Connecting with masu-stem


「よく遊びよく学べ 」だよ!

= “Yoku asobi yoku manabe” dayo!
= “Play hard and study hard”, OK?
  


Hi everyone! 

I am your guest teacher, Ren! 

Today I’m going to answer one of the most frequently asked questions:

“How do you connect verbs with the masu-stem?”

Many of you know how to connect verbs with te-form, right?

Just in case, let’s review.

to do A and do B

A: 書く ( = kaku)  to write

B: 消す ( = kesu ) to erase 

You change the first verb 書く ( = kaku) to the te-form →書いて ( = kaite) 

自分の名前を書いて消す

= Jibun no namae wo kaite kesu.

= Write one’s name and erase it.

past tense: You make the second (the last) verb, 消す( = kesu = to erase) past tense.

自分の名前を書いて消した。

= Jibun no namae wo kaite keshita.

= I wrote my name and erased it.

You can also connect verbs using the masu-stem. 

Verbs:

How to form: 

書く かく= kaku 

→ masu form書きます = かきます = kakimasu 

→ Make a masu stem: delete ます ( = masu) 書き = かき = kaki

自分の名前を書き、消す。

= jibun no namae wo kak,  kesu.

= to write one’s name and erase it.

Past tense: Just change the last verb to the past tense. 

自分の名前を書き、消した。

= Jibun no namae wo kaki, keshita.

= I wrote my name and erased it.

It is more common to use te-form or if the masu-stem is one mora such as, 

* 来る= kuru = to come来ますきます= kimasu 

masu-stem  = = ki     X

→you use (te-form来て = きて= kite

出る = deru= to leave, to come out 出ますでます= demasu 

masu-stem = de     X

 →you use (te-form) 出て = でて= dete

見る = miru = to see, watch, look見ます=みます= mimasu

→masu-stem  =  = mi     X 

→you use (te-form見て みて = mite

寝る = neru = to sleep X→寝ますねます= nemasu 

masu-stem  = = ne   X  

→you use (te-form) 寝て= ねて= nete

How to use:

(1)  sequence of events (to do A and then do B)

While connecting verbs with te-form is more general and conversational, connecting verbs with masu-stem is more literal and formal. 

So when you are talking to your friend or family about what you did or are going to do, you use the te-form. 

Ex. 今からお風呂に入って寝るよ。

= ima kara ofuro ni haitte neru yo.

= I am going to take a bath now and go to bed. 

But when you write to your boss or talk to them in a formal way, you use the masu-stem.

Ex.これから一度、会社に戻り資料を作ります。

= Kore kara ichido, kaisha ni modori shiryou wo tsukurimasu.

= I am going back to the office once and make documents. 

Ex. この本を読み、感想を教えてください。

= Kono hon wo yomi, kansou wo oshiete kudasai.

= Please read this book, and let me know what you think about it.

Ex. しっかり考え、結論を出した。

= Shikkari kangae, ketsuron wo dashita.

= I thought about it thoroughly and came to a conclusion. 

Ex. 弟は自分で運転し帰ってきた。

= Otouto wa jibun de unten shi kaette kita.

= My younger brother drove himself home. 

Ex. わからない言葉があれば辞書で調べリストを作ってください。

= Wakaranai koto ga areba jisho de shirabe risuto wo tsukutte kudasai.

= If there are words that you don’t know, please look them up in the dictionary and make a list of them.

Ex. 夏休みに日本に行きマギー先生に会う予定でした。

= Natsuyasumi ni nihon ni iki Maggie Sensei ni au yotei deshita.

= I was going to Japan to see Maggie Sensei over summer vacation.

Ex. 彼には三人の子供がおり、家ではいいお父さんらしい。

= Kare niwa sannin no kodomo ga ori, ie de wa ii otousan rashii.

= He has three children, and I heard that he is a good father at home. 

Note: the verb いる ( = iru) changes to おり ( = ori) 

*masu-stem of honorific form

Ex. こちらにお名前をご記入いただき、椅子にかけてお待ちください。

= Kochira ni onamae wo gokinyuu itadaki, isu ni kakete omachi kudasai.

= Please fill in your name here, take a seat and wait. 

(2) Listing multiple actions:

From the picture above:

Ex. よく遊びよく学べ (proverb)   

= Yoku asobi yoku manabe

= Play hard and study hard

= All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

Let’s add one more verb: to do A, B, and C

Ex. マギーは、よく遊び、よく食べ、よく寝る。

= Maggie wa, yoku asobi, yoku tabe, yoku neru.

= Maggie plays a lot, eats a lot, and sleeps a lot. 

You can also use the potential form of masu-stem  

Ex. 英語を話せ日本語も話せる人を探しています。

= Eigo wo hanase nihongo mo hanaseru hito wo sagashite imasu.

= We are looking for someone who can speak English and (can speak) Japanese as well.

(3) cause/ reason: The first verb causes the following situation. 

Ex. 雨に降られ困っていたら知らない人が傘を貸してくれた。

= Ame ni furare komatte itara shiranai hito ga kasa wo kashite kureta.

