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  1. Good evening Maggie.
    1) 画像 means still image (In real life and on the internet)?
    2) In the following sentence: 伝説の最後の部分は後世付け加えられたものだ。, should 後世に be used instead of just 後世?

  2. Good evening Maggie. I came across the kanji 無造作 and am having difficulty with its second meaning. It’s second meaning basically means: Casual or careless, right?

    1. Hi Leonardo

      Yes. You usually use that word with に as an adverb
      無造作に + verb (to do something casually, carelessly)

      Ex. 無造作に置く = to put something carelessly

  3. マギ先生のサイトで、いつも新しいものを学んでいます。ありがとうございます :)


    1. こんにちは、ルナ

  4. Good evening Maggie. I would like you to translate the following sentence: あらかじめ計画して人を殺すこと。

    1. Hi Fernando

      あらかじめ計画する means to plan beforehand
      So あらかじめ計画して人を殺すこと means to kill someone with prior planning.( = premeditated murder)

  5. Good evening, Maggie. I was researching the meaning of 中庸 and I saw on a website that one of its meanings is To be ordinary. Is this correct?

    1. Hi Iraci
      中庸 (ちゅうよう) is a word originating from Confucian philosophy. Though it is not commonly used in daily conversation, it means being balanced and harmonious.

  6. Hi Maggie先生!

    This example sentence is in the first section 1) progressive form: ongoing action, continuous action that is happening in the present which is described as “What someone/something is doing right now, What is happening now”

    Why is “what was done last night” considered as something happening now?

    1. Hi Tiana

      Ah OK. Good point. I should have included the information.
      on-going action (in the present and the past)
      I will add that in the description.

      So 昨日の夜は何をしていたの? What were you doing last night?
      It describes the actions that were happening at a certain time in the past.

  7. Hey Maggie先生!

    I wondered if it is possible to combine がち with ねる
    so something like “i tend to go to sleep at 9” (i am aware that this sentence might not be the most natural in Japanese but i wonder if it would work)

    1. Hello Will
      You don’t say 寝るがち but you can say 寝がち
      9時に寝がち If you meant go to sleep, it works, but since you can’t tend to fall a sleep at nine, it may sound unnatural.
      My dog tends to sleep on its back.

  8. Good evening Maggie,

    1) What does 得意とする mean?
    2) Does そこら mean anywhere or everywhere?

    1. HI Matheus

      1) to be good at, to be skilled at
      2) そこら(辺) =thereabouts (an unspecified location near the speaker)
      Idiom そんじゅそこらの = ordinary/run-of-the-mill
      →Sometimes you skip そんじゅ = そこらの + noun = something or someone that is not special or remarkable

      1. Thanks for the response, Maggie. But I have a few more questions. What does: 幸せを100%する and 100%の確率で mean?

        1. Hi Matheus

          幸せを100%する You don’t say 幸せを する
          I think it is missing something in this sentence. Ex. 幸せを100%ものにする/確約する etc.

          Or 幸せに100%する = to make someone happy 100 %

          100%の確率で   with a 100% probability ・ with a 100% chance
          →確実に = surely/without fail

  9. Good evening Maggie, I have some questions.

    When I researched the kanji すする I found the following definitions: 液状のものを吸い込むようにして口の中に入れる and 音を立てて少しずつ口に吸い込む。Which would be the most correct?
    What is the most correct reading of 荒野? I found three different readings.
    What does 可憐 mean?

    1. Hello Pedro
      すする: Both. You can slurp noodles, hot soup with or without making a slurping sound.
      荒野 = You can read it こうや/あらの. I think こうや is more common
      可憐 = かれん = pretty/lovely/sweet (It describes delicate beauty or innocence.)

  10. 笑の事について教えてくれる本当にありがとうございます!
    I recently came across the phrase:
    and I was wondering
    1. How do I read 笑 in this context
    2. is 笑…続ける a construction I can use more often, even for other context?

    Also, not to be pedantic but I thought you might want to know, when you first introduce ケラケラ, in the first romaji you wrote (kearakera) instead of (kerakera).

    1. Hi 紫花
      Thank you for spotting the typo. I fixed it.  ありがとうございます!☺️

      笑 = わら is a slang word. Sometimes you just write “w” (ww, www)
      It is like LOL in English.
      So that person reacted to what someone said and
      LOL (That’s funny). Keep studying!

  11. こんばんは、マギー先生。

    Is the tai form of verbs essentially an i-adjective? I came across the phrase “読みたくなった” (started wanting/came to want to read?) which made me think of the adj + なる/する lesson. Can you also then do たい+する, like 食べたくした (made me want to eat)?

    1. Hi Terry

      Sorry. I answered your question once yesterday but I misunderstood what you meant by ” the tai form of verbs essentially an i-adjective? ” part. So let me try again.

      When you use なりたい/したい with adjectives,

      かわいくなりたい = I want to be cuter

      かわいくしたい = I want to make something/someone cuter.

      Verb + たい

      読みたい / 食べたい

      When you express the change of your feelings,

      → 読みたくなる/食べたくなる (past tense) 読みたくなった/食べたくなった

      Since Verbたい is one’s spontaneous desire and you can’t control someone’s desire
      you don’t say
      X たべたくした (not natural)

      1. That makes sense. So is there an equivalent in Japanese to saying “____ makes me want to _____”? ie. “The smell of food makes me want to eat,” or “Reading books makes me want to write.” I guess for the first you could say something like ご飯の香りだから食べたくなる, but what about the second? Is there a grammatical structure that handles both? ありがとうございます。

        1. The common patterns are
          The smell of food makes me want to eat
          Or I would say いい匂いで食べたくなる。
          Reading books makes me want to write.

  12. Hello! I always learn so much from your posts! I was wondering if you have covered how to use 風(ふう)?I can’t find any good explanation anywhere. I’m not sure how to use any combination of 風 (そういう風に、という風に、こんな風に、のふうだ、など)and the difference between ように、のようだ、とか or similar grammar. I would be so grateful for your help!!

    1. Hello M

      Good question.
      Meanwhile 風 means, “way”, “stile/manner” and “like ~”

      こんな/そんな/ あんな/どんな+風に

      They both mean “Please do like this” But the difference is
      このように = The speaker expects you to follow the instructions (exactly like they showed)
      こんな風に is more vague. “something like this”

      Also 風 is attached to a noun
      Ex. 日本風 = Japanese style (It doesn’t have to be authentic Japanese style. )

      If I have a chance, I will make a mini lesson of 風 in future for you.

  13. 約束通り、今日もレッスンを読みました!

  14. 新しいレッスンを読んで遅くなってすみませんでした!明日は雨そうだから、もっとよ読もうと思います。(実は、明日は晴れそうだけど、「そう」の文を書いてみたかったんです。^^)

    PS, the links to these lessons are wrong:
    Check my lessons on らしい ( = rashii) and みたい ( = mitai) for more information:
    →らしい ( = rashii)
    →みたい ( = mitai

    1. ルナ

      (Let me help your sentence a little: 雨そう→明日は、雨が降りそう It looks like it’s going to rain.or 雨だそう = I heard it will rain tomorrow)


  15. 1) Is the Kanji 美貌 only used for face or does it refer to face and body?
    2) Is the Kanji 顔かたち only used for face or does it refer to face and body?

  16. こんにちは先生。

    My bf was talking to me in Japanese using Google translate, and he said “なんと面倒なことだろう.” I could get what he was trying to say but the なんと part specifically is confusing? It’s “what” with と quotation particle, right? Like in 何と言う? So how does it make sense?

    1. こんにちは、Terry

      なんと/なんて〜だろう/でしょう is a pattern of exclamatory sentence and it means “What a ~/ How ~!”
      Actually you don’t use it in conversation so much because it sounds too dramatic but you may see in a written form
      especially when you translate English sentences, such as
      What a nice person you are./How nice of you! なんて親切な人だろう。
      What a surprise! なんという驚きだ

      Again, it is very rare to hear this in daily conversation.
      You just say ああ、面倒くさい。 = It’s such a pain. instead of なんと面倒なことだろう

      1. そうですか。Goes to show computer translations still aren’t great with nuance :P ありがとうごさいます。

  17. Good evening Maggie. I have a question about the kanji 出頭. This kanji means: Some person going anywhere or some person, specifically, going to court, government office, etc.

  18. 初めまして、マギー先生。ガビです。質問があります!

    I’m confused on when to で vs をください/おねがいします when ordering.
    例えば: 「セットでお願いします」とか「コーラのMサイズで」とか「お茶でお願いします」などです。vs 「コーヒーをください」、「コーラのSサイズを一つお願いします」などです。 「でお願いします」か「をお願いします」は I’m not sure which one would be correct to answer with for certain situations or is it just up to personal preference?

    1. こんにちは、ガビ 😊
      Both を and で can be used when ordering things, but there is a nuanced difference between them

      を: Use を when indicating something specific or emphasizing what you want (→What I want is ~).
      コーラを/コーヒーを/セットを + ください/お願いします.

      で: Use で when selecting something out of a few/several/many choices.
      コーラで/コーヒーで/セットで + (お願いします* You can sometimes omit お願いします and just say ~で).

      While で might sound a little softer than を, if you say ~でいいです, it expresses the nuance of compromising, so you have to be careful when you use it.

      I am now actually working on a new lesson on the particle で. So I will cover this usage for you. 😉

  19. Hi Maggie-sensei. I don’t have any question, I just want to thank you for creating this super helpful site. I managed to pass N3 this year, thanks to your fun and clear (and cute!) explanations of scary Japanese grammar rules (lol) ^_^ ありがとうございます!これからもよろしくお願いします。

    1. Hello Noi
      Thank you for your kind words.
      そして、N3合格おめでとうございます!!! 私もうれしいです!!

  20. Good evening Maggie. I have a question about the kanji 一言
    Does this kanji mean both “a word” and “a short phrase”?

    1. Hi Breano
      Yes, that’s right. It means “a word” but you can use it for a few words/brief speech
      一言で言うと = If I put it in one word ~
      一言言ってもいいですか? = Can I say something? / Can I say a few words?
      一言、スピーチをお願いします。= Could you give a brief speech?

  21. マギー先生、レッスンありがとうございます。
    見ぬふりできませんから言う. この二つのリンクが使えません:

    How to use ~ぶり = buri (久しぶり = ひさしぶり = Hisashiburi)  
    Check my たい & がる ( = tai & garu) lesson.

    一つはGoogleMapsのリンクですね。Sainte-Chapelleはどうしたの?マギ先生いきたいですか? :D

    1. こんにちはルナ!
      リンクのこと教えてくれてありがとう。「 久しぶり」のレッスンリンクは合っていたのですが念の為、もう一度リンク入れ直しました。

  22. Good evening Maggie. I have doubts about some phrases.
    1) Does the 政府役人 part of the sentence 政府役人の豪邸が略奪された make sense? I searched but couldn’t find anything on the subject.
    2) What is the function of として in words like 突如として? From what I researched, 突如として and 突如 have the same meaning.

    1. Hi Daniel
      1) Yes, it make sense. It is talking about a mansion ( = 豪邸) and the mansion belongs to 政府役人 = 政府の役人 = government official

      2) 突如として is an expression, suddenly and you can use it without として
      So you are right. They have the same meaning. ~として is a more formal expression.

      1. Good evening Maggie. Thanks for the answer.

        But I have one more doubt. I came across the adjective 漠然とした and realized that it means vague. What is the difference between using として or とした after an adjective?

        1. Hello again Daniel
          The difference between として and とした
          〜とした + noun
          Ex. 漠然とした態度
          ~として + verb/sentence
          Ex. ( ~は、)漠然としている

  23. そうです。分かりましたと思います 😊

    Oh okay, because with what I was trying to do (彼に声を出して読めながら) whatever is being read is the subject, not who’s being read to. I was thinking the opposite for some reason, oops

  24. こんにちはMaggie先生

    1. こんにちは、壱茶

      1) 今、彼に(or と)話しているところです/ところだ
      = I am just talking to/with him./ I am in the middle of talking to him right now./ I am in the process of talking to/with him now.

      It is emphasizing the ongoing process or being in the middle of the action
      2) 今、彼に(or と)話しています。/いる
      = I am talking to/with him now.
      It simply states the fact that talking is happening without emphasizing the ongoing action.

  25. Good evening Maggie. I would like to know what the function of どの is in the following sentence: どの群れにも必ず黒い羊がいる.

      1. Thanks for the response Maggie. But I still have a doubt. I thought どの meant which or which way. Why was this sentence translated the way you did?

