How to use につれ(て)/したがって(したがい)/ともなって(ともない)/とともに

 
「春が近づくつれ眠くなるのはなんでかなあ。」
 
= Haru ga chikazuku ni tsure nemuku naru nowa nande kanaa.
 
= I wonder why I get sleepier as spring gets closer. 
 

Hi everyone! I am your guest teacher, Ms. Kitty.
Today’s lesson is a requested lesson.
Someone asked me the differences between the following 4 expressions:
 
* つれて/つれ ( = ni tsurete/tsure) 
 
*したがって/したがい ( = ni shitagatte/shigatai) 
 
*ともなって/ともない ( = ni tomonatte/tomonai) 
 
*ともに ( = to tomoni)
 
They are all very literal so we don’t use them in daily conversation very much, but you will see them in written form or hear them in the news or in formal speech. 
 
How to form:
 
noun  + 
 
( = ni) + つれて/つれ ( = tsurete / tsure) 
 
( = ni) +したがって/したがい ( = shitagatte /shitagai) 
 
( = ni) + ともなって/ともない ( =  tomonatte / tomonai) 
 
( = to ) + ともに ( = tomoni)
 
verb dictionary form + ( = no) + 
 
( = ni) + つれて/つれ ( = tsurete / tsure) 
 
( = ni) + したがって/したがい ( = shitagatte/shitagai) 
 
( = ni) + ともなって/ともない ( = tomonatte/ tomonai) 
 
( = to ) +  ともに ( = tomoni)
 
 
★Common usage:
 
(A) (noun / verb) + つれて/つれ ( = ni tsurete /tsure) / したがって/したがい ( = ni shitagatte / shitagai) /ともなって/ともない ( = ni tomonatte / tomonai)  / ともに ( = to tomoni) + (B)
 
→As (A) changes,  (B) changes gradually as well. 
 
 
As time passes, the wound of one’s heart healed (gradually). 
 
You can say:
 
時がたつつれて、だんだん心の傷もいえていった
= Toki ga tatsu ni tsurete, dandan kokoro no kizu mo iete itta.
 
時がたつしたがって、だんだん心の傷もいえていった。
= Toki ga tatsu ni shitagatte, dandan kokoro no kizu mo iete itta.
 
時がたつともない、だんだん心の傷もいえていった。
= Toki ga tatsu ni tomonai, dandan kokoro no kizu mo iete itta.
 
時がたつともに、だんだん心の傷もいえていった。
= Toki ga tatsu to tomoni, dandan kokoro no kizu mo iete itta.
 
So let me tell you some good news first.
They all pretty much mean the same thing! That means you probably won’t see a question where you have to choose between them on the JLPT test. 
OK, that’s all for today. Have a nice day! (^^)/~~~
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😽
All right, since Maggie Sensei told me to get back to work I am back.
Though I said they are interchangeable, there must be some kind of difference. 
 
First, we are going to see つれて・つれ ( = tsurete / tsure) and したがって / したがい ( = shitagatte / shitagai) first.
 
つれて ( = ni tsurete) ・つれ ( = ~ ni sure) 
 
(Kanji: 連れる = つれる = tsureru →連れて = つれて = tsurete ・連れ = つれ= tsure)
 
 
したがって ( = ni shitagatte)・したがい ( = ni shitagai) 
 
(Kanji: 従う= したがう = shitagau →従って = したがって = shitagatte・従い = したがい= shitagai)
 
Note: つれ ( = sure) / したがい ( = shitagai)  is more literal than つれて ( = tsurete) / したがって ( = shitagatte)
 
 
* (A) (noun / verb ( + = no) ) + ( = ni) + つれて/つれ ( = tsurete / tsure) + (B)
* (A) (noun / verb ( + = no) )  + ( = ni) + したがって/したがい ( = shitagatte / shitagai) + (B)
 
<――――――(A)―――――――――>
        <――――――(B)―――――――>
 
 
→As (A) changes, (B) changes gradually as well.  So you focus on two changes. 
The common verbs that you use are:
〜 なる ( = naru) becomes / なってくる ( = nattekuru) is becoming ~ 
  V てくる (= tekuru) comes to ~ / Vてきた ( = tekita) came to ~  / Vていく ( = te iku) it is getting ~  / Vていった ( = te itta) was getting ~ 
The change is natural and not an intentional change.
 