= When I got caught in the rain (thus was in trouble) and was getting wet, some stranger offered me an umbrella.
(masu-stem of the passive form)

Ex. 昨夜は食べ過ぎお腹が痛くなった。

= Sakuya wa tabesugi onakaga itaku natta.

= I ate too much last night and got a stomachache. 

Ex. 昨日は、風邪をひき学校を休んだ。

= Kinou wa, kaze wo hiki gakkou wo yasunda.

= I got cold and (that’s why) I took the day off from school yesterday.

Ex. 夕食の後にコーヒーを二杯飲み、明け方まで眠れなかった。

= Yuushoku no ato ni koohii wo nihai nomi, akegata made nemurenakatta.

= I had two cups of coffee after dinner, and I couldn’t sleep until dawn.

***

Adjectives: 

How to form:

* i-adjective

 ( = i) → ( = ku) 

大きい = おおきい = ookii = big

1) delete  ( = i)  →大き = おおき = ooki

2) add  ( = ku)  →大きく = おおきく = ookiku 

Negative form

ない = nai 

なく = naku

大きくなく= ookiku naku 

How to use:

(1) Listing the characteristics.

Ex. 簡単に試験に受かると思ったが、現実は険しく厳しかった。

= Kantan ni shiken ni ukaru to omotta ga, genjitsu wa kewashiku kibishikatta.

= I thought I could pass the exam easily but in reality it was pretty tough. 

Note: the literal meaning 険しい (= kewashii) steep厳しい (= kibishii) strict, rugged

You often use these two to describe a mountain path. 

Ex. あそこは値段が高く美味しくない店として知られている。

= Asoko wa nedan ga takaku oishikunai mise to shite shirarete iru.

= That restaurant is infamous for being expensive and having bad food. 

Ex. この辺りは、狭く危ない道が多い。

= Kono atari wa, semaku abunai michi ga ooi.

= There are many narrow and dangerous streets in this area. 

Ex. 彼は背が高くがっしりした体格をしている。

= Kanojo wa se ga takaku gasshirishita taikaku wo shiteiru.

= He is tall and well-built. 

Ex. 彼女は頭がよく性格もいい。

= Kanojo wa atama ga yoku seikaku mo ii.

= She is smart and also has a good personality.

Ex. この料理は脂っこくなく美味しい。

= Kono ryouri wa aburakkokunaku oishii.

= This dish is not greasy and delicious. 

With adverbial particle: 

Ex. この作品は美しいだけではなく奥が深い。

= Kono sakuhin wa utsukushii dakedewa naku oku ga fukai.

= This work is not just beautiful but also profound.  

(2) reason/cause

Ex. この問題は難しく誰も解けないだろう。

= Kono mondai wa muzukashiku daremo dokenai darou.

= This question is so difficult that nobody could solve it.

Ex. 今年の夏は、暑くどこにも出かける気にならなかった。

= Kotoshi no natsu wa, atsuku doko nimo dekakeru ki ni naranakatta.

= This summer was so hot that I didn’t feel like going out at all.

Ex. 昨日は体調がよくなく1日ずっと家で寝ていた。

= Kinou wa taichou ga yoku naku ichinichi zutto ie de nete ita.

= I was under the weather and stayed home all day yesterday. 

***

As for na-adjective, you use  ( = de) form

Ex. この機能は便利簡単だ。

= Kono kinou wa benri de kantan da.

= This function is convenient and easy (to use). 

na-adjective negative form: ~ではなく( = dewa naku) / ~じゃなく( = janaku)

Ex. 彼のことが嫌いではなくどちらかというと気になっている。

= Kare no koto ga kirai dewa naku dochiraka to iu to kini natte iru.

= I wouldn’t say I don’t like him. If anything, I am kind of attracted to him. 

**

マギー先生より = Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

レン先生、ありがとう!

= Ren Sensei, arigatou!

= Thank you, Ren-Sensei! 

みんなもよく遊んでよく勉強してね!

= Minna mo yoku asonde yoku benkyou shitene!

= You all play hard and study hard, OK?

 

***

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4 Comments

  1. Hello, Maggie sensei. Thanks for the lesson. I have a question. How does “ga” work in these sentences? I’m confused about the use.

    飲み会に行ったら彼女が怒るかもしれない。

    = If I go to the drinking party, my girlfriend might be upset

    チャラくみえる人が実はまじめだったりするんだよね。
    The guy who looks shallow could be actually very serious, you know.

    1. Hi Sandara,

      Is it from my たり lesson?

      You can use は as well but the change the nuance a little.
      That が emphasizes what comes before.
      飲み会に行ったら彼女が怒るかもしれない。Emphasizing 彼女 (My girlfriend)
      彼女は怒るかもしれない focusing on the state “She may get angry”

      チャラくみえる人が実はまじめだったりするんだよね。
      Emphasizing チャラくみえる人

      When you state some commonsense or talk about the definition, you tend to use は
      チャラくみえる人は、実はまじめだ。(focusing on what comes after 実はまじめだ)

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