when you are constantly doing something during certain period of time or stress the time period more. And ヶ月 is just mentioning the period of time.

  2. こんにちは先生!!素晴らしいレッスンを作ってくれてありがとうございます!
    I was about to ask the same as Harinさん, but then read the comment and your response and it became clear as water, but then another question came to my mind.

    When it’s a short action every x days/weeks/months/years, 毎に and 置きに have a clear difference as you explained, but what happens when the action’s duration is similar to the interval? Do 毎に and 置きに become equivalent?

    For example, if you’re doing some workout where you rest during 1 minute for every 30 seconds round:

    Would「一分毎に三十秒の運動です」 imply that the minute of 一分毎に starts after we’ve finished the workout, thus being equivalent to 「一分おきに三十秒の運動です」? Or would it mean that the minute includes the 30 seconds of workout, thus getting only 30 seconds of rest? What would happen if the workout is one minute or greater :o?

    こんな細か過ぎてすみません、先生 (m;_ _)m、そんなことを考えることは楽しいけどwww

    Oh and another question (^^;), how formal or casual are 直後、直前 and 寸前?本で読んだからわからないww


    1. Hello Orti,
      In that case,

      might be more natural.
      Generally speaking when the unit you use is small or short, like 秒, 分, 時間 (second(s) /minute(s)/hour(s)), おき and ごと are interchangeable but if it gets longer such as 日・週間・年 (day(s)/ week(s) / year(s)) the meaning change.
      But some cases are very complicated and confusing even for native speakers.

      直前 ・ 直後 ・ 寸前
      You use them in conversation but they are not neither formal nor too casual.


      1. 説明してくれてほおおおおおおおおんとうにありがとう!!!!

  3. Hi,

    Can you explain to me the difference between「~るとき、…」and「~まえに、…」?

    パリへ行くとき、かばんを買いました。→ I bought a bag, before going to Paris.
    パリへ行くまえに、かばんを買いました。→ I bought a bag before going to Paris.

    I can’t find the difference in grammar book; I guess (I hope) there is a nuance. ^^

    1. Hello HnK

      Good question. Basically they are the same but
      行くまえに focusing on the order of two actions, 1) buying a bag 2) going to Paris.
      Maybe you didn’t take the bag with you when you went to Paris.

      行くとき(に) the action of buying the bag has stronger connection to the trip to Paris than 行くまえに.
      I bought a bag and took it to Paris./ I bought a bag in order to take it to Paris.

      1. Hi,

        Thank you for your anwser.

        So, we can translate「パリへ行くとき、かばんを買いました。」into “I bought a bag, just before going to Paris.” or “…, on the way to Paris.”?
        If,I understand correctly,「~るとき…」made a continuity between the two actions; and「~まえに,…」no continuity.

        The difference is the same between「~たとき、…」and「~あとで、…」?

        1. Yes, that’s right.
          And the difference between たとき and たあと is .
          パリに行ったときにかばんを買いました you bought a bag in Paris or could be right before the trip/on the way to Paris
          パリに行ったあとでかばんを買いました。 you bought a bag after you went to Paris and came back home.

  4. Hello Maggie 先生!<3
    Thank you, thank you, thank youuuuu, THANK YOU! A million thank yous for this lesson .< Do I use 前日?

    Thanks again for all your wonderful lessons! ^^ I'll keep studying hard!


    1. Hi Ali,

      Thank you for all your “thank you”! :)
      Yes, you say 前日 = ぜんじつ= the day before.
      Ex. パーティーの前日は準備が大変です。
      = パーティーのぜんじつはじゅんびがたいへんです。
      = Paatii no zenjitsu wa junbi ga taihen desu.
      = There are lots of things to do the day before the party.

  5. Hi Maggie,

    How would you say ” for 2 years and 3 weeks” ?
    二年間と三週間 ?
    Could you help me with the okurigana please ?