 
Ex. 夏が近づくつれて / したがって日が長くなってきた。
 
= Natsu ga chikazuku ni tsurete/shitagatte hi ga nagaku nattekita.
 
= As summer approaches, the days are getting longer.
 
A: Summer is approaching. (change)
 
B: The days are getting longer. (gradual change)
 
(A) causes (B) / (A) influences (B)
 
Ex. 年をとるつれ/したがい 親のありがたみがわかってきた。
 
= Toshi wo toru ni tsure/shitagai oya no arigatami ga wakattekita.
 
= As I get older, I come to appreciate my parents. 
 
 
Ex. 暖かくなるつれ / したがい 花粉の量が増えてきた。
 
= Atatakaku naru ni tsure/shitagai kafun no ryou ga fuete kita.
 
= As it gets warmer, the amount of pollen has increased. 
 
 
Ex. 標高が高くなるつれ / したがい 酸素が薄くなってきた。
 
= Hyoukou ga takaku naru ni tsure/shitagai sanso ga usuku natte kita.
 
= As the attitude got higher, the oxygen was getting thinner.
 
 
Ex. 暗くなるつれ / したがい空いっぱいに星が広がっていった。
 
= Kuraku naru ni tsure/shitagai sora ippai ni hoshi ga hirogatte itta.
 
= As it got darker, the stars spread throughout all over the sky. 
 
 
Ex. 時間が経つつれて / したがって痛みがなくなっていった。
 
= Jikan ga tatsu ni tsurete/shitagatte itami ga nakunatte itta.
 
= As time passed, the pain went away. 
 
 
Ex. 台風が近づくつれ / したがい風が強くなってきた。
 
= Taifuu ga chikazuku ni tsure/shitagai kaze ga tsuyoku natte kita.
 
= As the typhoon approaches, the wind is getting stronger.
 
Note: You can change the verb to a noun form
 
台風が近づく ( = taifuu ga chikazuku)
 
noun 台風の接近 ( = taifuu no sekkin) 
 
Approaching the typhoonthe approach of typhoon 
 
 
Ex. 子供が大きくなるつれて / したがって出費がかさんでくる。
 
= Kodomo ga ookiku naru ni tsurete/shitagatte shuppi ga kasande kuru.
 
= I heard that as the children get older, we spend more money.
 
Note: You can change the verb to a noun form
 
子供が大きくなる ( = kodomo ga ookiku naru)
 
noun子供の成長 ( = kodomo no seichou)
 
Children growthe growth of children 
 
 
Ex. 高齢者の増加つれ / したがい介護サービスの需要が増えてくるだろう。
 
= Koureisha no zouka ni tsure/shitagai kaigo saabisu no juyou ga fuete kuru darou.
 
= I think  the demand of nursing care service will grow as the population of elderly increases.
 
The difference:
 
As you can see つれて / つれ ( = ~ ni tsurete / tsure) and したがって / したがい ( = ~ ni shitagatte / shitagai) are interchangeable when the main verb expresses the gradual change. 
 
(A)つれて / つれ (B) ( = (A) ni tsurete / tsure (B))
 
The change between A and B are a relatable change.
 
(A)したがって / したがい ( = ~ ni shitagatte / shitagai) (B)
 
(A) happened  first and then (B) started to change.
 
They are both literal expressions so you often use them to describe natural phenomena or social situations but I would say つれて/つれ ( = ni tsurete/tsure) are slightly more common thus you use them for your personal stuff more.
 
Ex. 彼女と初デートの日が近づくつれ、緊張してきた。
 
= Kanojo to hatsudeeto no hi ga chikazuku ni tsure, kinchou shite ktia.
 
= As the day of my first date with her gets closer, I get more nervous.
 
You can use したがい ( = ni shitagai)・したがって ( = shitagatte) but つれて/つれ ( = ~ ni  tsurete/tsure) are more natural in conversation. 
 