        1. You are right. どの means “which” but どの (dono) can be used as “which” or “any/every,” depending on the context.
          Ex. どの国もインフレに苦しんでいる。 Every country is suffering from inflation.
          Ex. このレストランは、どの料理も美味しい。Every dish at this restaurant is delicious

  26. こんにちは先生。
    Since potential verb form is the same as passive verb form, how would you make a both potential and passive verb?
    Example sentence: He can’t be stopped.
    Something like 止められることをできない?? Seems weird. How do you do it?

    1. こんにちは、Terry
      I would say it is not common to use passive form + できない because it looks/sounds confusing.
      He can’t be stopped. : The most natural way to say this in Japanese is to say would be
      “I/We can’t stop him.”
      →彼を止められない or 彼を止めることはできない (Nobody can stop him.”誰も彼を止められない・誰も彼を止めることはできない)
      If you want to use a passive form, it is a less direct but you say

  27. Hello, Maggie-sensei!

    In a game, I saw this sentence when characters were arguing;

    Is it the same as point 5 of the lesson, even if there is no こと ?

    1. Hi ルナ
      Yes, it is the same idea. If you rephrase that sentence with Vこと(は)ない
      you can say そんな態度をすること(は)ないでしょう

  28. Good evening Maggie. I discovered the following phrase 三角形で、先がとても鋭利な形状だ。and I had some doubts.

    1) Does this sentence make sense grammatically?
    2) I translated this sentence as: It has a triangular shape and the ends are quite sharp. Is this translation correct?

  29. こんにちは!

    This is probably a silly question, but why is 「に」 used to mark the location of of an object with 居る and 在る rather than say 「で」? I’ve read that for some other similarly confusing verbs (such as 住む and 泊まる) that the location should be considered a destination (which doesn’t really make sense to me even in those cases) but I haven’t seen any clarification on these existential verbs.

    1. こんにちは、クリス
      Good question.
      As you know
      You use 「で」 to indicate the location where some action occurs.
      You use 「に」 to indicate the location where something/someone exists (with verbs like 「いる」/「ある」) and also location of state.
      「住む」 and 「泊まる」 are not action verbs. They describe a state (living/staying). Therefore, you use the particle 「に」 with these verbs.

      FYI I have a lesson of に & で

  30. I was having trouble understanding what 言う辺り means in this sentence from a popular light novel- なんでもないことのように言うあたりが、とても思いつきの噓に思えずロレンスはか固唾を飲んでしまったが、ハッとしてホロの口元に目をやった

    Thank you in advance

  31. Hi Maggie Sensei, I’ve been studying Japanese for 3 years now. My current book at school is TRY N2 (although I don’t feel at all I am N2, not even N3).

    I have a question regarding the structure of Japanese grammar. Basically TRY and also other books I have seen don’t really teach you grammar as in western languages. Rather, it is full of this forms (e.g. niyotte, nitotte, nitaishite, monda, bakarida, etc.) that sound very much like idiomatic expressions to me.

    So far everything looks very random, which makes it also more difficult to learn and memorize.

    Are those “expressions” qualified collectively somehow? And is there any actual classification/categorization or any booklet summarizing them in a structured way (e.g. by topic, use, scope) to make it easier to memorize?

    Thank you in advance!

    1. Hi Kuki
      First of all, I apologize. I have to admit, my site is pretty random 😆, but I believe there are many excellent Japanese learning sites that provide good classification and categorization in a structured way.

      I think many of them are categorized by JLPT level. So, JLPT websites or textbooks might offer better categorization.

      Learning Japanese grammar could be quite different from learning Western languages. In Western languages, grammar is often taught separately from vocabulary and expressions, focusing on things like tense and conjugation, conditional forms at different levels. But with Japanese, especially in JLPT study materials, the focus is not just on grammar but also on using expressions effectively.
      I understand it could be confusing, but I believe that if you already know the basic grammar, all you need to do is to build complicated sentences and increase your range of expressions, which would help.

      1. Hi thank you for your kind reply. Just to be clear, I wasn’t referring to your site but to the textbooks, I find them pretty random, which is surprising for a textbook imho!

  32. Good evening Maggie. I was looking at the definition of 風格 and came across the following definition: 味わい。趣。
    Can you tell me what it means? I’m trying to find out but I’m not having any success.

    1. 風格
      If you are talking about a person,
      He/She has a presence. (to have dignified presence)
      You can also describe classy buildings, houses, area, streets with 風格

      You don’t usually use these words to describe a person.
      味わいがある = the place has got a style
      趣がある = quaint

      1. So, if I understand correctly, 風格 and 味わい have the same meaning, but 風格 refers to people and things while 味わい mainly refers to things.

  33. Hi Maggie先生! Thank you for your explanation!

    In the dictionary when I look up 持っていく it means: “to take (something) along; to bring with one”

    And 持ってくる means: “to bring; to take (something) along”

    Why do they mean the same thing? Can you explain this please?

    Thank you!

    1. Hi Tiana
      I see your confusion.
      When you simply describe someone’s action to take or bring something, you use
      持っていく to take something with you
      持ってくる to bring something with you
      However, the English translation can change depending on the speaker’s point of view.

      For example, you are invited to a party and telling the host that you are going to get some wine and take it to the party.
      You say
      It actually means “I will take some with with me (and go to your party.)”
      But the most common English translation will be
      “I will bring some wine (with me). ”
      It is based on the listener’s (the host’s) point of view.

      It is similar to “come” and “go”
      If someone calls you, you say
      I am coming.
      to come is 来ます but the most natural Japanese translation will be 行きます

  34. Hello there Maggie-sensei!
    I’ve been using your lessons for awhile now and had a question about this sentence. Or rather, I suppose I wanted to make sure I am reading it correctly.


    A character is ruminating on another character and I was a bit confused seeing もののこと back to back here, but after reading your lesson もの is making the previous phrase a noun and then のこと is now modifying that noun, right?
    So it becomes “About what I like about Kenshi-kun” or since the sentence trails off “What I like about Kenshi-kun is…”

    Please correct me if I’m mistaken, and thank you for all the lessons!

    1. Hello かえで
      It is a little hard to interpret the sentence without knowing the context but the literal translation is
      “About the thing(s) Kenshi-kun likes….”
      This interpretation only works if this speaker is talking about something that Kenshi likes.

  35. 『甘いものが欲しいときは疲れているんだって。』


    Note: (Related lesson: How to use がる = garu ) < リンク、使えないです。

    1. ルナ


  36. Hi, Maggie sensei, hope everything is going well. In an essay, I’ve accross this sentence, 夢を求めて狂っても。Could you please explain me why も has been used in the

    end of this sentence???

    1. Hi Mojo 元気?
      〜ても means “even if/even though/although”
      You don’t usually leave the sentence with ても unless there is a sentence before that sentence or omitted the following part on purpose when it is obvious.

      For example 夢を求めて狂っても(それでも夢を求める)
      Even if I go mad seeking for the dream, I still go for it.

      thus you can show your strong will emphasizing what comes before ても

  37. Good evening Maggie. I would like to know if the following sentence is grammatically correct: 彼女は亡くなった夫の冷凍精子を用いて受精した。

    1. If the speaker is talking about oneself, はいれて
      I’m glad I got into a good company.

      入る = はいる = intransitive verb
      →potential form 入れる = はいれる

      入れる = いれる = transitive verb
      So if the speaker had someone (Ex. their child) go to the school
      入れてよかった = いれてよかった
      I’m glad I enrolled my child in that school

    1. こんにちは、Terry

      There are many differences but here’s the confusing difference.

      だけ is just/ only
      ばかり = on going action/ emphasizing the quantity or frequency of the activity.

      = Maggie eats nothing but meat
      = Maggie mainly eats meat. It suggests a focus on meat but doesn’t necessarily mean she eats nothing else.

      Ex. このサイトの先生は犬だけだ。
      The teachers on this site are only dogs.
      Ex. このサイトの先生は犬ばかりだ。
      The teachers on this site are mainly dogs.
      It implies that while dogs are the majority or main focus, there might be other animals (such as cats, mice, etc.) also serving as teachers on the site.

  38. Maggie Sensei, あけましておめでとうございます。(.. if it is not too late to say this).

    Would you be interested in reading about some of my most recent language learning experiences in Japan? I think you will find it interesting. I don’t think it would be appropriate to post it here. I could send to your email address (which I already have), if that is OK. Then you can read at your leisure, whenever you have some time.


    1. Hi Michael

      Yes, I’d love to read your experiences. Sent it by email.


  39. just found out this website, i think is really wholesome that youve been doing this for so long , you can tell when someone puts love in what they do. thanks for your work, ill check some of your lessons.

  40. Good evening Maggie. I came across the following phrase: 幽閉 – ある場所に閉じこめて外に出さないこと。and I had some doubts.
    1) In this sentence, is 外に read as ほかに or そとに?
    2) When do I use 外に (ほかに) instead of 外に (そとに)? Can you give me an example?
    3) I searched the internet and discovered on a website the following word 外に出さない. Is this an expression?

    1. Hi Angelo

      The meaning of 幽閉/閉じ込めること is confinement/lock ~ in
      外に出さない = そとにださない = Not let that person outside
      It is not a set expression but 外 means outside so you can figure out the meaning.
      ほか: When you use this word as “others/another”, you use the kanji 他
      You read 外, ほか in expressions like

      思いの外 = おもいのほか = unexpectedly.

  41. マギー先生は新しレッスンをアップするとき、さっそく読めばいいともいます。時には読んでくるを忘れます。

    1. ルナ
      (Note for you: ルナの書いてくれた文章もわかりますが、少しお手伝いしますね。
      マギー先生が新しいレッスンをアップしたときに(or アップしたら、) すぐに読めばいいと思います。
      時には(すでに)読んだことを忘れます。) ☺️

  42. どのレッスンが読んだことありますを忘れないようにいつもコメント書きたいのですが、時々わすれてしまう。

    このレッスン、二度目読んだことです ;o

    1. 何回でも読んでください。😉
      (Note for you: どのレッスンをよんだか忘れないように〜/このレッスンを読んだのは2度目でした。)

  43. Thanks for the lesson. I have some questions.
    What is the difference between するとしても したとしても ?
    For example,
    Does this sentence mean “a new model hasn’t/will or come(s) out yet”
    and this sentence mean “a new model already has come out” ? if that is so, what is the difference when it comes to hypothetical situations (としても)? Is it interchangeable ?

    1.  Hi Kiw

      Good question. I should have explained the nuance difference in the lessons.
      You can sometime use the past tense and the present tense with としても
      The mean the same but the nuance difference is
      when you focus on the event itself, releasing a new model (the anticipation of a future event that hasn’t happened yet) you use 出る
      when you focus on the state/situation (right) after they released a new model, you use 出た

  44. Good afternoon Maggie. I have some questions that I would like you to answer.

    1) In the sentence この問題が解けなかったら、罰ゲームが待っていますよ!, the verb 解けなかったら is derived from 解ける or解く? I’m having trouble figuring this out.

    2) In the sentence もうお利口さんにしないとお仕置きしますよ。, what is the function of しない? I researched and I think it has the function of: to serve as; to act as; to work as; , but I’m not sure and would like confirmation.

    1. Hello Matheus,

      1) 解けなかったら is from 解ける (to be able to solve)
      解ける is a potential form of 解く
      問題が解ける/解けない (can solve/can’t solve)
      問題を解く/解かない (involves one’s will)

      If you use the verb form 解く, the sentence will be
      この問題を解かなかったら 〜

      2) That する/しない means “to (try) be/act/behave”
      お利口さんにする = to be good/behave well

  45. こんにちは先生。

    This example sentence:

    Can you explain the difference between this and just saying「今日は、帰りは遅いよ」?

    1. こんにちは、Terry

      A 帰りは遅いよ。 
      B 帰りは遅くなるよ

      The translation could be the same in English but the difference is
      A: It simply states that you are going to be home late tonight.
      B: It indicates the process of becoming late. For example, if you have a lot of tasks to do, you might end up being late as a result of those circumstances.

        1. どういたしまして
          Yes it may sound subtle.
          It might be just easy to think
          → the basic idea of なる expresses the change and the result. A →B
          For example you usually get to home around six. But you have many things to do and it will be late.
          your regular time to go home (around six) A →do this and that →It will be late. B

    1. Happy New Year Maggie Sensei! Thanks for all you do for us!

      I hope this is the year we all finally achieve our New Year’s resolutions! (Mine is learning Japanese…and then becoming a host for a kids TV show that teaches English! Dream big! XD)

  46. こんにちは先生!
    How would you do “adjective clauses” to describe nouns? My gut is telling me this is wrong…
    ex. People who like dogs

  47. In “信号が赤から青に変わった,” shouldn’t it be “The traffic lights turned from RED to GREEN” and not “from GREEN to RED”? Just making sure I didn’t misunderstand.