    1. @mike
      You can say


  6. Hi Maggie-sensei,

    1. @Thalia

      Hi Thalia,

      翌年は”the next year” / “the following year”
      来年は”next year”

      For example, if you say

      Ex. 1) 来年、日本に行きます。
      now, it means “I will go to Japan next year. ”
      It’s 2016 now so you will come to Japan in 2017.

      You can’t say

      翌年 is used in past tense. You mention one past event first and then add what happened in the following year.

      Ex. 2) 2010年に日本に行きました。翌年はどこにも行きませんでした。
      = I went to Japan in 2010. I didn’t go anywhere in the following year.

      So in this case, 翌年 refers to 2011. (the following year of 2010)

      You can mention two actions.
      one action →翌年→the other actions.

      Ex. 3) 卒業(そつぎょう)した翌年、日本に行った。
      = I went to Japan the year after the graduation (year).

      Note: You can’t use 来年 in Ex.2) and Ex.3)
      You can also say 次の年(とし)instead of 翌年

  7. How about I have sixth period (in school) period is 6校時 or 6 時間. But what is “have” for teacher or students?

    1. @Michael
      I’m sorry but I don’t understand your question well but
      When you refer to the classes in school,
      the first class1時間目
      the second class 2時間目
      the sixth class 6時間目

      If you say I have three classes today, you say

  8. Dear Maggie Sensei,

    Wow, there were great many expressions that were new for me, thanks a lot! !happyface!

    I have only one question which I haven’t found the answer for in the post.

    If I would like to say, for example, that “The package is going to arrive on the 4th day”, do I need to put に after 四日目, like there is “on” in the English version: “on the 4th day”, or not?
    I have learnt that when a time expression contains any number, we usually put に after it, but I’m not sure here.

    Thank you very much in advance! :w:


  9. Hi, Maggie-sensei! I love your website, it’s so helpful.
    How would I say something like “I’m going to Japan in January”?

    1. @Lia

      Hi Lia!
      Glad to hear you find my site helpful! :)
      I’m going to Japan in January. = 一月に日本へ行きます。= いちがつににほんへいきます。= Ichigatsu ni nihon e ikimasu.

  10. Maggie sensei,

    Great resource you created, hontou ni.

    Just one shitsumon: how do you say “I have been in Japan many times”? and “I have been in Japan more than 10 times” ?

    1. @Peter

      Hi Peter,
      I have been in Japan many times”?

      I have been in Japan more than 10 times”

  11. Dear Maggie Sensei

    If I want to say end of July, can I say 7月末? which will read as しちがつまつ.
    ありがとう ございます。

    Man Hua

    1. @Man Hua

      Hi Man Hua,

      end of July (a few days in the end of July) 7月末= しちがつすえ
      July 31st = 7月末= しちがつまつ

  12. Maggie sensei.

    If 2000年前 means 2000 years ago, then how to say “before 2000” (e.g: 1999, 1900).

    Thank you.

  13. マギ先生 こんにちは
    Hope you can help me with use of とき, mostly I don’t understand the difference between 1st two
    Ex. 部屋を出るとき電気を消します


    1. @Pauu

      1) 部屋を出るとき電気を消します I turn off the light when I leave a(the) room.
      2) 部屋に入ったとき電気をつけます I will turn on the light when/once/ if I enter a(the) room.

      I don’t know if I understand your question but the tense of the verbs in 1) and 2) are different.
      1) says what you do habitually when you leave a room.
      2) says I don’t know when but when I enter the room, I will turn on the light.

      FYI I have been working on the lesson on “when”

      2) 去年日本へ行ったとき京都へ行きました isn’t so difficult.
      It simply state what you did when you went to Japan.

      I visited Kyoto when I went to Japan last year.

      1. Thank you!!!
        I think my problem was more on the 2 nd example since verb is in past form and I don’t understand why… ~ 入った

        Looking forward for the lesson about when =]

  14. Maggie-sensei,
    how would you say “It’s been X minutes/hours/days/weeks/months/years since”.
    As in, for example, “It’s been 6 months since I last went swimming.”

