Verb Tense Part 2 (Past tense/ present perfect,etc.)

verbtense2final

Frisky 「たくさん食べたから眠くなってきた。」

= Takusan tabeta kara nemuku natte kita.

= I ate a lot so I am getting sleepy.

Hi everyone!
We learned present tense and future tense last week with  Tofu Sensei.
Today Frisky Sensei will teach you how to use the past tense and present perfect tense in Japanese.
Frisky sensei looks so sleepy. I wonder if she is ready to teach….

Frisky先生、起きて!

= Frisky sensei, okite!

= Wake up! Frisky sensei!

***********************
Whoooaaaaa… who woke me up? 誰が起こしたの?= Dare ga okoshita no?

Ah, OK, it’s time to work.

Let’s continue what Tofu-Sensei taught last week.

 !star! The basic verb tenses for past

〜た ( = ta) / (more polite) 〜ました ( = mashita) ☆

3) 朝ご飯を食べた。 = Asagohan wo tabeta.

 :rrrr: (polite form) 朝ご飯を食べました = Asagohan wo tabemashita.

 :rrrr: I ate breakfast. / I have eaten breakfast (I’ve finished eating breakfast).

 :rrrr: Talking about the past (simple past / present perfect)

〜ていた ( = ~ te ita) /  (more polite) 〜ていました ( = teimashita) ☆

4) 朝ご飯を食べていた = Asagohan wo tabete ita.

 :rrrr: (polite form) 朝ご飯を食べていました = Asagohan wo tabete imashita.

 :rrrr: I was eating breakfast. / I had been eating breakfast. / I used to eat breakfast.

 :rrrr:  Talking about what was / has been happening in past / what someone used to do

***************************************

 !Anapple! Simple past (I / You / He / She / They / It  did)

1) Describe what you did/ what happened at a specific time.

 :rrrr: You use 〜た ( = ta) / 〜ました ( = mashita) ☆

Ex. 昨日、100ページも読んだ/ 読みました。

= Kinou, hyakupeiji mo yonda/ yomimashita.

= I read 100 pages yesterday.

Ex. アマゾンで注文した本が今日届いた/ 届きました。

= Amazon de chuumon shita hon ga kyou todoita/ todokimashita.

= The book I ordered online arrived today.

Ex. 今日の4時に飛行機で成田に着いた/ 着きました。

= Kyou no yoji ni hikouki de narita ni tsuita/ tsukimashita.

= We landed in Narita Airport at 4:00 today.

Ex. いつ、日本に来たの/ 来たのですか?(or more causal 来たんですか)?

= Itsu, nihon ni kita no?/ kita no desu ka? (kitan desu ka?)

= When did you come to Japan?

Ex. 去年の3月に京都に行った/行きました。

= Kyonen no sangatsu ni Kyouto ni itta / ikimashita.

= I went to Kyoto last March.

Ex. マギーの写真をFacebookに昨夜、アップした/ しました。

= Maggie no shashin wo Feisubukku ni sakuya,  appu shita/ shimashita.

= I posted Maggie’s picture on Facebook last night.

2) When you describe some action that has been completed already

When you focus on the state after the action, you use

 :rrrr: 〜ていた~ていました ( = ~ teita / ~ te imashita)

Ex. 8時にはもう家に帰っていた/ いました。

= Hachiji niwa mou ie ni kaette ita/ imashita.

= I was already home at 8:00.

(describing the state of being home)

Ex. まだこの漢字は習っていない/いません。

= Mada kono kanji wa naratte inai/ imasen.

= I haven’t studied this kanji yet.

or

When you focus on the action, you use

 :rrrr: 〜た ( = ta) / 〜ました ( = mashita)

Ex. 彼はもう帰ったよ/ 帰りましたよ。

= Kare wa mou kaetta yo  / kaerimashita yo.

= He has already left. / He is gone already.

Ex. Frisky は新しいレッスンを作った/ 作りました。

= Frisky wa atarashii ressun wo tsukutta/ tsukurimashita.