  48. 1) The following sentences are correct: 私は、ひどく残酷な決断を迫られました。 and あなたはすべてを見つけるでしょう:家畜、野生または固有種。
    2) What is the function of 何 in the following sentence 脳の病気は何の前触れもなく起こることが多い。?

    1. Hi Leandro

      1) The first sentence is OK.
      I am not sure what you are trying to see with あなたはすべてを見つけるでしょう:家畜、野生または固有種。

      2) That 何の = noun means “any”
      So the literal meaning is “without any warning/sign”

  49. Good evening Maggie. I would like to clear up some doubts about the following sentences.
    1) In the sentence 経験不足が相まって、就職は非常に困難だ。, 相まって was translated as due or because, but shouldn’t its meaning be coupled with or together? Why was it translated as due?
    2) In the sentence 交渉が成立するという前提で話を進めます。, what is the function of the particle で in this sentence?
    3) In the sentence ランサー源頼光は道徳心を以て、夏休みの風紀の乱れを監視する。, what is the function and meaning of を以て in this sentence?
    4) Is the following sentence: それってすごく矛盾した状況じゃない? correct? And why put した after 矛盾? And it shouldn’t be それら because the translation was: They’re really contradicting circumstances, aren’t they? ?

    1. Hi Pedro
      1) 相まって means “two or more elements interact, and as a result, it leads to some negative consequences.
      So because of one reason which is not written in your sentence and 経験不足, it is difficult to get a job.

      2) This で indicates the condition by which something is done
      Ex. ~という条件で 
      3) 以て(or 以って⇨I think 以って is more common) means “with”
      It indicates the method. Ex.誠意を以って対処します。
      4) Yes. If you rephrase it in a little more formal way, ⇨それはとても矛盾している状況ではないですか?
      I think the translation is “Isn’t it a very contradictory situation?”

  50. こんばんはマギ一先生、

    Does it sound weird to use different tenses in one sentence?

    Ex. trying to say: We went to the movies and shopping [and stuff], now we’re going to eat dinner.


    1. こんばんは、Terry
      OK, let me correct your sentence to make it sound a little more natural.
      映画を見に行ったし(Or 映画は見たし)、買い物もしたから、今から晩ごはんを食べに行こう。

      1. What does the から mean there? “Because” or “from” doesn’t seem to match…? 答えでありがとうございます。

        1. Hello again, Terry

          That から is a reason, so. (It implies the nuance “Since I have done things I wanted to do” + Now I am going to eat something)
          You can replace し with から to emphasize the reason.

          Since your original sentence may look like just listing three actions, it will be more clear to use から.
          However you can just use し in casual conversation.

          映画は見たし、買い物はしたし..(new sentence) ご飯でも食べに行こうかな。ご飯でも食べにいかない?

  51. マギ一先生、

    Would it be correct to use なんて sort of like “only”? As in demeaning something as lesser? Examples:

    Sorry, I only have water to drink. (inferior compared to tea, coffee, etc for a guest)

    I can’t play the game because I only have a cheap, old computer.

    Is this correct sounding, or is there a better way to get that idea across?

    1. Hi Terry
      You don’t say 〜なんてがある

      →You can say 水しかありません. If you want to add the nuance of demeaning the water,


      1. Oh, is that because なんて replaces particles or you wouldn’t say なんてある either?

        Aaah, I had your しか lesson open in another tab but hadn’t read it yet ^^; ありがとうございます!

  52. 先生こんにちは。



    1. こんにちは、ニクラブス

      まず、その文書の”上”は「じょう」と読み、”on” という意味です。
      インターネット上(じょう)で →on the Internet

  53. Good evening Maggie. I came across the following sentence: 俺が逆らうと、兄貴はよく脇をこしょばしてきました。
    I had some doubts. Shouldn’t it be こしょばくして? Or is it okay to use it the way it was written in the sentence?
    My other doubt is that I would like to know what the function of きました is in this sentence.

    1. Hi Pedro
      こしょばす is a dialect and it means くすぐる to tickle
      So こしょばしてきました means くすぐってきました
      And Vてくる/きます is used when some action is coming towards you.

  54. Hi, thanks for all the good info.

    Just wanted to point out a small oversight. (Sorry if it’s already been mentioned, I didn’t have time to read all the comments)

    You write,

    >>First make a past tense and delete た ( = ta) ・だ ( = da) and switch with ちゃう ( = chau) / ちゃった ( = chatta)<<

    Since ちゃう is a contraction of 〜てしまう it would make sense to think of making the conjunctive form and delete the て/で instead of making the past tense.
    Thus one can go from 食べてしまう to 食べちゃう and see the logic behind the contraction.

  55. こんにちはマギー先生


    1. こんにちは、らわ!
      元気でしたか? 😀

      「面白かった話でした」は、二つ過去形が入っているので「面白い話でした」 の方が、自然でよく使います。

  56. 「どれだけ高かったとしてもマギーに会えるなら行くべきだよ。」


  57. Thank you for all you do Maggie sensei! This has been a huge help for me as I am preparing for a school trip to japan in 2025!

    Thank you very much!

    1. Hi Auger
      Thank you for your message.
      I’m happy to hear this site has been helpful. Good luck preparing for your 2025 school trip.

  58. Hi Maggie Sensei!

    Your website was brought to my attention from the Learn Japanese reddit and I love your website. I am a beginner and have a question.

    On your “About Us” page you introduce yourself, but I noticed the use of へ was stated as “ye” for introducation. This is new to me as I learn grammar and other things about japanese.

    If you have an article about the use of particles regarding this I’m sorry, so I was curious why it is “ye”. I’d like to understand better!


    1. Hi Opal

      Thank you for your comment. And I am sorry.
      I should have typed “e” instead of “ye” to avoid the confusion. I’ll fix it.

      へ is pronounced as “e” when it is used to indicate the direction or destination of an action.
      Ex. へや = heya = room
      Ex. とうきょうへいきます = Toukyou e ikimasu.= I am going to Tokyo.

      I guess I used “ye” in About Us and maybe in some of my old lessons to distinguish the hiragana え ( = e) .
      I now stick to the romaji “e” for へ. It is much more common than “ye”.

      There are two other particles that you pronounce differently.
      は and を

      は = ha →(particle for topic) You pronounce it wa
      を = wo →(particle for object) You pronounce it “o” (I use the romaji “wo”)

  59. Good evening Maggie. I would like to know if the following sentence is correct: 中世時代に、騎士道の訓練の第一段階として、騎士の従者をする若者.

  60. Hello Maggie Sensei,

    I have a question :

    I have seen this sentence: ごはんを食べたり、お茶を飲んだりしてもよかったです
    What does てもよかったです mean here in this context ?

    Thank you for your answer.

    Best regards.


  61. Good Maggie. I found the following sentence: 勇者や救世主だって世界のせいで闇堕ちすることだってあるのです. I would like to know if there should be が in place of the second だって or if the phrase is right.

    1. Hi Mutuio
      闇堕ちすることだってあるのです can be rephrased
      闇堕ちすることがあるのです or 闇堕ちすることもあるのです

  62. Hello Maggiesensei,

    Thank you for the great lesson. I’m currently trying to translate Saori Hayamis Yume no Hate made, but I’m struggling with two lines and was hoping you could help me.

    寂しい人ほど 優しさを持ち
    優しい人ほど 強さを秘めている

    Am I right in the assumption that this is a shortening for the ば~ほど〜 grammar point? So those two lines would translate to

    The lonlier a person is, the more kindness they hold
    The kinder a person is, the more strength they’re hiding

    Thank you in advance.

  63. Good evening maggie. The following sentence makes sense: 魔獣と交わることで根源を模索する魔術師もいたのかどうか

    I was in doubt after seeing this sentence because I don’t know if it should be かどうか or か at the end.

    1. Hello Matheus,
      I wouldn’t leave this sentence with どうか
      いたのかどうか+ わからない/不明である
      If you want to show your surprised feelings
      いたのか… works.

      If you meant “I wonder if there was a magician ~” then, you can say いたのだろうか.

  64. Good evening Maggie. I came across a sentence and didn’t understand part of it. The sentence is as follows: 明治時代の終わりにかけて英語亡国論を唱える人たちがいた.

    I didn’t understand the part: 英語亡国論. Can you explain this part to me?
    When I put it on Google Translate, it was translated as: theory of the exile of the English language, but I don’t understand how it got to that translation.

    1. Hi Thiago

      英語 = English language
      亡国 = collapse of a country →国がなくなる / 滅びる こと the country will perish/be ruined
      論 = theory

      the theory that the English language would lead to the collapse of the country.

    1. Hi ami,

      That って is to bring up a topic. You use って instead of は (or というのは)
      The same function of the example sentence
      Ex. マギーって (→は)かわいいね。

  65. Hello Maggie sensei,

    You have the question: 日本に来たのはこれで何回目ですか?
    Answer 1: これで3回目です。

    It is a simple substitution Q: 何回目→A: 3回目, and this is how people talk, even at airport immigration, and in other languages. In other words, drop the topic/subject and substitute the question word with the answer.

    Grammatically, would a more complete answer be:
    A2: 日本に来たのはこれで3回目です。
    How about
    A3: 私の日本に来たのはこれで3回目です。

    The reason why I ask is that I found this sentence on the internet:

    Even with the minor change of subject (‘number of visits’ instead of ‘number of times’), would a Japanese person ever say something like this? Especially ‘私にとって’ seems to be an unnecessarily complicated answer to a simple question.

    Thanks in advance,
    Michael (different ‘Michael’ from the other person below)

    1. Hi Michael

      私の日本に来たのはこれで3回目です。→Not natural
      It will be more natural to omit the subject in conversation but if you include the subject it will be
      A: 私が日本に来たのはこれで3回目です。 not 私の〜

      The sentence you found on the internet
      私にとって日本への訪問はこれで3番目です。should be 3回目.
      B: 私にとって日本への訪問はこれで3回目です

      A and B are grammatically correct but as you said it is an unnecessarily complicated answer to a simple question.
      Also you don’t repeat the same words when it is obvious what you are talking about.
      So the most natural way to answer the question will be これで3回目です。

      Are you planning to come to Japan again? ☺️

      1. Thanks for the reply.

        Yes, I will be going to Japan next month, for 6 weeks. This time, I will mainly visit Okayama-ken, Shikoku, and Nara-ken.

        My vocabulary is still too small, and I don’t get enough practice speaking. However, I’m getting better at improvising, rather than staying in a safe zone of scripted dialog (questions and answers). Also, for practical purposes, a person really does not need to speak complex, grammatically complete sentences. When I go to a restaurant or hotel or train station or konbini etc., it is obvious why I am there. If you know the key words, that is often enough.

        Most people realize that you can’t speak much of the local language, and they almost automatically simplify. And, if I go somewhere, such as restaurant, especially when it isn’t very busy the staff are are quick to give some guidance with procedures (how to use tablet to place order), and so on.

        So, sometimes it is stressful and embarrassing, with all the mistakes I make, but it is still an adventure.

        1. Great!
          You have a great attitude. I can already tell that you’re going to have an amazing time in Japan. Six weeks in Okayama, Shikoku, and Nara will be fantastic. And if you ever encounter any problems, just drop me a line.
          I hope your next adventure will be fulfilling.

  66. Thank you for the lesson! I have noticed a typo in these sentences:

    * 始める & 始める = はじまる & はじめる = hajimeru & hajimaru

    = Kaigi no nihiji ga kiettei shita.

  67. Good afternoon Maggie. I looked up the definition of 後半 and got 前後二つに分けた、あとのほうの半分。
    I didn’t understand the 前後二つに分けた part. Can you explain each part to me?

    1. Hi Mario
      If it is talking about the story (books, movies, etc.) 前後二つに分けた divided into two parts, the first part and the second(later) part

  68. Thank you for this helpful article!

    There is a very small typo in the romanization of one of the examples. The kana is fine!
    →* 楽しみ = たのしみ = tanoshimi = pleasure
    Ex. 来週のデートが楽しみだ。

    = Raishuu no deeto ga tanoshimi ***ta*** → da

  69. Hi Maggie Sensei,

    I had a question regarding the “determine” use of という in these sentences:
    If you go to Hokkaido in the winter, you will see how cold it is there.
    You have no idea how hard it is not to be able to see your own child.
    Even if you know you can’t do it is important to at least try once.

    a.) What does “determine” mean here?
    b.) Could の be used in place of こと here? I know that often の can replace nouns, but I also know that というのは and ということは are different grammars. When can you use の in place of こと?
    Because I heard these two kinds of sentences are equivalent:
    “I know that he didn’t come to the party”

    Are there other examples where you can do this replacement?
    As in, perhaps these two are these equivalent?:
    “I hate the fact that I don’t know yet”

    Again, thank you so much, this is tricky grammar for me and helped a lot =)

    1. Hi Silas

      Good questions.

      a.) What does “determine” mean here?

