How to use 〜げ ( = ge)

DLPT (犬語能力試験)1級 合格したよ。」

= DLPT (Inugo nouryoku shiken) ikkyuu goukaku shitayo.

= Hey, I passed DLPT (Dog Language Proficiency Test) Level 1.

「なんか、得意だね。」

= Nanka, tokuige dane.

= You look so proud.

 

Hi everyone! I’m Cookie.

I am in charge of the first lesson of the year. 

First of all, I have a big announcement to make.

I passed DLPT (Dog Language Proficiency Test 🐶) N1! It is more difficult than JLPT test. I bet none of you could pass it. No offense.

OK, today I will teach you the usage of ~ ( = ge)

A lot of time you see it in hiragana but the kanji for ( = ge) is which means “atmosphere/feelings, etc.” 

* How to form:

adjective + ( = ge)

* i-adjective

Delete ( = i) and add ( = ge)

Ex. 楽しい = たのしい= tanoshii = fun

楽し = たのし ( = tanoshi) + ( = ge)

楽し = たのしげ = tanoshige 

Note: 

いい ( = ii) よい ( = yoi)

(irregular)  よさ ( = yosage) 

* na-adjective

Delete ( = na)  and add ( = ge)

Ex. 不安な  = ふあんな = fuanna = uneasy, anxious 

不安 = ふあん ( = fuan) + ( = ge)

不安げ = ふあん = fuange

verb  +  ( = ge)

masu-stem + ( = ge)

Ex. ある ( = aru) = there is/are, to have

→masu formあります = arimasu 

→(masu stem) あり ( = ari)  + ( = ge)

あり ( = arige)

Note: 

ない ( = nai) →(irregular) なさ ( = nasage) 

Vたい ( = tai)  = want to do ~ 

→delete ( = i) and add + ( = ge)

Ex. 言う= いう = iu = to say

言いたい = いいたい = iitai = want to say

言いた = いいた = iita + ( = ge)

言いた = いいた = iitage

noun ( = ge)

Ex. 大人 = おとな( = otona ) + ( = ge)

大人= おとな  ( = otonage) 

**

1)  ~ ( = ge)  + ( = da) / です ( = desu) /  (past tense) だった ( = datta) / でした ( = deshita) =  Someone/ Something looks ~ 

Ex. 彼女は寂しだった。

= Kanojo wa samishige/sabishige/ datta.

= She looked lonely.

2) ~ ( = gena) + noun = something which looks ~ / someone who looks ~ 

Ex. 寂しな顔

= Samishigena/ sabishigena kao

= lonely/sad face

3) ~ ( = geni ) + verb = to do something ~ ly  

Ex. 彼女は寂しにドアの外に立っていた。

= Kanojo wa samishige ni / sabishige ni doa no sotoni tatte ita.

= She looked lonely standing at the door.

4) ~ ( noun form)  ( +  ( = ga) ) + ある ( = aru) / ない ( = nai)

Ex. 大人ない。

= otonage ga nai.

= Not mature.

****

How to use:

= ge): You use it to describe someone (*not yourself)  who looks ~ / seems ~ / has the appearance of ~ / sounds ~ 

It is similar to そう ( = sou) but compared to そう ( = sou) , = ge) has more restrictions and you can’t use it with all the adjectives / verbs / nouns.

While you use そう ( = sou) for things, weather, climate, events, atmosphere, etc, you usually use ( = ge) to describe someone’s emotion, feelings or state. *

Note: You sometimes use ( = ge) to describe the atmosphere or state.

For example, when it looks cold outside, you say 

そう

= さむそう

= samusou

but not

X 寒げ

= samuge 

I will teach you the typical expressions with = ge).

****

With adjectives:

* 楽しい = たのしい = tanoshii = fun

楽し = tanoshige 

Ex. 子供達は楽し*雪の中を走り回っていた。

= Kodomotachi wa tanoshige ni yuki no naka wo hashirimawatte ita.

= It looked like children enjoyed running around the snow. 

(*楽しそう= tanoshisou ni)

* 嬉しい = うれしい= ureshii = happy, pleased 

嬉し = ureshige

Ex. 彼女にかわいいねって言ったら嬉し*笑っていた。

= Kanojo ni kawaiine tte ittara ureshige ni waratte ita.

= When I told her she was cute, she looked pleased and laughed.

(*嬉しそう= ureshisou ni) 

 

* 恥ずかしい = はずかしい = hazukashii = embarrassing, being shy 

恥ずかし = hazukashige 

Ex. その子は恥ずかし*私の方をちらちら見ていた。

= Sono ko wa hazukashige ni watashi no hou wo chirachira mite ita.

= The kid was peeking at me bashfully. 

(*恥ずかしそう= hazukashisou ni) 

* 恥ずかしもなく = hazukashige mo naku = shameless 

Ex. 恥ずかしもなくよくそんなことが言えるね。

Hazukashige mo naku yoku sonna koto ga ieru ne.

= Shame on you!  How dare you to say such a thing.