    On that note, how would you say “several” or “a few” minutes/hours/days etc. instead of using an exact number?
    And is there a way to simply say, “It’s been a while since [I last did something]”?

    Sorry for using English–I’ve only been learning Japanese for around three months.
    Thank you as always for your help!! boucingheart!

    1. @seimei

      Hi Seimei,
      Check this lesson.

      several” or “a few” minutes/hours/day →You can use 数 (数分、数時間、数日、数ヶ月、数年)

      “It’s been a while since [I last did something]”?
      I also explained this in the lesson which I gave you the link above. →久しぶりに〜をしました・した

  15. こんにちは、マギー先生!
    「Over the past few days」または「During the past few days」ってどう書きますか?


    1. @Dan


      over the past few days/ during the past few daysは


  16. Hello Sensei,

    I read somewhere and I saw 数月 as in a couple of months…any difference between this version and your version as in 数ヶ月? Thank you !happyface!

    1. @Anne

      Hello Anne.
      Hmmmm we usually use 数ヶ月 for a couple of months.
      If you see someone using 数月 somewhere, give me a link. I will take a look.

    1. @Marie

      もう(the name where you are)は遅い時間だから+もう寝て下さい。ゆっくり休んでね。(ね suffix = girl/casual)

  17. Sensei, T-T Can you explain in detail about the time difference for mayonaka and yonaka? I read online that mayonaka should not be used as 12am as in midnight. And there is this word shinya as well.

    1. @Anne
      Hello Anne!

      Sorry I can’t explain from what time to what time is which one but the most general word for the middle of the night is 夜中. Technically 真夜中 is midnight but 深夜(=shinya) and 真夜中(mayonaka) are both used as middle of the night.

      For your information, NHK did the survey

      夜中= from 23:00 ish~ 2:00 ish
      深夜= from 24:00 usg ~ 2:00 ish

      1. Thanks for your reply, Sensei. So basically you mean mayonaka can be used for both midnight and middle of the night? Ok, between mayonaka and yonaka which one is later in the night? Can I just summarized as in mayonaka is 12am and yonaka as in after 12am?

        Sorry…I still have difficulty curbing with this issue. Sorry sensei!! (usg and ish??)

        1. @Anne

          真夜中 has a meaning as “midnight” but usually we used it for no specific time and use it as “middle of the night”.
          Let me see if I can explain the concept in a more graphic way.

          There is no rules rules but

          23:45ish or later—————————————2:00ish

          <-----------------夜中(yonaka)/深夜(shinya)------------> ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~<----真夜中(mayonaka)----->~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ↑★24:00/正子(shoushi)~~~~~~~~~~~~~

          1. Thank you!! !JYANE! Thank you so much for your patience! Love you so much, Sensei boucingheart!

  18. waaa, this is so cool, sensei :-D

    I wonder how to say things like “eight hours a day”, “24/7”, “two days a week/month”, “three months a year”. Do you have a lesson for these?

    1. @iji

      Hello iji,

      eight hours a day = 1日(に)8時間= Ichinichi (ni) hachijikan
      24/7 いつも(=itsumo) / 常に(=tsuneni)
      “two days a week/month” = 1週間(isshuukan) or 1ヶ月(ikkagetsu) (に=ni)二日(=futsuka)
      three months a year = 1年(に)3ヶ月 (=ichinen (ni) sankagetsu)

      I have a related lesson. 頻度 

  19. マギー先生 こんにちは (^^)
    質問が一つだけあるね。書いた前のコメントで「マギーのassistant」というassistantには日本語で何と言いますか? by the way, do my sentences make any sense? haha. I meant to ask, how do you say assistant in Japanese as in Maggie’s assistant which you’ve written in an earlier comment? まえもって教えてくれてありがとう!(thanks for replying in advance!) :)

    1. @Campbell C arsley

  20. I’m sorry, it didn’t finish before I submitted. For the last one I meant:

    今は午後10時5分前です。 It is 5 minutes to 10.