      →I’m sorry. It is an old lesson but I think I meant “define”. Either way, let me revise it and add more explanation later.

      Anyway, you use ということ attaching to a phrase and make the phrase into a noun.

      b.) Could の be used in place of こと here?

      →Yes, you can rephrase the sentences with の in the usage (1)

      まだ分からないということが嫌だ OK
      まだ分からないというのが嫌だ OK  or simply 分からないのが嫌だ

      By using という, it adds more explanatory tone.

  70. かわいい犬といえば、マギー先生ですね!

    PS, I think there is a typo in both these sentences:

    Ex. 安いといえば、このジェケット、いくらだったと思う?
    = やすいといえば、このジャケット、いくらだったおおもう?

  71. Good night Maggie. Can you tell me if the following sentence sounds natural in Japanese: 聖女様が中傷や殲滅なんてする訳ない+Extras?

    1. Hi Mutuio

      I guess for a dramatic games or anime, yes. (or 聖女様が中傷したりや殲滅なんてする訳ない)
      中傷 means “slander” (to damage someone’s reputation).
      殲滅 annihilation (in other word 皆殺し)
      Is that what you wanted to say?

  72. Hello Maggie,
    I’m trying to understand what she says here:
    “It’s so funny to me that a man as well-prepared as you would fail.
    If you have an excuse, I’d listen to it.”
    The word in **___** is not understandable at all to me. Is おにょける a slang used by young people? I know ウケるんです means “it’s funny” but おにょウケるんです ?
    Thank you Sensei!

    1. Hi Gaspatcher
      Is it from ポケモン?
      I think the character meant to say “鬼ウケル” but it came out おにょウケる” in a cute way.
      鬼(original meaning is “demon”) is a slang word it means “very/extremely” like メチャ.

  73. Hi, Maggie-Sensei!

    When まで means “until ~ does something,” does the verb before まで always have to be in present tense regardless of whether the overall sentence is past tense?

    For example, given
    “He wandered the hills and plains until he reached Shagri-La.”
    a. シャングリ・ラにたどり着くまで、野山をさまよった。
    b. シャングリ・ラにたどり着いたまで、野山をさまよった。
    which option is correct?

    1. Hi Sora,
      The verb before まで should be in present tense.
      a. シャングリ・ラにたどり着くまで、野山をさまよった。 is correct and you don’t say 着いたまで

  74. Good night Maggie. I found the following sentence: 特定の人種や民族を支持するという話ではありません。

    I would like to understand the function of という話. I looked it up on a few sites and I still don’t understand.

    1. Hi Luigi

      The literal meaning of 〜という話 is “the story of ~”, quoting what comes before (民族を支持する)
      But you would just translate it “about”
      It is not (a story) about supporting specific races or ethnicities.

  75. Hello Maggie-sensei,

    How are you? Not much a question this time, but rather to be sure of something:
    Is the particle は used to emphasize 頑張って in 頑張っている? (1)
    Or is it an expression 頑張ってはいる like 頑張って入る? (2)
    I think it’s more (1) but I wanted to be sure. Does that mean we can add は whenever we want if we want to emphasize a particular word?

    Here is the sentence in its context:
    [A] 分かってくれるよね?
    [B] ええっと……
    [B] それが……完璧に理解するのは難しいんだ……
    [B] 頑張ってはいるんだが

    Thank you Sensei!

    1. Hello Gaspatcher
      First this (て)いる is a progressive form and it indicates what someone has been or is doing.

      work hard/try hard 頑張る → (have been/to be) working hard/trying hard 頑張っている

      You add は between Vて and いる to emphasize the contrast. Vて+は+いる
      So that は actually emphasizes “頑張っている”

      A) 頑張っているんだが (= 頑張っているのだが・頑張っているのだけれども) + contrasting outcome/contradictory outcome
      →B ) (add は) 頑張ってはいるんだが (= 頑張ってはいるのだが/頑張ってはいるのだけれども)+ contrasting outcome/contradictory outcome

      B) shows the contrast between the fact 頑張っている and outcome more.

      Another example:

      Ex. がんばらなくてはいけないとわかっているけれどもできない = I know I have to work hard but I can’t.

      Ex. A: 来年、日本に行きますか? = Are you going to Japan next year?
      B: 考えてはいるのですが.. = Yeah, I have been thinking about it (but..)

      1. Thank you Maggie.

        I think your comment is cut in half haha.
        But yeah, I had this intuition it was a は for emphasizing!
        Vて+は+いる: I’ve never seen this structure before (I think). So you can put a は between the てverb and いる, good to know!

        Thank you Sensei!

        1. Hi Gaspatcher.

          ごめんなさい。You are right. My previous comment was cut in half.
          Yes, Vて+は+いる is a very common expression especially when you make an excuse like my example sentence that I added in my previous message. 😆

          1. Thank you, your explanations are always clear, Sensei!
            So in general, we see this structure because of a contrasting outcome

            +は +んだけれども+……
            +は +のですが+……
            +は +のですけれども+……
            +は +けれども+……

          2. Yes, Vては+ いるのですが(formal) /いるのですけれども(polite) / いるのですが/いるけれども(casual) /いるんだけれども (casual)
            Or sometimes you finish the sentence Vてはいます. In this case you can tell there is some kind of problem.

            Ex. A: 日本語の勉強していないの?
            B: やってはいます。
            In this case, the speaker

            FYI The similar expression is
            VことはVっています/いる (が・けれども/のですが..)
            頑張ることは頑張っているのですが = I do try hard but ~

            Link is here

  76. hello Maggie Sensei…

    Thank you for everything…

    I think there is a problem in this sentence… (but maybe I’m wrong…)


    = Ashita watashi wa dekkakeraremasen.

    Why this “todoku no” in kana?

    sorry for my broken english… I’m from Belgium and I speak french, but I try to learn Japanese!!! Thank you for all that you learn to me!!!

    1. Bonjour Blue
      Thank you for spotting the mistake.
      Originally I wrote a sentence, 明日、私は<荷物が届くので>出かけられません。 but I changed my mind and made it easier deleting 荷物が届くので part. Apparently I forgot to erase とどくので.

      J’espère que vous comprenez mon explication.

  77. Boa tarde Maggie. eu gostaria de saber a função de か (depois de なんたる) nesta frase: いいでしょう。齢を重ねた私が王とはなんたるかあなた達に指導してさしあげましょう。

    1. Bom dia Pedro

      か significa “que”
      王とはなにか →(mais formal)王とはなんたるか = que um rei é

      (I hope my Portuguese makes sense 😆)

      Related lesson ~か/かどうか Click here

      1. Thanks for the answer Maggie, but I thought the “what” was the function of なんたる, because when I looked it up, I found that なんたる means What (something) is like.

        If I understood your lesson correctly, the function of か in this sentence would be to make the sentence have an interrogative tone, like: What is a king is like?

        1. OK, I will try answering you in English.
          Yes, なんたる means “what” ( I thought that what I meant by “que” in my previous message. 😅) and it has mainly two ways of using.

          1)  What ~! (interjection/exclamatory words) : Expressing one’s emotion
          The same as なんて but it is more formal
          なんてことだ = It’s unbelievable /Oh My God!! (Expressing one’s surprise)

          2)The one you asked me is “what” as a relative pronoun
          Nounはなんたるか = What ~ is / What ~ means
          To teach what the king is (or what the king is supposed to be)

          = We have to teach them what the manner is.

  78. Hello Maggie-sensei ^^
    I’d like to ask, how would you rate the politeness between (for example) やめないか vs. やめて? Or are they used in different contexts? Thank you!

    1. Hello Ai

      やめないか has two meanings.
      1) Stop it! (Command form. Telling someone to stop in a strong way expressing one’s angry feelings.): Male speech/pretty rough
      Compare to やめて, it sounds much stronger.
      2) Why don’t we stop? : Male speech/rough

      So て is much more polite than やめないか.

      1. I see, I was under the impression that ~ないか was softer but I wasn’t sure, glad that I decided to ask. Thank you for the answer! ^^

  79. Hello, Maggie-sensei. How are you?

    My question is about: ‘これは何を買えば読めるのでしょうか?’

    I believe it roughly translates to: ‘What should I buy so I can read this?’

    I know ‘えば’ can mean ‘if’ or ‘when,’ , but it doesn’t seem to fit those translations. I think it may be used to express the idea of ‘should.’ Perhaps it’s a shortened form of ‘買えばいい’, but I’m not sure.

    Thank you in advance.

    1. Hello luno. I’m good. Lunoも元気?

      何を買えば is a condition for the following sentence 読める to be able to read
      What should I buy to (in order to) read this?

  80. Hello Maggie (again),

    I’m trying to understand this sentence but it’s all mixed up in my head (I mean I understand the meaning but I couldn’t rewrite this because I don’t understand the grammar)
    毎日お前と会えることが : Seeing you everyday…
    Until here it’s okay… and after that it’s the circus, all the words and particles are mixed up!

    十分に価値のある : I thought the expression was 価値は十分にある
    〜のある : what is 〜のある? Is it the same as 〜がある? 価値 is a noun here, so の can’t be a nominalizer
    あること : why is it あること and not ことある? or ことがある?

    Maybe it’s just some expressions or vocabulary I lack. Thank you again Sensei!

    1. おはよう、Gaspatcher

      When you modify a noun you can use の as a topic marker as well.

      When you talk about the manga which Gaspatcher read, you can say

      The manga that Gaspacher read ⬇️
      Gaspatcherが読んだ漫画 (X Not “Gaspatcherは読んだ漫画”)

      The same idea works for your question.
      When you add こと, you can say either
      or use の

      I have a lesson how to modify a noun. Link is here.

      1. Thank you!
        Your explanations are always well written and clear for my level!

        You’re the best sensei!

  81. Hello Maggie, me again (⁄ ⁄•⁄ω⁄•⁄ ⁄)

    My question is about the よう (hence the lesson) in this sentence:
    “I’m really happy that you convinced me to join the club.”

    Your lesson mentions the use of よう〜 (ような or ように) but not よう alone. I thought maybe it was some kind of contraction in casual speech but even the notion of similarity (as, like) of よう does not appear here is not obvious to me. “You convinced me like to join the club” makes no sense. So what is the purpose of よう here?


    1. Hi Gaspatcher
      This よう belongs to the usage
      →the other usages of よう ( = you) besides the meaning of “as/like”

      (From my lesson)
      1) ように ( = youni) = to do something ~ in order to do ~ / so that ~ / in such a way ~
      (to intend to make things work as you hope)

      ★verb (→the result you hope, your goal/non-volitional verb/ verb potential form ) ように ( = youni) + verb (what to do/what you did/ to hope, to wish)
      Your sentence 文芸部に入部するよう means “to join the literary club” with the purpose or intention of doing so. It describes the result or goal that “you” (the listener or someone mentioned in the conversation) hoped or intended to achieve thinking of the speaker.

      And, Yes, in casual conversation, you can omit に and just say よう in this usage.

      And thank you so much for the ☕️s!! ❤️

    1. Hi soleyman

      I checked it myself with other browser. You are right. Unless you don’t log in, you can’t see other people’s tweets.
      (FYI Patreon ありがとうx 10 tier  members can get Monthly Tweets (PDF file with all my tweets lessons with an audio file every month.)

  82. Hello Maggie,

    Sorry for spamming, I’m on a rampage of questions haha!
    You said in your lesson “to give a reason” is のせいで but here it’s なせいで
    I noticed several times that な is replacing の. Is it the same case here? When do I know when to use な or の after a noun?

    Thank you Maggie!

    1. Hello Gaspatcher

      Good question. I have been thinking about making more detailed lesson on せいで and おかげで.
      I mainly introduced the usage of Noun + の + せいで in this lesson.
      But you can use せいで  with verbs and adjectives as well.
      verb (present/past tense, etc.) + せいで
      i-adjective + せいで (→past tense i-adjective 〜かった+せいで)
      na-adjective + せいで (→past tense na-adjective + だったせいで)
      noun + の + せいで (→past tense noun + だったせいで)

      自分勝手/勝手 is actually na-adjective 自分勝手な(人・人間)

  83. Hello Maggie,

    How are you doing? I don’t know how is your summer in Japan but here in Europe, it’s a burning hell! I would like to go to Sweden for some days to get some fresh air! It’s not much, but I noticed lately I’m reading faster (I can “cut” the words faster in-live instead of reading the whole line then process to cut each word to have the sentence makes sense), so I wanted to share that with you (even though this is a little improvement)

    Now question time to my sensei. In the sentence 「全部俺に教えてくれれば!」, I understand he says “If only you told me everything” but in the official translation he says “All you had to do was tell me!”