Another difference is,
(A) したがい ( = ni shitagai) (B) also means “following”/ “ in accordance with” which has nothing to do with change.
In this usage, you can express your will / intention with the following verb. 
 
noun + したがっ ( = ni shitagatte) / したがい ( = ni shitagai) + what is going to happen/ what you are going to do
 
Ex. ルール従ってください。
 
= Ruuru ni shitagatte kudasai.
 
= Please follow the rules. 
 
Ex. 医者の言うこと従いこれからもっと健康にいいものを食べて適度に運動をすることにします。
 
= Isha no iu koto ni shitagai kore kara motto kenkou ni ii mono wo tabete tekido ni undou wo suru koto ni shimasu.
 
= Following my doctor’s advice, I will try to eat more healthy food and do moderate exercises from now on.
 
 
Ex. 放置自転車は市の規則従って処分されます。
 
= Houchi jitensha wa shi no kisoku ni shitagatte shobun saremasu.
 
= In accordance with the city rules, the abandoned bicycles will be disposed.
 
Ex. この料理の本のレシピしたがって作ったのに全く違うものができた。
 
= Kono ryouri no hon no resipi ni shitagatte tsukutta no ni mattaku chigau mono ga dekita.
 
= I followed the recipes in this cooking book, and cooked, but it turned out be totally different. 
 
Ex. マギー先生の指示したがって毎日漢字を千個覚えることにしました。
 
= Maggie Sensei no shiji ni shitagatte mainichi kanji wo senko oboeru koto ni shimashita.
 
= Following Maggie Sensei’s instructions, I decided to learn 1,000 kanji per day.
 
****
 
ともなって / ともない ( = ~ ni tomonatte/ tomonai)
 
Kanji is 伴う = ともなう = tomonau) →伴って  = ともなって= tomonattte/ 伴い  = ともない = tomonai
 
ともない ( = ni  tomonai) is more literal than ともなって  ( = ~ ni tomonatte) 
 
(A)ともなって /ともない ( =  ~ ni tomonatte/  tomonai) + (B)
 
1) As (A) changes, B changes gradually
 
<――――――(A)―――――――――>
        <――――――(B)―――――――>
 
As well as つれて / つれ ( = ni tsurete / tsure)  / したがって / したがい = ni shitagatte / shitagai) ともなって / ~ともない ( =  ~ ni tomonatte/  tomonai) are used to describe gradual change.
In this usage,  you can rephrase the example sentences above with  ともなって /ともない ( = ~ ni tomonatte/tomonai) 
 
 
Ex. SNSの普及ともない人間関係も変化してきた。
 
= SNS no fukyuu ni tomonai ningen kankei mo henka shite kita.
 
= With the spread of social media, interpersonal relations have changed as well.
 
Ex. 人口の減少ともない労働力不足の問題が生じている。
 
= Jinkou no genshou ni tomonai roudouryokubusoku no mondai ga shoujite iru.
 
=As the population has declined, a labor shortage has arisen.
 
2) As (A) changes, (B) changes instantaneously: (B) changes right after (A) occurs / (A) and (B) occur simultaneously
 
<――――――(A)―――――――>
    <――――――(B)――――――>
 
or
 
<――――――(A)―――――――>
<――――――(B)―――――――>
 
(A) doesn’t have to describe change and it could be just an event or motion.   
(A) is the cause/reason for (B): (A) causes (B), Due to (A), (B) happened
 
(Similar expression: noun + のため ( = no tame) / Vので ( = node) / (more conversational) Vから ( = kara) ) 
 
For example:
 
Ex. メニューが新しくなるのともない料金も改訂します。
 
= Menyuu ga atarashiku naru noni tomonai ryoukin mo kaitei shimasu.
 
= As the menu will be renewed, we are going to revise the price.
 
(A): Changing the menu.
 
(B): Changing the price.
 
(A) causes (B)
(A) and (B) can happen at the same time. And (B) can be instantaneous change. 
 
Ex. 地上職員のストライキともない、遅延や欠航の可能性があります。
= Chijou shokuin no sutoraiki ni tomonai, chien ya kekou no kanouse ga arimasu.
 
= Due to the strike of ground crew members, there is a possibility the plane may be delayed or cancelled.
 