  21. Hello again Maggie!

    I have another question.
    Is it correct to say this:

    今は午後10時5分過ぎです。 It is 5 past 10.

    1. goldenzephyr-san,

      凄いだね ー>凄いね


  22. Watashi no bokokugo ha furansugo desu.
    Yours is english or japanese ? :o

    Saikin, Maggie sensei no video “okinasai” o mimashita. Sugoi kawai ne ^^

    1. Laetitia-san,
      Furansu go mo Furansu mo daaaaisuki! Maggie no bokokugo wa inu-go desu! Yukari (Maggie no assistant) no bokokugo wa nihongo desu.
      Okinasai no video mite kurete arigatou! Ibiki ga sugoi desho!

  23. Thank you for the correction ^^ As I wrote this sentence I knew there was something wrong but couldn’t correct it myself ^^;;
    By the way, sorry if my english sounds wrong too, I hope it’s still comprehensible.

    Arigatou :O
    Have a nice day !

  24. Watashi ha futsuka goto ni gurai Maggie sensei no blog o yomimasu. Lesson ha nagai no ni, totemo omoshiroi desu ! Demo, oboeranakya ikenai koto ga takusan aru no de, raishuu, watashi ha benkyouu o sureba ii ! (<– Machigai ga attara, sumimasen ; ; )

    Kyou no lesson, arigatou ^^

    Mata ne !

    1. Laetina-san,

      Kinou lesson wo keshite shimatta node comment mo kiechatte gomennasai!
      (I deleted the lesson yesterday and your comment was gone. I am sorry!)

      You made a great sentence. May I correct just a bit?
      “Watashi wa futsuka goto ni gurai Maggie sensei…..” -> “Daitai futsuka goto ni”
      (Or if you really want to use “gurai” you could say “futsuka gurai goto ni”)
      Itsumo kono blog ni kite kurete hontou ni arigatou!! Tottemo ureshii desu!

  25. Hello again Maggie-sensei!

    I have a question regarding ~おきに and ~ごとに
    If you say 二日おきに、does it have the same meaning as 一日ごとに?

    I take computer lessons every two days.

    I take computer lessons every two days.

    違いは不明ですね ^^;

    1. Harrin-san

      前のコメント消えちゃってごめんなさい!説明のところ書き直しました。m(_ _)m
      As I wrote you in my previous comment, even many many Japanese people get confused with the difference between “gotoni” and “okini”

      If you have to do something, (“o” means the day you do and “x” means the day you don’t do, OK?)

      futsuka gotoni= xo xo
      mikka gotoni = oxx oxx oxx oxx
      yokka gotoni =oxxx oxxx oxxx oxxx


      futsuka oki ni = oxx oxx
      mikka oki ni = oxxx oxxx oxxx
      yoykka okini = oxxxx oxxxx oxxxx

      So technically “mikka goto ni” has the same pace as “futsuka oki” ni.
      And “二日おきに” has the same pace as “三日毎に”
      “goto” is one unit that the number indicates. Oki’s kanji is 置き. (置く= to place, to put) So you leave the number of the time unit in between.

      一日毎に (日毎:higoto) means every day. (But there is a slight nuance difference between 毎日. And some Japanese think it means every other day)
      Thank you! Your questions always make me think. I will talk to other Japanese doggies about it.
      Arigato!! :maggie-small:

    1. Dear Draquoir-san,

      そ〜でした!それを忘れたなんて信じられない!。早速追加しました。(=soudeshita. Sore wo wasureta nante shinjirarenai! Sassoku tsuika shimashita.)
      That’s riiiight! I can’t believe I missed that one. I have just added it now.
      助かりました。ありがとう!(=Tasukarimashita. Arigatou) Thank you for your help!

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