* 悲しい = かなしい= kanashii = sad

悲し = kanashige

Ex. 彼女の悲し*顔を見たら何も言えなかった。

= Kanojo no kanashigena kao wo mitara nanimo ienakatta.

= Once I saw her sad face, I couldn’t say anything. 

(*悲しそう= kanashisouna) 

* 不安な = ふあんな = fuanna = worried/nervous

不安 = fuange = looks worried/ nervous

* 心配な = しんぱいな = shinpaina = worried 

心配 = shinpaige 

Ex. 一人で海外に行くと言ったら母は心配*だった。

= Hitori de kaigai ni iku to ittara haha wa shinpaige datta.

= When I told my mother that I would go abroad by myself, she looked worried.

(*心配そう = shinpaisou)

* 涼しい = すずしい = suzushii = cool

涼し = suzushige = looks cool

You can also use it for things / faces

Ex. 彼は涼しな顔をして嘘をつく。

= Kare wa suzushigena kao wo shite uso wo tsuku.

= He lies with straight face.

Ex. 涼し*スカートだね。どこで買ったの?

= Suzushigena sukaato dane. Doko de katta no?

= That skirts looks cool and airy. Where did you buy it? 

(* 涼しそう = suzushisouna) 

*危ない = あぶない = abunai = dangerous/not secure

危な= abunage 

Ex. 妹の車に乗せてもらったが危なな運転でひやひやした。

= Imouto no kuruma ni nosete moratta ga abunagena unten de hiyahiya shita.

= My little sister gave me a ride but her dangerous/bad driving made me nervous.

*羨ましい = うらやましい = urayamashii = envious, jealous

羨まし = urayamashige

Ex. 明日から北海道に行くと言ったらみんな羨ましな顔をしていた。

= Ashita kara Hokkaidou ni iku to ittara minna urayamashigena kao wo shite ita.

= Everybody looked jealous when I told them that I would go to Hokkaido tomorrow.

* 怪しい=あやしい = ayashii = suspicious, fishy, dubious

怪し= ayashige 

Ex. 友達に怪しげな店に連れて行かれた。

=Tomodachi ni ayashigena mise ni tsurete ikareta.

= My friend took me a sketchy store.

* 懐かしい=なつかしい = natsukashii = brings back memories/nostalgic 

懐かし = natsukashige

Ex. 父は昔の写真を懐かしに*見ていた。

= Chichi wa mukashi no shashin wo natsukashige ni mite ita.

= My father was looking at the pictures wistfully. 

(*懐かしそう= natsukashisouni) 

* 苦しい =くるしい = kurushii = suffering, painful 

苦し = kurushige

Ex. 彼は苦しな言い訳をした。

= Kare wa kurushige na iiwake wo shita

= He made a poor excuse. 

*儚い = はかない = hakanai = ephemeral, short-lived, vain

 = hakanage

Ex. 今は、儚な女子がモテるんだって。(casual) 

= Ima wa, hakanagena joshi ga moterun datte.

= I heard vulnerable girls has been more attractive lately.

*眠たい = ねむたい = nemutai = sleepy

眠た= nemutage 

Ex. 彼は眠た*な声でおはようと言った。

= Kare wa nemutagena koe de ohayou to itta.

= He said good morning with a sleepy voice.

(*眠たそう= ねむたそう= nemutasou)

* いい/よい ( = ii/ yoi) good, nice

よさ= yosage 

Ex. マギーは性格がよさな犬だね。

= Maggie wa seikaku ga yosage na inu dane.

= It seems like Maggie is a good natured dog.

* 得意な=とくいな = tokuina = proud, good at

得意= tokuige 

 :ii: From the picture above:

得意だね

= Tokuige dane.

= You look so proud. 

You can also say: 

 :rrrr: 自慢=  jimange = proudly, boastfully

Ex. 兄は新しい車を自慢げに見せた。

= Ani wa atarashii kuruma wo jimange ni miseta.

= My big brother showed off his new car.

*満足な = まんぞくな = satisfactory, happy, content

満足 = manzokuge 

Ex. お客さんは料理にもサービスにも満足げ*だった。

= Okyakusan wa ryouri nimo saabisu nimo manzokuge datta.

= The customers looked very happy with the food and also the service.

( *満足そう = manzokusou)

opposite:

:rrrr: 不満=  fumange

Ex. 冬休にどこにも連れていかなかったので子供達は不満*な様子だった。

= Fuyuyasumi ni dokoni mo tsurete ikanakatta node kodomotachi wa fumangena yousu datta.

= Our children looked unhappy because we didn’t take them anywhere during the winter vacation.

(* 不満そうだった = fumansou datta.) 

****

With verbs/nouns: Compared to adjectives, it is much more limited to use ( = ge) with verbs and nous.

Verb + ( = ge) 

* ある = aru = there is/are, to have, to exist 

あり = arige 

Ex. 彼女から意味ありな短いメッセージが来た。

= Kanojo kara imi arigena mijikai messeiji ga kita.

= I got a short message from her that seems to be implying something. 

Ex. 「きっと私のこと好きにしてみせる!」

= Kitto watashi no koto suki ni shite miseru!