    I understand sometimes the translation adapts to the language, but I would like to know the literal translation of the Japanese version.

    To give you some context,

    Thank you Maggie!

    1. Hi Gaspatcher

      First of all, I am happy to hear that you can read faster now. It is an important skill to understand the context without reading every single word.
      It has been very hot in Japan, too.Going to Sweden sounds like a great idea.

      The translation is correct.
      If only you told me everything/All you had to do was tell me!
      Or you can say “If you had told me everything.”

      I think you know but the speaker added the sentence last but 全部俺に教えてくれれば is a condition
      The right order is ~れば〜のに

      So let me rephrase it for you to see the structure better.
      If you had told me everything, I would have made even a small effort to make your everyday life a little better!

      1. Thank you so much! Makes more sense now! I didn’t understand why there was a condition and he stops like that… With the restructuration, it’s much more understandable. Is this order natural when speaking? Or is it because he speaks out words without structuring them before, but the listener can still understand (not me)

        My original question actually was for the 全部. Was it the subject All (you had to do) or the object (tell everything). It seems both are acceptable, so again, we can understand this sentence in many ways, daro?

        If only you told me everything! (object) 全部(を)?
        All you had to do was tell me! (subject) 全部(は)?

        Maybe I’m too focused on the details, but that kind of stuff bothers me hahaha!

        1. 1) Is this order natural when speaking?

          Using the inversion method allows for changing the order of sentences, adding important information at the end to leave a stronger impression. You usually use this method in writing (especially lyrics)
          In spoken language, people use the inversion method not just to create an impact but also when they just add something important.

          2) 全部 is an object. 全部 ( = 全てのことを)教えてくれれば

    1. Hi again, Gaspatcher

      This 分 indicate the “portion” or “share” of effort that other people have put in.

    2. Hi again, Gaspatcher

      This 分 indicate the “portion” or “share” of effort that other people have put in. z
      The literal translation is “Why do I end up wasting the portion of effort that other people have put in?” which means, “Why do I end up wasting other people’s efforts?”

  84. Hello Maggie sensei. Your lessons are amazing, you put so much work into them!
    As a teacher of English, I totally agree that textbooks are full of boring grammar rules. Making a lesson interesting is what all schools around the world should do. I wonder when they will realise and change methods? I’m so glad your site exists! It helped me a lot in the past and it’s helping me now too. THANK YOU for everything!! ^__^

    1. Hi madridimi

      Thank you so much for your comment. Your kind words made my day. I am sure you are an amazing English teacher. Rest assured, I will do my best to keep making more Japanese lessons that will help you in your journey to learn Japanese.


  85. Hello Maggie,

    I have a really hard time to understand the structure of this sentence:

    I understand that:
    – 完璧に is an adverb with に modifying a な-adjective: perfectly
    – 無価値な is a noun becoming an adjective with the な-particle: worthlessness -> worthless
    – やるようなことなんて何もない: ような modifies ことなんて何もない with なんて emphasizing the negative sentence
    – もん gives a childish way of expressing her feelings

    So I see many different translations, which is the correct one:
    “There’s absolutely nothing to do, for someone as perfectly worthless as me.”
    “There’s absolutely nothing, someone as perfectly worthless as me, could do.”
    “There’s absolutely no way there’s anything someone as perfectly worthless as I am could do, right?”

    If you need context, she says before
    「なんで毎朝学校に遅刻してるか分かる?」- Do you know why I’m (always) late to school every morning?
    「いつも、ベッドから起き上がる理由を見つけられないから」- Because, every time, I can’t find a reason to get out of bed.
    「完璧に無価値なわたしがやるようなことなんて何もないもん」- ???

    Thank you sensei!

    1. Hi, Gaspatcher

      I think the first one is the closest translation for the sentence.
      If you interpret やること as something you could do then the second translation works too.

      1. Thank you Maggie <3

        So that was my main problem, the やる can be applied either to the "nothing", or to the "I"? "nothing to do" "nothing I can do"

        So does that mean this sentence is ambiguous so we can understand both meanings?

        1. The nuance difference is
          やることがない  can be translated “There is nothing to do” , “There is nothing I could do.” , “There is nothing I want to do” ,etc.
          Since the subject has a description, 完璧に無価値な, so judging from the context, I think “There is nothing I could do.” may sound more natural.

  86. Good afternoon Maggie. I would like to know the meaning of やろ in the following sentence: これ絶対今年のfesでやる気やろと思ってたのに……w

    Is this an expression attached to やる気 or does it have a standalone meaning?

    1. Hi Mario,

      やろ is a very casual speech and it is originally from Kansai dialect.
      It means だろう
      やる気やろと思ってた ←やる気(なん)だろうと思っていたのに

  87. おはようMaggie Sensei, お久しぶりですよ!
    I’m so happy to see your lessons are still on the first page when I have a question related to Japanese!
    My question is about the particle は and を. In a visual novel, a character is asking:
    I saw that to say “to help ~” it’s more 手伝いをする and not 手伝いはする. What is the difference between both? Is it because we just want to say 手伝いする with は emphasizing 手伝い?
    Thank you Maggie-sensei!

    1. Hi Gaspatcher

      手伝いをする 手伝い (help) + を (=object marker) + する ( = to do ) = to help
      You can also just say 手伝う
      手伝いはする As you say you use は has a couple of functions, topic, showing the contrast, emphasizing what comes before.
      It depends on the context but from just that sentence, it could be just bringing up a topic.

      (I think you wrote the same message twice. I erased one of them.)

      1. It depends on the context but from just that sentence, it could be just bringing up a topic. > OK makes sense, because the speaker wants to confirm what she’s doing today. “Aren’t you going to help Monika today?”, maybe that’s why は is used here, to introduce the new topic. What was said before was:

        (I think you wrote the same message twice. I erased one of them.) > Yeah I wanted to delete it myself, but I couldn’t, thank you!

  88. I’m not sure if this is the same use of でいい, but I have a big problem with sentences like this one:
    Context: a man looking for the world fair venue finds himself in an odd place, so he’s trying to make sure. I think this should mean “Are you sure this is the world fair venue?” or “This is the world fair venue, right?”, but I can’t understand why.
    I’m guessing there’s a は omitted here: “ここは万博会場…”, so according to this lesson, shouldn’t it mean “It’s fine for this place to be the world fair venue, isn’t it?” ?
    Couldn’t it just be “ここは万博会場ですよね?”
    I understand how でいい works, when it follows a simple noun (like in this lesson’s examples) or it’s a part of a verb (~ていい/~でいい), but I guess here it follows an “A is B” sentence and I can’t wrap my head around it.

    1. Hi Shin

      Ah OK. The usage of でいい in this lesson is mainly to express one’s preference.
      でいい in your example sentence ここ万博会場でいいんですよね? is used when you confirm something checking something is OK/right/correct.
      You can rephrase it ここは、万博会場ということでいいですか? ( = 合っていますか? )
      The literal translation “Is it right that this place is Expo site? ” →Is this Expo site, right? Am I correct?”

      1. Now it all makes perfect sense.

        It’s very hard to find something about this, because if you try to look up “でいい”, all you get are preferences and asking for permission, so your reply was a huge help.

        Thank you very much, Maggie-sensei!

  89. 今日の夕飯まあまあだったね。。。まあ、次はもっとおいしくしよう。

    PS, you forgot a word in this sentence:
    = I want to a job like that.

  90. Hi Maggie-sensei! I’d like to know why “chuu” in 今年中に新しい車を買いたい。you wrote it as “juu”.

    I’m a little confused.

    Arigatou gozaimasu!

    1. Hi Jennifer

      Good question. You change the way you read 中 depending on the word.
      今年中 = ことしじゅう = kotoshijuu
      明日中 = あしたじゅう = ashitajuu /あすじゅう = asujuu
      一日中 = いちにちじゅう = ichinenjuu
      一年中 = いちねんじゅう = ichinennuu

      but you read ちゅう = chuu in the following words.
      今月中 = こんげつちゅう = kongetsuchuu
      今週中 = こんしゅうちゅう = konshuuchuu
      午前中 =ごぜんちゅう = gozenchuu

  91. Hi Sensei! Your site have always been my main source. I wonder if you already made a lesson about としても and としたって 😊?

    1. Hello Mai

      I explained the usage of としても in my として lesson. Link is here.
      However, I haven’t made the lesson on the usage of としても・としたって of hypothetical (in the meaning of “even if”) yet. Maybe I should add it to a request lesson.

      1. Thank you so much! I appreciate it, and i’m not in a rush so please take as much time as you need😊🤍

  92. Good afternoon Maggie. I would like you to translate the following sentence: 間隔が狭いところは人が集まるのを避けるべきです。

    I translate as: You should avoid gathering people when the gap is narrow. But I’m not sure if it’s right.

    1. Hi Mario
      I wonder what kind of place they are talking about with  間隔が狭い in the context but you should change the subject. Not “you” but “people”. Your translation means “人を集める”
      People should avoid gathering in a narrow (spaced) area.

  93. a few days ago I left a comment in the discussion dedicated to hazu (maybe my comment got lost because I didn’t get the answer, so I’ll rewrite it here if I don’t disturb)

    Is the following sentence correct? Xのものだったはずの帽子…
    why instead of はずだった is written だったはず ? I’m confused

    but there is some problem with the blog? I can’t send comments normally…the error message often comes out

    1. Hi floccio

      I’m so sorry that I haven’t answered your question. I remembered that I saw your message but it slipped my mind while answering to other person’s question.
      I wonder why you get the error message often. 🤔
      (If you leave a comment for the first time, I have to approve it before it appears on the blog. So until I approve your comment, you won’t see it. Even if it’s your second time commenting, but you use a different email address, I still need to approve it before it becomes visible.)

      Anyway, let me answer your question here.

      X のものだったはずの帽子 = the hat which was supposed to belong to X

      I guess you can use はずだった if you finish the sentence with it.

      It was supposed to be X’s hat.

  94. Good night Maggie. I came across a sentence and I don’t understand a part of it.

    The sentence is as follows: どんな理由からにしろ何も言わずに仕事を辞めるのは無責任すぎる。

    I don’t understand the following part: どんな理由からにしろ. Can you explain each part of that part?

    1. Hi Patrick

      Sure. First ~にしろ means にしても →(more conversational) でも (even though/even if/regardless )
      どんな理由からにしろ →どんな理由でも  for whatever reason

      1. Thanks for the reply Maggie. But what about the から? Does it have a function or do you think it was a mistake and that I should remove it?

        1. ~という理由から仕事を辞めた
          Since 理由 already has a meaning of “reason”, it may look redundant but から indicates a reason.

          You can also say ~という理由で仕事を辞めた
          And if you want to rephrase it with にしろ
          どんな理由にしろ〜 as well.

  95. Hello maggie sensei,
    Thank you as always.
    I have a question

    How do you say “risky choice in Japanese”
    There are some option I have thought as below
    1. 際どい選択肢

    Or do you have any other idea to answer the question?

    1. Hi Nanpa

      They are all good but I would change 4 to 危ない
      And you say 選択肢 when you have options. You can just say 選択.

    2. Hi Nanpa

      They are all good but I would change 4 to 危ない
      And you say 選択肢 when you have options. You can just say 選択.
      (Or if you are talking about decision 決断)

  96. こんにちは、マギー先生!

    __ “To have a cow” is an expression that means “to become very angry.”

    上の文の “expression” は日本語で何と言うんですか?


    1. こんにちは、Sora!
      Ex. 〜という表現があります。
      Ex. 〜という表現の意味は〜です。
      もし idiomという言い方にするならば慣用句
      to have a cowはことわざではないのでこの場合は使いませんが、proverbならば諺(ことわざ)を使います。

  97. could i ask a question?
    Is the following sentence correct? Xのものだったはずの帽子…
    why instead of はずだった is written だったはず ?
    I’m confused

  98. hello sensei, i found your grammar lesson on internet , and i have 1 question related to this blog post
    Hope you can explains to me what does this character mean ? いやー、乗ってきた。

    Context: MC is eating lunch at school together with his big sisters, at their class (they went to a same school, but his big sisters are 1 year older than him). Both of them want to feed MC with the side dishes from their bento box.