Frisky made a new lesson. / Nemo have made a new lesson.

 !Anapple! Past progressive (I  were / You were / He/ She was / They were / It  was+ doing)

*To describe what you were doing/ what was happening in past

 :rrrr: 〜ていた( = ~ te ita)/ 〜ていました ( = teimashita) ☆

Ex. 去年の今頃、フランス語を勉強していた/ していました。

= Kyonen no imagoro, furansugo wo benkyou shiteita/ shiteimashita.

= This time last year I was studying French.

Ex. 昨日、電話をかけた時、何をやっていたの/ やっていましたか??

= Kinou, denwa wo kaketa toki, nani wo yatte itano/ yatte imashita ka?

= What were you doing when I called you?

Ex. シャワーに入っていたよ/いましたよ。

= Shawaa ni haitte ita yo./ imashitayo.

= I was taking a shower.

Ex. 先週は桜の花がきれいに咲いていた/ 咲いていました。

= Senshuu wa sakura no hanaga kirei ni saite ita/ saite imashita.

= Last week cherry blossoms were blooming beautifully last week.

Note: If you say 咲いた ( = saita) it means cherry blossoms  bloomed

Ex. 昨日、その店を通った時、たくさんの人が行列に並んで待っていた/いました。

= Kinou, sono mise wo tootta toki, takusan no hito ga gyouretsu ni narande matte ita/ imashita.

= When I passed by the store yesterday, many people were standing in line.

★Present perfect (I / You / He / She / They have done / It has done )

1) When you talk about what you have done, completion of some action

 :rrrr:  Use 〜た ( = ta) / 〜ました ( = mashita)

Ex. もう宿題終わった/ 終わりましたか?

= Mou shukudai owatta/ owarimashita ka?

= Have you finished your homework already? (Did you finish your homework already?)

Ex. うん、もう終わった。/ はい、もう終わりました。

= Un, mou owatta. / Hai, mou owarimashita.

= Yes, I have finished it. (I finished it)

Ex. どの位、待った/ 待ちましたか?

= Dono gurai, matta / machimashita ka?

= How long have you been waiting?

Ex. 30分位、待った/待ちました。

= Sanjuppun gurai, matta/  machimashita.

I have been waiting about 30 minutes.  or I waited about 30 minutes.

****

2) When you talk about someone’s  experiences in the past.

Ex. 日本に3回行った/行きました。

= Nihon ni sankai itta/ kimashita.

= I have been to Japan three times.

Ex. 納豆は何回も食べたよ/ 食べましたよ。

= Nattou wa nankai mo tabetayo/ tabemashita yo.

= I have eaten / ate  Natto many times.

*When you stress your experiences more,

 :rrrr: you use  〜たことがある( = takoto ga aru) / 〜たことがあります ( = takoto ga arimasu.)

Ex. 日本に行ったことがある/ありますか?

= Nihon ni itta koto ga aru / arimasuka?

= Have you ever been to Japan?

Ex. いいえ、行ったことがない/ありません。

= Iie, itta koto ga nai/ arimasen

= No, I haven’t been there.

Ex. 納豆を食べたことがある/ ありますか?

= Nattou wo tabeta koto ga aru/ arimasu ka?

= Have you ever tried natto?

Ex. 1回だけその店に行ったことがあるよ/ 行ったことがありますよ。

= Ikkai dake sono mise ni itta koto ga aru yo./itta koto ga arimasu yo.

= I have been to the place just once.

★used to do (I / You/ He/ She / They/ It use to do / There used to be)

When you talk about what you used to do, past habitual actions,

 :rrrr: you use 〜ていた ( = ~ te ita) / 〜ていました ( = teimashita)

Ex. このソフトはよく使っていた/使っていました。

= Kono sofuto wa yoku tsukatte ita/ tsukatteimashita.

= I used to use this software a lot.

Ex. 前は自転車で会社に行っていた/ 行っていました。

= Mae wa jitensha de kaisha ni itte ita/ itte imashita.