= I’ll make him like me for sure.

「随分、自信ありだね。」

= Zuibun, jishin arige dane.

= You look very confident. 

* ない = nai = there isn’t/aren’t / not exist, not to have, 

なさ = nasage

Ex. 彼を映画に誘ったけど、なんか興味なさ*だった。(casual)

= Kare wo eiga ni sasotta kedo, nanka kyoumi nasage datta.

= I asked him out to go see a movie but he didn’t show any interest.

(*興味なさそう= kyoumi nasasou) 

Ex. あの店長、頼りなさ*だけど大丈夫かなあ。(casual)

= Ano tenchou, tayori nasage dakedo daijyoubu?

= The shop manager looks undependable. I wonder if he’s OK?

(*頼りなさそう = tayorinasasou) 

* Vたい ( = tai)

Verb masu stem + ( = tage) 

*言いたい = いいたい = iitai = to want to say 

言いた = iitage 

Ex. 彼は黙って帰ったがなにか言いた*だった。

= Kare wa damatte kaettaga nanika iitage datta.

= He left without saying anything but it seemed like he wanted to say something.

(*言いたそう = iitasou) 

Special expressions:

* 物欲し= mono hoshige = greedy, to look as if you want something

I said you don’t use ( = ge) for yourself but you can use it to describe yourself.

Ex.  試食コーナーを物欲し*な顔をして見ていたら唐揚げ一つもらっちゃった。 (casual)

= Shishoku koonaa wo monohoshigena kao wo shite mite itara karaage hitotsu moracchatta.

= I was in the sample food section with hungry looking face and got a sample fried chicken. 

(*物欲しそう = monohoshisou)

Noun + ( = ge) 

* 大人ない(大人気ない) = otonagenai = immature

Ex. 上司に大人ない態度をとってしまった。

= Joushi ni otonagenai taido wo totte shimatta.

= I took an immature attitude with my boss.

***

マギー先生より = Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei

私はNLPT猫語能力試験 🐱)の5級を3回も落ちてあきらめました。

= Watashi wa NLPT (Nekogo nouryoku shiken) no gokyuu wo sankai mo ochite akiramemashita.

= I failed NLPT (Cat Language Proficiency Test) Level 5  three times and gave up.

 *****

My supporters on Patreon can access an audio file for this lesson on my Patreon page and some mini lessons and quiz.

Audio File for this lesson

:rrrr:    Click here.

I REALLY appreciate your support!  サポートありがとう! !CHECKHEART! 

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22 Comments

      1. Thanks Maggie sensei !
        A thousand of loves to Maggie sensei.
        My best wishes for your happy Valentine day tomorrow (heart ^.<)

  1. Hello again,

    I made some sentences with げ by myself. Could you help me to check if I am wrong?

    (1) I want to say ” She looks moderate but actually, she is so boastful”
    彼女は謙虚げだけど、実はとっても自慢だ。

    (2) Mom told me “Everything is OK” happily but her eyes told me differently.
    お母さんは嬉しげに「大丈夫よ」と言ってましたが、彼女の目は別のことを言いました。

    Thanks Maggie sensei:)

    1. Good, you are practicing!

      (1) “謙虚げ” is not so common, it will be better 謙虚そうにみえる
      You do say 自慢げ but you may want to add more context (Ex. the way she talk about herself/her family,etc.)
      彼女は謙虚そうにみえるけど(or が)、自分のことを話す時はいつも自慢げだ。

      (2) Good. Just the last part, 彼女の目は、そうは言っていませんでした。
      If you say 別のこと, it means some other thing.

  2. Hello Maggie sensei,

    Long time no see !

    Thank you for this great lesson.
    Could you tell me more about 何げない。
    Is 何気ない顔 means a face look likes nothing happens.
    Thanks Maggie sensei.

  3. マギー先生、こんにちは!

    This has me a bit confused:
    “…you can’t use it with any adjectives / verbs / nouns.”

    But you just gave several examples of it with adj/verbs/nouns :-P
    Perhaps you meant “many”?

    Moving on…

    “While you use ~そう ( = sou) for things, weather, climate, events, atmosphere, etc, you usually use ~げ ( = ge) to describe someone’s emotion, feelings or state. ”

    So while we can’t use 寒げ to say it looks cold outside, can we still use it for emotion/feelings?
    例: 彼女は寒げだ。(she looks cold i.e. unfeeling/indifferent)

    Perhaps it should be 冷たげ instead? Or in this case are we restricted to using ~そう only? But whichever I use it sounds like she’s feeling cold instead of seeming indifferent. Maybe I’m using the wrong adjective.

    1. Hello! ☺️
      Sorry to make you confused. What I meant was “You can’t use it with all the adjectives / verbs / nouns.” Only certain adjectives / verbs / nouns and I showed you the common ones in this lesson.
      (I fixed the explanation.)

      As for your second question,
      you say 冷たげ or 冷たそう for one’s personality.

  4. I knew tokuige before and was a bit puzzled so this explains everything. Thank you! In the example for urayamashige is the kanji for ittara a typo?

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