    Note: the 3rd big sister of MC is a class rep with serious + tsundere personality, while the 4th one is mischievous (like to tease other people)

    彰吾 (MC)「あ、あーん……むぐっ」

    三空 (3rd Big sister)「……ど、どうかしら」



    詩桜 (4th Big sister)「んっふふー、みーちゃん嬉しそうな顔しちゃって」








    三空「人をからかって楽しむんじゃありません! もう!」

    詩桜「いやー、乗ってきた。次は、これ行ってみよう、あーん」(>> I don’t understand this part)

    彰吾「えっ? は……んむっ!」




    1. Hello zeroh4nter

      In this case, 詩桜 has started to enjoy the way 三空 reacts. But I would just translate it as “This is getting better!” or something.

  99. I watched a video by Miku Real Japanese, but i am still a bit confused on the difference between “Mitaina” and “ttekanji” (and “mitainakanji”). She Said they are interchangeable, except you can use “ttekanji” to quotes what you just said, similar to “she was like…”in English. Could you maybe simply the differences and nuances of “mitaina”, “ttekanji”, and “Mitainakanji”?

    1. Are you talking about the usage when you finish the sentence with みたいな/ って感じ/みたいな感じ?
      They are all very conversational and not much difference.
      But let me give you one super conversational example.

      For example when you express your opinion, 「それは違うな」That is not true, That is wrong

      A) それは違うなって感じ
      B) それは違うなみたいな…
      C) それは違うなみたいな感じ

      They are all ambiguous expressions but the level of ambiguousness is

      That means みたいな is a softer way to express one’s opinion because you leave the sentence unfinished.
      C is a kind of combination of A and B

      But over all, it depends on the context and the speaker’s conversational habit.

  100. Hey Maggie Sensei,

    I was in the midst of translating Yotsuba! and came across this sentence
    The translation seems to be “This always happens, you don’t have to worry.” My question is, does it still directly translate to “even if you don’t worry,” or is the “いい” after implied and is this form common?

    Thank you.

    1. Hello Norbu

      It is pretty common to leave the sentence unfinished when you avoid straightforward expression or when it is something obvious.
      The whole sentence should be
      So you are right. They omitted the last part, いい (いいよ) and the translation is correct.

  101. Hi Maggie-sensei,

    Thank you very much as always.

    I have a question about the verb tetsudau 手伝う.
    If I want to say: Thank you very much helping me. I need to make sure to add -kurete.
    手 て 伝 つだ ってくれてありがとう ございます.
    Or another example:
    Thank you for teaching me Japanese.

    But if I was talking to someone about my husband and want to say “My husband helps me a lot with the chores around the house.”
    “My husband tries to help me and teach me Japanese when he has time.”
    How do I construct these sentences and do I still need to add kureru?

    Thank you so much.

    1. Hi Mini House
      You can express your appreciation with くれる
      So if you meant to say your husband did something “for you”, you use くれる
      “My husband helps me a lot with the chores around the house.”
      “My husband tries to help me and teach me Japanese when he has time.”

  102. Good night Maggie. I came across a sentence and didn’t understand a part of it. The sentence is as follows: 今度の台風では最悪の事態は避けられたにしても、被害は甚大だ。
    I didn’t understand the role of the で particle in this sentence.

    1. Hi Satorou

      で in that sentence means “in” (in this typhoon)
      By attaching は, you show the contrast. We could avoid the worst case in this typhoon (but maybe not in other typhoons (in the past or in the future)

  103. Hello,

    I’m trying to say “Even though I’ve studied for so long, I’m still not good at all.” Which one of these, if any, would be correct?

    1) こんな長い間を勉強をした対してに全く上手くならない。
    2) こんな長い間を勉強をしたのに対して全く上手くならない。

    Thank you.

    1. Hi Mila,

      In that case it will be more natural just to use のに
      ( 長い間”を”→長い間)

      For example if you compare two people and show the contrast, you can use 対して
      While A has been studying for a long time, A hasn’t studied at all.

  104. Hello Maggie!
    Your lessons are great as always, but I have a question about のに in the meaning of “would have… / could have…”
    Does the verb have to be in the casual (た) form of past tense or I can also use the polite form (い)ました+のに?
    For example:
    I think it would be better to point it out in the article, it might help someone else.

    1. Hello Bogdan

      Ah good question.
      You can use ました+ のに in formal conversation when you tell someone that you could have done something.

      If you have told me, I could have bought a ticket for you.

      I guess you can say 日本にいたら、チケットの数枚を買いましたのに。 for your own regret but
      日本にいたらチケットを数枚買ったのですが… might sound more natural.

  105. Hi Maggie-sensei.
    Sorry to bother you but I think there might be a problem with the comments on your website. For example, I left a comment on your latest lesson 2 days ago but I do not see my comment. I know that you replied to it because it said so in the “Recent comments” section but when I look I don’t see your reply either. When I look at Maggie’s Room, the latest post I can see is Mini House on May 19, but I know someone else made a post since then but I can’t see it either.

    It had been the case for a few weeks now. I checked on a different computer and on my phone and I can’t see it either. I’m wondering if something happened? I’m not sure if this message will be posted once I press submit or if I will see your reply but I wanted to let you know in case you know what is happening.

    1. Hello Luna

      Thank you for informing me about the commenting issues. It appears that there may be a glitch of some sort. The site has experienced some problems in the past few months, so it could be related to that. I apologize for any inconvenience caused. I hope you can read this comment.

      I tried something. Your comment should appear now. Let me know if it doesn’t.

  106. 日本語をもっと知りたいからには毎日勉強します。だからこそ、マギー先生のサイトに来ます。

    1. ありがとう Luna!!❤️

  107. Hello maggie sensei.
    Please can you tell me the difference between nichi and hi as i saw they can both mean “day”?thank you

    1. Hello Yenicall

      にち (= nichi) is a counter for days
      From 2 ~ 10 days you use the special counter (2 days = ふつか, 3 days みっか = mikka, etc) but after 11 days, you say number + にち ( = nichi)
      11にち ( 11 days)
      12にち ( 12 days)
      19にち ( 10 days)

      ひ (= hi) is used to refer to a day
      It is a nice day today
      = きょうはいいひです。
      = Kyou wa ii hi desu.
      (You can’t say にち= nichi)

  108. what is there are living things in an inanimate object? like if there are people on a cover of a magazine or animals in a photo. would you use いる or ある or some other verb?

  109. Hi Maggie-sensei,

    Thank you for all your wonderful lessons as always.
    I am struggling with a few phrases and jut wanted to check if they sound correct and natural in Japanese?

    The more Japanese I study, the more confused I get.

    Is your baby sleeping well?

    Our little baby really does not like wearing his shoes.

    I guess all children develop differently.

    1. Hello Mini House

      Missing a particle after 日本語
      Two possibilities
      日本語を (object marker) or if it is a topic 日本語は

      For conversation, you can say that. For writing add a particle

      3) 〜靴をはくのがきらいです。

      4) 子供の成長のしかたはみな違うと思います。

  110. 文法を学びたいのなら、マギー先生のサイトがいい!マギー先生じゃなきゃダメです。


    1. こんにちは Luna
      文法を学びたいのなら、マギー先生のサイトがいい!マギー先生じゃなきゃダメです。→完璧! 👏 (あと、「文法を学ぶなら〜」とも言えますよ。)


  111. Maggie-sensei,

    Is this sentence correct? I want to say: My name is House. I am very sorry I am late. I am here to pick up my daughter.


    And also, how do I say: “I would like to pick up my daughter earlier today at 1 PM.”

    Thank you very much.

    1. Hi Mini
      OK, let me help you.

      I would like to pick up my daughter earlier today at 1 PM.”

      1. Thank you so much for taking the time to reply to my questions, Maggie-sensei.
        That helped a lot – I very much appreciate it – thank you!

  112. Hello maggie sensei,
    Can you please tell me how the “masen ka” form used to make invitations should be translate? I get a little bit confused. For exemple in the following sentence: bangohan o tabemasen ka? I have seen some explanations telling it can be translated as “won’t you eat?” And some instead translating it as ” would you like to eat?”. What is the correct translation?
    Also what is the différence between “masen ka” and “mashou ka”? Thanks in advance

  113. 何度もコメントを乗せたけど自分のコメントが見えないんです。

    1. おかしいですね。コメントが出ないみたいなのでここに元の文章と私の返事をポストし直しますね。




      Far from being able to cook, she can’t even crack an egg.

      英語訳は being able to cook なのに?


      こんにちは ユキ (同じ質問が3つあったので2つは消しました。)

      「彼女は料理ができないどころか」の英語訳は “Far from” being able to cook なので Not just being able to cook という意味です。

    2. 原因がわかりました。
      最初のコメントは、コメントのずっと下の方にあるDECEMBER 26, 2018 AT 7:29 AM の私のコメントに対しての返事として書いたみたいです。
      サイトの右下のRecent comment からユキのコメントをクリックしてみてください。

  114. Hello maggie sensei,
    I am confused about the use and translation of “masen ka” when making an invitation. For exemple in the following sentence : bangohan o tabemasen ka? I’ve seen some translating it as won’t you eat? And some translating it as will you (like to) eat? What is the correct translation?
    Also can you tell me the difference between mashou, mashou ka and masen ka when used to make invitations? Thank you in advance

    1. Hello Yenicall
      OK, many people (especially when they have started to learn Japanese) seem to have a problem understanding the nuance difference between mashou, mashou ka masen ka, so I will make a lesson sometime.
      1) masen ka?

      Ex. Tabemasen ka? = It could be 1) You are not going to eat? or 2) Would you like to eat? (invitation) (invitation) depending on the context and the intonation.
      For example someone wouldn’t eat something, you ask これ、食べませんか? = Kore tabemasen ka? = You are not going to eat this?
      But if you offer some food to someone, you also say これ、食べませんか? = Kore tabemasen ka? = Would you like to eat this?

      2) mashou
      It means Let’s ~
      So imagine the food is already served in front of you and you tell someone at the table,
      So, Ex. さあ、食べましょう! =Saa, tabemashou! = Let’s eat.

      3) mashou ka?
      Again it changes the meaning depending on the context

      (1) Do you want me to do something for you?
      Ex. 手伝いましょうか? = Tetsudaimashou ka? = Do you need my help? / May I help you?

      (2) Shall we do ~ ?
      Ex. そろそろいきましょうか? = Sorosoro ikimashou ka? = Shall we go now? (But you may see the translation Let’s go)

  115. コメント乗せたいけど。。見えますか。。これ???

  116. Hello Maggie Sensei,

    I want to ask you about one word here,

    What is the meaning of 中途半端男

    If I say “A half hearted man” would it be correct.

    1. Hello ホットサンド
      Yes you can translate that.
      中途半端男 It refers to a man who lacks dedication to a task, or who does things in a half-hearted or incomplete way.

  117. Thank you for featuring my pets and thank you for the nice lesson! It made me smile. I hope you have a wonderful day!

  118. Good afternoon Maggie. I had some doubts about a phrase I found. The sentence is as follows: 発言の自由は政府支配の新しい触手によって年々むしばまれつつある。

    1 – What is the function of つつある?
    2 – Is 発言 only for written things? or just for spoken things?
    3 – What does むしばむ mean?
    4 – This word is not in the sentence, but I would like to know the meaning of: がっつく. I had a little trouble understanding.

    1. Hi Sora

      1. Verb+ つつある = (literal expression) be in the process of doing something (expressing the on-going change)
      2. 発言 is for spoken thing
      3. むしばむ = to erode (passive form) むしばまれる to be eroded  (To be affected by something negative)
      4. がっつく  = eating like a pig. It can be used to express someone greedy

      1. Thanks for the reply Maggie. But I was left with a doubt. What is the difference between Verb + ている and Verb + つつある.

        1. Hi Sora
          つつある focusing on the process of doing something (on-going change) towards completion. It is used in a formal speech or writing.

          Ex. 戦争が終わりつつある。The war is coming to an end

          If you just express what one is doing or the current state, you use ている
          Ex. テレビがついている = The TV is on. (current state/condition) →You can’t say テレビがつきつつある

          Ex. 手紙を書いている = I am writing a letter. (The action is happening right now and it focusing on the current action) →You can’t say 書きつつある

  119. Thank you so much!

    Would you know how to pronounce katakana when there is a vowel used instead of the nobasu?