(A): the strike happened
 
(B): the possibility of delay/cancellation might happen 
Though you are talking about the possibility of (A) and (B) happening at the same time, (B) could instantaneously change. 
You can’t use つれて/つれ ( = ~ ni tsurete/tsure) /したがって/したがい ( = ni shitagatte/shitagai)
 
Because of (A), you have to do (B) / You are going to do (B).
 
Ex. 人事異動ともない4月から東京に転勤することになりました。
 
= Jinjkiidou ni tomonai shigatsu kara Toukyou ni tenkinsuru koto ni narimashita.
 
= Due to the personnel changes, I will be transferred to Tokyo from April. 
 
You can separate this into two sentences.
 
Ex. この度、人事異動がありました。それともない4月から東京に転勤することになりました。
 
= Konotabi, jinjiidou ga arimashita. Sore ni tomonai shigatsu kara Toukyou ni tenkin suru koto ni narimashita.
 
= We had personal changes. Due to this, I will be to Tokyo from April.
 
Ex. 非常事態宣言解除ともない営業時間が変更されます。
 
= Hijoujitai sengen kaijo ni tomonai eigyou jikan ga henkou saremasu.
 
= As the state of emergency is lifted, our operating (opening) hours will change.
 
Polite form ともないまして ( = tomonaimashite)
 
Ex. 非常事態宣言解除ともないまして営業時間が変更されます。
 
= Hijoujitai sengen kaijo ni tomonaimashite eigyoujikan ga henkou saremasu.
 
= As lifting the state of emergency, the opening hour will be changed.
 
*ともなう ( = ni tomonau) can modify a noun
 
(A) ともなう ( = ni tomonau) + noun = noun caused by (A)
 
Ex. 地震ともなう津波にご注意ください。
 
= Jishin ni tomonau tsunami ni gochuui kudasai.
 
= Please be careful with Tsunami caused by earthquakes. 
 
Ex. 大雪ともなう列車の運休
 
= Ooyuki ni tomonau ressha no unkyuu
 
= Train service may be suspended due to heavy snow.
 
 
ともに ( = to tomoni) is very similar to ともなって/ ともない ( = ~ ni tomonatte / tomonai)
 
(Kanji: 共に = ともに = tomoni)
 
noun + ともに ( = to tomoni)
 
(A)ともに ( = to tomoni) (B)
1) As (A) changes, (B) changes gradually
 
<――――――(A)―――――――>
        <――――――(B)―――――>
 
In this usage you can rephrase the above example sentences with とともに ( = to tomoni)
 
Ex. (from the example above)
 
 台風接近ともない風が強くなってきた。
 
= Taifuu sekkin ni tomonai kaze ga tsuyoku natte kita.
 
台風接近ともに風が強くなってきた。
 
= Taifuu sekkin to tomo ni kaze ga tsuyoku nattekita.
 
= As the typhoon approaches, the wind is getting stronger.
 
Ex. (from the example above)
 
標高が高くなるともない酸素が薄くなってきた。
 
= Hyoukou ga takaku naru ni tomonai sanso ga usuku natte kita.
 
標高が高くなるともに酸素が薄くなってきた。
 
= Hyoukou ga takaku naru to tomo ni sanso ga usuku natte kita.
 
= As the altitude got higher, the oxygen got thinner.
 
Ex. 年を取るともに食欲がなくなってくる。
 
= Toshi wo toru to tomoni shokuyouku ga nakunatte kuru.
 
= As I get older, I am losing my appetite. 
 
Ex. 卒業するともに二人は別々の道を歩み始めた。
 
= Sotsugyou suru to tomo ni futari wa betsubetsu no michi wo ayumihajimeta.
 
= As they graduated, they started to follow different paths. 
 
2) (A) and (B) are happening almost simultaneously: As (A) changes, (B) changes with (A). / (A) and (B) are happening at the same time.
 
<――――――(A)―――――――>
   <――――――(B)――――――> (Right after (A) happens (B) happens.
 
or 
 
<――――――(A)―――――――>
<――――――(B)―――――――>
 
Just like ともなって/ ともない ( = ~ ni tomonatte/  tomonai), you can use  ともに ( = to tomoni)  when (A) and (B) are happening at the same time or almost at the same time.
 