= I used to go to the office by bike.

You use ~ていた ( = teita) + ものだ ( = monoda) / ものです ( = monodesu) when you recall your past experiences like you tell a story.

Ex. 昔はこの公園でよく野球をしていたものだ/ものです。

= Mukashi wa kono kouen de yoku yakyuu wo shiteita monoda/monodesu.

= I used to play baseball in this park a long time ago.

Ex. 子供の頃は手作りのおもちゃで遊んでいたものだ/ものです。

= Kodomo no koro wa tezukuri no omocha de asonde ita monoda/monodesu.

= When we were children, we used to play with handmade toys.

★When you are talking about what you were going to do in past

 :rrrr: You can also use つもり ( = tsumori) + だった ( = datta)/ でした( = deshita)

Ex. 今日、彼女に会うつもりだったがドタキャン*された。/ 会うつもりでしたがドタキャンされました。

= Kyou, kanojo ni au tsumori datta ga dotakyan sareta./ au tsumori deshitaga dotakyan saremashita.

= I was going to see her today, but she cancelled at the last minute.

(*ドタキャン = dotakyan = (slang) to cancel in the last minute)

Ex. 先生に宿題を見せるつもりだったがやめた。/ 見せるつもりでしたがやめました。

= Sensei ni shukudai wo miseru tsumori dattaga yameta./ miseru tsumori deshitaga yamemashita.

= I was going to show my homework to the teacher, but I didn’t.

 

やっとレッスンが終わりました。もう寝ていい?

= Yatto ressun ga owariashita. Mou nete ii?

= I finally finished the lesson. Can I sleep now?

**********
maggie-senseiマギー先生より = Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei.

Frisky先生、ありがとう!!ゆっくり寝て下さいね。おやすみなさい。zzz

= Frisky sensei , arigatou!!  Yukkuri nete kudasaine. Oyasumi nasai. zzz

= Thank you Frisky Sensei. Sleep tight. Good night. zzz



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24 Comments

  1. Thnc Maggie sense I for replying I want to thank your lesson make my Japanese improve a lot, I read a lot of japanese book but your explanation is awesome you are awesome thnx

      1. Well i have a problem my comments dissapear haha you may see the same question million time
        Sensei 問題してもいいですか。
        作っていくIts mean we will go nd make something or we will make something
        作ってくる means to makee something nd come or to come nd makes something
        Please help me I am confused

        1. @hibabekha

          Yes, I found four comments in the SPAM file. If one comment doen’t go through, it is probably because it goes to the SPAM file. Don’t worry. I always check SPAM file.

          作っていく = to make something and go somewhere with what you made.
          作ってくる= to make something and come to where the speaker was/is with what they made.

          (Note for you: 問題してもいいですか?= You mean “Can I ask you a question? Then you say 質問してもいいですか?)

  2. I have a probleme I am confused
    私は7年間マキー先生のサイトで日本語を教えている
    Its means I have been teaching japanese on Maggie sense I site from 7 years ago
    私は7年間マギー先生のサイトで日本語を教えた
    Mean also I havr been teaching Japanese on Maggie sense I site from 7 years ago
    Is it right nd I f am wrong correct for me nd tell me the difference please sensei お願いします

    1. @hibabekha

      Hi, hibabekha!
      As I explained in Verb Tense Part 1,
      私は7年間マキー先生のサイトで日本語を教えている
      means ” I have been teaching Japanese on Maggie Sensei’s site for seven years.”
      It implies “I am still teaching here on this site.” (ongoing action)

      私は7年間マギー先生のサイトで日本語を教えた
      means
      1) I taught Japanese on Maggie Sensei’s site for seven years.
      (Talking about the fact in the past. I don’t teach there anymore.)

      2) I have taught Japanese on Maggie Sensei’s site for seven years.
      (Talking about my experience until the moment. But unlike the sentence, 私は7年間マキー先生のサイトで日本語を教えている, it doesn’t imply “ongoing action”. I am looking back my experience of teaching Japanese on this site. )

  3. Hi sensei,
    Could you explain the difference between お金を持ってない and お金を持たなかった, and which is more commonly used. Are the translated as “I haven’t brought money” or “I don’t have money now” and “I didn’t bring money”? Thanks in advance!