    For example: ケアウホウ

    It is a name of a town/beach in hawaii

    In this case ホウ is used instead of ホー

    In these cases, would one pronounce the vowel? Like ホ・ウ (ho-u)

    Or still say it like ホー (hoo)

    1. Hello Kelly

      It depends on the word and it could be very different from the original sound.
      As you said, the original “ho” could be closer to ホー but ケアウホウ (Bay = 湾(わん)) is commonly used for the bay.
      The thing is you don’t always pronounce the Japanese vowels あいうえお/アイウエオ when they are combined with consonants

      Ex. ほうりつ (法律) houritsu = law ➡️Actual pronunciation is hōritsu (ō = stretching “o” sounds)

      1. I see! If I understand, even with ホウ the same rule applies and one would say this like hō (stretched)

        So even in katakana, generally whether a nobasu or vowel is used (ホー/ホウ) this just means the consonants are both being stretched. And it would be read as (hō).

        And whether it shows up with ー or ウ in the name is more just a written formality.

        Thanks just surprised me when I saw the vowel instead of the nobasu.
        As I usually see in katakana the nobasu used to imply stretching the vowel (ニューヨーク/フィジー)
        Likewise in hiragana the vowel is used instead as you say. (ほうりつ/りょこう)
        So when I saw ホウ instead of ホー I wasn’t sure if that had meant to pronounce the vowel! (笑)

        Thank you very much for your explanation! If not mistaken I think I got it now and was just overthinking it.

        1. So even in katakana, generally whether a nobasu or vowel is used (ホー/ホウ) this just means the consonants are both being stretched. And it would be read as (hō).
          →That’s right.

          So you know how to write katakana for the well-known things, places, countries, people’s names such as ニューヨーク、フィジー, ヨークシャ(ー), ドーナツ,etc. However if you hear uncommon names, it is very natural to get confused whether you stretch the vowel or use the vowels. :)

  120. Hi sensei

    1) Is the following sentence correct/natural?
    What is the difference betw と する and に する
    「貨物船」とは、貨物 を 輸送 する 船舶です。
    Kamotsusen is a vessel that carries cargo
    ライオン は にく を えさ と する。
    Lions feed on meat
    鯨くじら は プランクトン を えさ と する。
    Whales feed on plankton
    パンダ は ささ を えさ に する。
    Pandas feed on bamboo grass

    2) As for Hen is it pronounce as medori or mendori or ..,?
    ( google translate = mesudori )
    雄鶏 おんどり Rooster
    雌鶏 めんどり Hen


    1. Hi soleyman
      1) You can say both えさとする and えさにする
      にする is more conversational and とする is more formal.

      2) 雌鶏 can be read めどり or めんどり. (Originally めどり but I would say it is more common to say めんどり in conversation.)

  121. Good morning Maggie. I would like her help to understand the following sentence: 泥棒は盗むのが商売 、たとえそれが人の心だとしてもね。

    I understand the たとえ~ても structure, but why use とする?

    1. Hi Berserk

      たとえ〜ても and たとえ〜としても mean the same. としても  emphasizes hypothetical situation more.

  122. Thanks for the lesson!

    In these sentences:

    Why is it しないで and not しなくて ? It’s not telling someone not to do something, it’s talking about yourself so I’m confused.

    1. Hi Luna
      ないで in these two sentences belong to the usage
      2) to do something without doing something 

      to spend the time without doing anything
      to play the game without sleeping

      Verb B ないでVerb A = to do A (main action) without doing B

      If you give a reason or list up a couple of actions, you can use なくて

      お金がなくて困った = I got troubled because I didn’t have money.

  123. Good night Maggie. I would like to know what to put after 精神 in this sentence (が?は?を?): チベットの苦痛に耐えるのは不可能ですがチベットの人々のあがないの精神 見守るべきものです。

    1. (Sorry the first part of my previous message was missing so it could be confusing.)
      Let me answer again.

  124. Hi Maggie sensei.

    I was wondering why in the following sentnce it was used 何 instead of 何も to express everything is delicious (anything is delicious):

    I’m a bit confused.
    Thanks in advance.

    1. Hi Evon
      何も is used in a negative sentence.
      何も美味しくない Nothing is delicious.

      何 in that sentence is actually an object so you use an object marker を
      何を食べますか? What would you like to eat?
      魚を食べます I will have fish.


      何を〜ても is a sentence pattern and it means “whatever you do ~ = everything one does ~ is ~ ”
      何をしても面白い Whatever someone does is funny = Everything someone does is funny
      何を読んでもつまらない Whatever I read is boring. = Everything I read is boring.

      If you want to say this sentence without a verb, you can use 何でも

  125. Hello maggie. I found this sentence: 中止命令に従わない場合は、5万円以下の罰金が科せられます。

    The translation read: In case of non-compliance with the suspension order, a fine of up to 50,000 yen will be imposed.

    I would like to know why 科せられます is in potential form and not just passive and negative.

    1. Hello Leonardo

      科せられます is a passive form.
      The basic form is 科す or 科する
      The passive form is either 科される or 科せられる

  126. Hi there,
    There is an anime is currently airing, its name is “推しの子 (Oshi no Ko)” and I translated it as “kid of my favorite idol” cuz the anime is about an idol named “Hoshino Ai”. But someone says it’s not true as it may be translated to one of those:
    – the kid you support
    – the kid who is a fan
    – or the child of a fan
    which is correct?
    thank you.

    1. Hi Katsu

      Ah OK, it could be confusing because the literal meaning of the title can be “the kid you support” ( = the idol herself = “My favorite idol” ) but if the story is about the child whose mother is your favorite idol then your translation is right.
      kid of my fav/ a child of my fav.

      If you are focusing the idol herself you can still say 推しの子 so “My favorite idol” works.

      I read the story but it is complicated, huh? The main character reincarnated as a child of his favorite idol.

      The following two have different meanings
      the kid who is a fan = ファンの子 ( A child who is your fan)
      the child of a fan = ファンの子 (A child of your fan)

      1. Ah, yeah, the story is kinda complicated but worth watching. I think it’s gloomy somewhat.
        Anyway, thanks for your replay, it really helps :).

  127. Hi everyone! Sorry that the site has been down and some of your recent comments were gone. I think I answered all your questions but if you haven’t read them yet, please ask me the questions again. I’ll be happy to answer your questions. Have a great weekend! いい週末を!🐶

    1. Welcome back!

      I had a question about the word 感じ, and I saw your answer. I learned something very interesting from your answer. First, this is what you said:

      そうですね、感じは、気持ちだけではなく、会話で「〜という感じ /(説明)+ こんな感じ」を加えることで直接的な言い方を和らげる時にも使います。
      この二つの文章をつなげてみると一領域につき5回各6分露出で写真を撮影して30分(A) という感じで時間の許す限り観測を繰り返します。


      The reason why I asked you to reply in Japanese is that I want to stop learning Japanese by using English. I am trying to connect Japanese language direct to the world and direct to my own thoughts/impressions etc., without English getting in the way.

      This is where the 「直接的な言い方を和らげる」 is important. In fact, a scientist was explaining a procedure to some students. I forgot to take that into account. In trying to make sense of what he said, I was putting myself in the position of the listener, and that was my mistake. When I put myself in the position of the scientist, talking to students, then I got closer to what I would be thinking/feeling (感じ?!) in that situation. When I did that, then the purpose of 「こんな感じで」starts to make more sense at a more intuitive level .. without the English translation.

      I think that answers your last question?

  128. Good afternoon Maggie. I found the following sentence and had difficulty getting a part of it and would like your help if possible.

    The sentence is as follows: それは氷のような砂糖菓子。


    I can’t understand the part: 痺れゆく. Can you explain to me?

    1. Hi Matheus
      痺れゆく  is a written language and it means 痺れていく going numb
      (ていく→ゆく) expresses the change, getting, going, becoming ~

    1. Hi Mark
      Yes, んですか? could have an accusing tone or emphasize your surprised feelings.
      Ex. 違いますか?

      (んあんですか→???I think it’s a typo )

    1. No problem, Luna!
      Yes, you can use 距離 in that context. 長距離(長い距離を)走る = to run a  long distance
      FYI 隔たり is often use to express a gap/difference
      There is a wide gap in the opinions between the those two.

  129. Thanks for the lesson!
    Does this sound ok:

    警察に犯人の名前を出された。The police made me reveal the name of the culprit.

    毎週、プールで長い隔たりを泳がされる。Every week, I am made to swim a long distance at the pool (by a teacher)

    1. HI LUN

      1) 出された→言わされた is more natural (made my say)
      2) 先生に、毎週プールで長距離(を)泳がされる

  130. Hi! Maggie sensei, I’m wondering about this sentence…..
    会いたかった なあ Does this mean “I’ve been wanting to meet you for long time”? and still looking forward to see you, right? Also what is the meaning of なあ? Someone told me that it’s like to show strong feeling of really wanted to meet. Is it? or actually it’s just suffix of the sentence, no emotional.

    1. Hi Luck
      会いたかったなあ I wish I could have seen you/him/her/them.
      So you wanted to see someone but you missed the chance/you couldn’t.
      By attaching な/なあ you can add the feelings (in this case regret)
      Please check my lesson on な/なあ. Link is this

  131. Good night Maggie. I came across a sentence and would like to know if it is grammatically correct. The sentence is as follows: 私はこの怪物の弱点をついに見つけました。その神経もいつも以上に高ぶっております。

  132. Hello Maggie-sensei!
    I have a simple question. If my dog is 7 years old, I can say 犬は七歳です, right? But what if my dog is only 7 months old? Do I say 犬は七月歳です?

    1. こんにちは、Luna

      7 months old is just 7ヶ月
      You can also add 生後=せいご before 7ヶ月

  133. サイトの修理のため、1週間前のメッセージが消えてしまいました。全てのメッセージに返事を出しましてがもし読んでいなかったらまたいつでもメッセージを入れてくださいね。

  134. Is the (noun)し(verb) construction common? I’ve come across the phrase 愛し創り上げる, which contextually I’m assuming means “lovingly create”/”create with love”, but I’m a bit confused about the grammar here.

    1. Hello FXJ

      It is hard to tell you by just the phrase without knowing the context but
      愛し(あいし) in that sentence means “愛して” love (something/someone) and create ~

      I think you know connecting verbs with te-form but you can also connect the verb with masu-stem
      愛します→(masu-stem) delete ます 愛し
      So it happened to be “し” but if it is a different verb, for example
      食べて寝る = eat and sleep
      食べ寝る (the masu-stem of 食べます is 食べ)

      FYI I have a lesson on this usage

  135. Hi Maggie, What is the difference between 角かど and 角かく ?
    Got the following example sentences from websites; all of them is かど right??
    とおり の 角 に たって いた。
    I stood at the corner of the street
    角 に おおきな 目印 が あります。
    There is a big sign at the corner
    角 で ひだり に 曲まがる。
    Turn left at the corner
    すいぎゅう は おおきな 角 を もって いる。
    Buffaloes have big horns
    すぐ 角、あかい の みせ です。
    It’s the red shop just at the corner

    Thank you せんせい
    ps google translate it as tsuno

    1. Hi soleyman!

      角 = かど = corner
      角 = つの = horn

      So from your example sentence only
      すいぎゅう は おおきな 角 を もって いる。
      Buffaloes have big horns
      is ”つの = horn”

      すぐ 角、あかい の みせ です。 →I think it missing の (すぐ角のあかいみせです。)

  136. ハロー、マギー先生!

    Do you know if there is a difference between using に and で with the verb 保存する?
    I would’ve guessed で、 but when I looked up native example sentences on Weblio, I saw examples using both に and で!
    例  ファイルをディスクに保存する。

    I can understand why に would be used. に often implies a destination or directionality. Basically, 「ディスクに保存する」implies that the disk is the destination of the file, or that the file is being moved to the disk in order to save it.

    But で also makes sense, as it marks the location of an action such as in a 冷暗ところ。

    Does this mean that both of these particles are interchangeable, and I can use either one?
    Can 「冷暗所で保存して下さい」 also be 「冷暗所に保存して下さい」?

    If so, is there a difference in nuance? For example, do these two sentences
    mean the exact same thing?


    1. Hi Sora

      Good. You figure out the function of に.
      You can use them both. The difference is
      に implies the object you put in 冷暗所 is somewhere else but you move it/them into the cold and dark place (ex. refrigerator)
      And you use で when you indicate the place where you keep/conserve something.

      画像をスマホに保存 (the file was somewhere else or even in the same cellphone, from where the pictures are to the file in the cellphone)
      画像をスマホで保存 (You save the pictures “with” (tool) your cellphone.)

      1. なるほど!とても分かりやすい説明です!

  137. Hello sensei,

    i must admit i forget the basic counting in japanese, can you please check whether it is right or not?


      1. hello sensei

        so in here you cannot use another form? you cannot use 個? i hear that 個 can be used to anything.

        1. You can not use 個 with everything.
          You use it with small items and if it is something small but is obviously long, you use 本
          So 鉛筆一個, 箸一個、車一個 are not natural.