The difference is while you use
 
“(A)ともなって/ともない ( = ni tomonatte/tomonai) (B)” 
 
when (A) causes B, you use
 
“(A)ともに ( = ~ to tomoni) (B)”
 
when you just state two events/actions occur at the same time. (A) and (B) don’t have to be related.
And (A) and (B) can be just actions not a change. 
 
In the following examples, you can’t use にともなって/ともない ( = ni tomonatte/tomonai) 
 
 
Ex. 田中さんが教室を出るともに加藤さんが教室に入ってきた。
 
= Tanaka-san ga kyoushitsu wo deru to tomoni Katou-san ga kyoushitsu ni haittekita.
 
= When Tanaka san left the classroom, Katou san came in the classroom. 
 
A: Tanaka-san left the classroom.
 
B: Kato-san entered the classroom.
 
(A) is not a cause for (B). (A) and (B) happened at the same time just by chance.
 
 
Ex. 講義が終わるともに 生徒達は、教室からいなくなった。
 
= Kougi ga owaru to tomo ni seitotachi wa, kyoushitsu kara inaku natta.
 
= As soon as the lecture finished, the students disappeared from the classroom. 
 
 
Ex. 幕が閉じるともに観客は立ち上がって拍手をした。
 
 
= Maku ga tojiru to tomoni kankyaku wa tachiagatte hakushu wo shita.
 
= As the curtain closed, the audience stood up and applauded. 
 
 
3) together with: to do something with ~
It means the same as 一緒に = isshoni butともに( = tomoni) is much more literal.
 
Ex. ともに*笑顔の絶えない家庭を築いてください
 
= Kare to tomo ni ega no tainai katei wo kizuite kudasai.
(formal message to a newly wed female friend) 
 
= Please make a happy family with him. 
 
(*  ~と一緒に = ~ to issho ni) 
 
Ex. 家族ともに*新しい地でがんばっていきます。
 
= Kazoku to tomo ni atarashii chi de ganbatte ikimasu.
 
(formal message from someone who is going to move with his/her family.)
 
= I will do my best with my family in the new location.
 
(*  ~一緒に = ~ to issho ni) 
 
Ex. お客さんがいらっしゃったらお茶ともに*こちらのお菓子も出してください。
 
= Okyakusan ga irasshattara ocha to tomo ni kochira no okashi mo dashite kudasai.
 
= When the guest arrives, please serve this sweet along with tea. 
 
(*  ~一緒に = ~ to issho ni) 
 
4) as well as ~ / also ~
 
Ex. 鎌倉は箱根ともに観光客に人気がある観光スポットの一つだ。
 
= Kamakura wa Hakone to tomo ni kankoukyaku ni ninki ga aru kankou supotto no hitotsu da.
 
= Kamakura is one of the popular sightseeing spots as well as Hakone.
 
Ex. Ms. Kittyはマギー先生ともに素晴らしい先生だ。😉
 
= Ms. Kitty wa Maggie Sensei to tomo ni subarashii sensei da.
 
= Ms. Kitty is as great a teacher as Maggie Sensei.
 
(Similar expression: 同様 = どうよう = souyou / ~と同じく = ~とおなじく = ~ to onajiku)
 
箱根同様 = Hakone douyou
 
箱根と同じく = Hakone to onajiku 
 
マギー先生同様 = Maggie Sensei douyou
 
マギー先生と同じく= Maggie Sensei to onajiku 
 
 
***
マギー先生より = Maggie Sensei yori = From Maggie Sensei
 
Ms.Kitty ありがとう! = Ms. Kitty arigatou! = Thank you Ms. Kitty
 
私も美容のために寝なくちゃ。= Watashi mo biyou no tame ni nenakucha. = I guess I need to get my beauty sleep, too.
おやすみ~ 😴= Oyasumii  = Nighty night. 
 

***

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2 Comments

  1. Hi Sensei, is this a typo?

    Ex. 時間が経つにつれて / したがって痛みがなくっていった。

    It’s meant to be なくなっていった right?

    Thank you for the lesson.

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