    1. @Newbie

      Hi Newbie,

      So お金を持っていない means “I don’t have money with me now.”
      お金を持たなかった means “I didn’t carry money with me. (Maybe the speaker has a credit card or he/she always goes out with someone who has money but it is his/her decision not to carry money with him/her when he/she goes out.) “

  4. こんにちは先生
    You might have a lesson about it already but could you please explain 〜てから
    Ex. 勉強してからテレビを見ます。
    ありがとう

    1. @Pauu

      こんにちは、Pauu
      verb (A)てから+ do something (B)
      Do (B) after doing (A)

      勉強してからテレビを見ます。
      I will watch TV after studying. /After I finish studying, I will watch TV.

  5. 私も寝てもいい?笑
    マギー先生、ありがとう!便利で面白いだよ。このレッスンを読んで、よく理解することができた。
    わぁ、次は何習うだろう…

    1. @ocd

      いつもコメントありがとう!はい、今日はもう寝てもいいですよ(笑)

      (Note for you →便利で面白いよ)
      まだまだいっぱいレッスンがアップされますからね〜♪

      1. 誤字だった...恥ずかしい
        直してくれてありがとう〜
        うわぁ、楽しみにしている!

        1. @ocd

          時々、皆のコメントを直した方がいいのか悩むことがありますよ。でももっとうまくなってもらいたいから時々直しますね。
          でもocdの日本語は本当に上手になってきています!!これからもがんばって下さいね。

  6. わあああ〜 今回はFrisky ですね!! 嬉しかったです! フィーチャをありがとうございました! Thank you also for all the lessons. They are, without fail, so interesting and helpful.

    1. @Jane

      Thank YOU for introducing us Frisky Sensei, Jane!
      Frisky Sensei is a really sweet teacher. Though she was REALLY sleepy, she worked hard so hard for us.
      Please give a big hug to Frisky-sensei!

  7. Thanks so much. I have seen adverbs such as 今日、最近 etc, also followed by は. Does this work the same as above, showing a contrast?

    今日は日本語でも教えるよ。
    最近は作曲をしたりしてるんだ。And if the particle は is dropped in the above. Is there any difference?

    Does the particle は here also indicate a contrast, Sensei?
    子供の頃は手作りのおもちゃで遊んでいたものだ。

    1. @Akatsuki

      I have seen adverbs such as 今日、最近 etc, also followed by は. Does this work the same as above, showing a contrast?
      →Yes.

      And yes, you could drop は if you don’t show the contrast or emphasize the time related words.
      Ex.最近、作曲をしたりしているんだ。

      (I would leave は in the last sentence though. It will be more natural to say 〜の頃は〜したものだ)

  8. Hello sensei. Why don’t these sentences use the particle を?
    1. このソフトはよく使っていた。
    2. 日本語はアニメを観 たり マギー先生のサイトも使って勉強します。
    Why not say このソフトを… and 日本語を…?

    1. @Akatsuki

      You can say
      このソフトをよく使っていた
      アニメを観たりマギー先生のサイトも使って日本語を勉強します。

      When you want to emphasize the object and show the contrast you use は
      1. このソフトはよく使っていた。(emphasizing このソフト/ Maybe not other software but I used to use “THIS SOFTWARE” )
      2. 日本語は~勉強します。(emphasizing 日本語/ I may use other method when I study some other language but, this is how I study JAPANESE. )

      So は has a function to show contrast and you can use it as an object marker.
      I will show you other example.

      私は甘いものを食べます。
      = I eat sweets (in general)

      私は甘いものは食べます。
      = I eat SWEETS (but maybe not something else.)

      Ex. アニメを観ます。(I watch animations)
      Ex. アニメは観ます。(I watch animations but maybe not other stuff.)

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