  138. Hello Sensei,

    Thank you as always

    Can you please check this sentence?

    I see how He is an inspiration to you. Your mindset towards life are really similar with him.

    1. Hello ビーフレンダン

      霊感 is something more spiritual (Ex. being psychic)
      How about 彼がどれだけあなたに刺激を与えているのか (or 刺激を与える存在なのか) わかります。
      We just say インスピレーション as well.


      The second sentence is fine but I would change よく酷似 (よく & 酷似 are redundant) to よく似ています。

      1. Hello sensei,

        i agree with you and want to add some point.

        if i change 霊感 with 触発 will it be correct ?


        1. Yes, it sounds more literal but you can say 触発
          But I would say あなたが彼に触発された (or if it is still going on →されている)ことがわかります。

  139. Sorry Maggie. I forgot to put the phrase. The phrase is this: ガキはガキらしくよ、ニカーッと笑っていこうや。

  140. Good night Maggie teacher

    I would like to clear up some doubts regarding the following sentence:

    Why is らしく in adverbial form? and why is よ in the middle of the sentence and not at the end? What is the function of the や at the end of the sentence?

    1. This is a rough male speech
      1) It is similar to さ・さあ (子供は子供らしくさあ) →rough ガキはガキらしくよ・よう

      2) The last や is another rough way to say よ (→This よ is to encourage someone to do something. It is not rough like the one in 1).
      笑っていこうよ →(rough) 笑っていこうよ

  141. マギー先生、こんにちは!

    1. こんにちは ルナ

      日本の今ですか? コロナはまだありますが、他の国と同じぐらい安全だと思います。

  142. Good morning Maggie, I found a phrase and would like to understand something.

    The sentence is as follows: あれもこれも、色々と興味深いものが目の前に現れる。

    I would like to know the role of と (after 色々) in this sentence?

  143. Hello Maggie-sensei.
    Could you tell me what じゃんじゃんやっちゃう means?
    I see じゃんじゃん means continuously, but I’m not sure what this expression means.

    1. Hi Miki
      じゃんじゃん is onomatopoeia to express doing something heavily, vigorously, keep doing something a lot.
      じゃんじゃんやっちゃう = Keep doing something more and more
      じゃんじゃん飲んで = Keep drinking a lot!

  144. Hello Sensei,

    My previous post got deleted by the maintenance

    I need your help to check the sentence

    My locker is far away from my English classes. That is the reason why I carry all my books with me. Is it going to rain hard or just a drizzle?

    1. Hi Alex

      Sorry. I answered your question but the message was gone.

      →OK (Or 大雨(土砂降り)になるのか 〜)

  145. Good night Maggie. I came across a sentence and would like to know if it is right.

    The phrase is this: 私たちはこれまで明日のことを皆はなしてきたから、さて、現実に戻って、今日のことを話そう

    I had doubts if the kanji 皆 should be removed or if it is fulfilling some function

    1. Hello i will answer on maggie sensei behalf.

      it has function as adverb, it can mean
      1. everyone 2. All

      just translate it one by one

      Because we all have talked the matter about tomorrow until now,
      for now, let’s go back to reality and talk about today

      in sentence one you can see i translate 皆 as “all” and 私たち as “we”

  146. Hi Sensei !

    Thank you so much for everything you do for us, I’m studying and hope I’ll pass the JLPT this year and your website is so useful, I feel so grateful for everything you put here!
    Best regards from France !

    1. Hi Magou

      Thank YOU for your kind message.

  147. So… shorter form ため is more formal than ために, right? But can I use both forms in ALL examples above? How big is the difference between formal and less formal version? Will I sound weird if I use only ため in informal situation or conversely?

    1. Hello Krystian

      As I wrote in this lesson you san use either ため or ために in the examples of the usage 2) Expressing a reason/cause
      If you are writing to your friends, ため is just fine but in conversation, it might sound slightly unnatural.

      渋滞のため、着くのが遅くなりそうです。(formal conversation/ writing (formal and informal) )

  148. Hello, maggie sensei

    thank you as always.

    If the illustration is not really good I will not pay the fee.

    1. Hi ビーフレンダン


      〜限りは、 as long asという意味になります。

      FYI さっと quickly / ざっと = roughly

  149. Hello, Maggie.

    Japanese has been an interest of mine for some time and while some may suspect it is my interest in Japanese media, like anime and manga, which sparked my interest. Such interests came later to me in life while my interest in the language was pre-existing.

    It wasn’t until an old friend of mine suggested an educational video game series called “Learn Japanese to Survive” that I really started picking up the basics of the language and encouraged me to practice outside of the game. Now I feel like I have all of the Hiragana characters memories though my Katakana and Kanji could use some work. Though I am able to recognize some Kanji characters as well.

    Besides Japanese, I’ve also enrolled in a beginner’s Spanish course as well so I feel confident that I could potentially read and write in that language at an early early level too. However, when it comes to speaking and hearing, as well as writing or reading for the case of Japanese, I feel slow.

    It took me awhile before I feel like I could say I achieved mastery in the English language, my native tongue, and even then I still am prone to forgetfulness of certain grammar rules. Like those matter anymore in English speaking countries. lol The reason I believe for my difficulties in learning English and other languages like Spanish and Japanese is because I was a special needs student. I am a slow learner. So I guess I am writing this message to you to ask… do you know anyone willing to work with me in one-on-one sessions until I could attend a fluent level? I don’t have much money so my budget is limited, but I would forever be appreciative of you if you could point me in the direction of someone who could help teach me.


    1. Hi Aliyah
      It is a great idea to work on your speaking and taking a class on line. That way you can improve your Japanese. There are many Japanese on-line schools. Google “On line Japanese lesson”. The price is not that expensive, I believe. I hope it fits your budget.
      And if you still can’t find a good teacher, write to me
      through an email on the following page.

  150. Hi Maggie-sensei! I thought this lesson was a bit difficult! Is it right to say that you would use てある only if you are currently seeing/experiencing the subject? For example, if I say: 壁にポスターが飾ってある,then I am probably looking at the poster on the wall right now. If the poster was in a different house, I would probably say 飾っている , right?

    Another question, I sometimes hear ておる/ております Is it something completely different?

    1. Hello ルナ
      Maybe the English translation might have confused you for the example sentence.
      Even if you are not looking at the poster right now, you can still describe the wall, 飾ってある

      Here’s the difference
      Ex. 壁にポスターが飾ってある (Describing the current state of the wall. Someone put the poster on the wall in the past and you are looking at the result.)
      Ex. 壁にポスターを飾っている (The subject is a person (or a store) Someone is putting the poster on the wall (either right now or routine work, they usually put the poster on the wall.)

      ておる is a humble expression of Vている

      Ex. 鍵を預かっています。 ( We keep your key.)

      1. Thank you for explaining. It is a difficult concept for me. Is this correct:

        猫カフェで、たくさん猫を見ていた > Focuses on me who saw cats at the cafe.

        猫カフェで、たくさん猫を見てあった > Focuses on the cats that I was able to see by going to the cafe.

        1. Hi ルナ again
          猫カフェで、たくさん猫を見ていた > Focuses on me who saw cats at the cafe.
          →Right. The speaker was looking at many cats.

          猫カフェで、たくさん猫を見てあった > Focuses on the cats that I was able to see by going to the cafe.
          →This sentence is not correct.
          For example if someone who works there placed lots of toys for cats for the customers and the cats ahead of time and you describe the state, you can say

          1. Ok. Would you say that てある is mostly used to describe inanimate objects?

            Would this be correct: 猫を撫でてので、服に毛が付けってある

            I’m sorry for so many questions D:

          2. In that case you say

            As I wrote in the lesson, you intentionally do something and leave it
            For example if you are looking at the clothes and there is a name tag on it (someone put the name tag on it and leave it for some reason) you say

  151. こんにちは、マギー先生

    1. 「雨が降りそうな天気」と「雨が降りだしそうな天気」、両方の言い方があるのですがどう違いますか


    1. こんにちはビーフレンダン



      (1) 雨が降りそうな天気
      (2) 雨が降りだしそうな天気

      So if you looking up the sky and it is cloudy, you say (1) but you won’t probably say (2)
      If you see the sky is getting really dark and it looks like it’s gonna rain any minute, you say (2) because 降り出す has a meaning of “It is about to rain”

      (3) 「街灯にぶつかりそうになった女性」
      (4) 「街灯にぶつかりそうになる女性」

      If you are describing what has just happened more vividly, I would say (3) is more natural.

  152. マギー先生のレッスンはいつも私に元気を出されます。

    1. ルナ
      (Note for you: 元気をくれます・元気にしてくれます)

      1. Thank you.
        When you want to cheer up someone, you say 元気を出して、so if I wanted to say you make the “genki” come out of me, it’s still wrong to say 元気を出されます ?

        1. 出される is a passive form so you can’t use it in this case.
          Though 元気にしてくれる/元気をくれる are much more natural, if you want to use the causative form
          出される should be 出させる

  153. Hello sensei, Thank you as always

    can i ask you about something i don’t really understand in this sentence?

    人手不足や気候変動など日本企業の経営のリスク開示 (3面きょうのことば)が海外勢に比べ遅れている。

    What i don’t understand

    1. 3面きょうのことば
    2. 海外勢の勢の意味?


    1. Hi, ビーフレンダン

      1. The newspaper has several pages. The front page is called 一面 and 3面 technically means “the third page” but it refers to the social news page.
      So you probably got the article from 日経新聞 but it refers to the section called きょうのことば where they explained a trend word of the day on the third page.

      2. 勢 means “companies, entities, group” so 海外勢 means “foreign companies” in this context.

      1. 先生すごい



  154. Hello! About this sentence:

    I asked a similar question the other day, but I’m still confused about the use of きた in sentences such as these. Why is it わからなくなってきた and not わからなくなった or わからなくなっていた?

    1. Hi ルナ
      Yes you can say わからなくなった/わからなくなっていた
      but the nuance changes. The English translation could be the same so let me explain the difference.
      1)わからなくなってきた Focusing on the moment when she is speaking.
      Describing the change from the certain moment in the past to the present moment. She thought he had liked her but she is getting confused and losing the confidence.
      The change is happening now.

      2) わからなくなった   I don’t know his feelings anymore.
      English translation is “present tense” but she’s already done defying her feelings.

      3) わからくなっていた is describing the state (not the change) in the past.

      So again, you can use all of them but it depends on how you want to express it. (focusing on the change from the past up to now, the change in the past, the state on the present moment, etc.)

      I have a lesson on
      ていく  てくる So please check the lesson when you have time.
      Link: Click here

  155. Hi! I have a question regarding this sentence:

    What is the function of きた here? What is the difference from:
    子供の頃から娘には好きなことをさせた ?

    1. Hi ルナ

      させた I let my daughter do whatever she wanted. (Talking about the specific time in the past.
      させてきた is I have been letting my daughter. (Expressing the duration of time from some time in the past up to the moment when they are talking.)

  156. Hello sensei, thank a always

    I wonder how you say “Japanese Native Resident”



    1. こんにちは Beef Rendang


      在日+ Nationality + 人 (Ex.在日

      1. いつもありがとうございます。本当にたすかりました。感謝いたします。

  157. Hi Maggie-sensei,

    I have a question sort of related to shopping, but hard to categorise.

    I left a clothes shop the other day and as I was exiting, the alarm went off.
    I waited politely for someone to come and check, but I didn’t know how to say:
    “Your store alarms went off.’
    “I am not sure why… but your store alarms went off?”

    Thank you so much!

    1. Hi Mini

      When you want to tell them the alarm goes off even though you paid
      = Sumimasen. Alarm ga nattan desu ga…
      = Excuse me. The alarm went off..

      You can add
      = Kono mama dete mo ii desu ka?
      = Can I just leave?

    1. こんにちはルナ!
      やっぱりピカチュウが好きです💕 イーブイもかわいいです。

      1. そうですか!:)

        1. ウパーもかわいい〜〜💕

  158. Good night Maggie. I have doubts about two sentences and I would like you to answer these doubts.

    The first sentence is: アラビア語を独習したいのですが良い参考書を教えてください。I would like to know the が function in this sentence.

    The second sentence is: 台湾はグルメも良し、観光も良し、ショッピングも良しと、魅力たっぷりの観光地だ。I would like to know the function of と in this sentence.

    1. Hi Mutuio

      1) が has many different functions but this が is just to connect the sentence. “so”/”and”
      You often leave the sentence with が without finishing it.
      Vたいのですが + (what should I do/Do you have any advice?/ Can you help me?, etc.)

      2) と in that sentence is to give examples and quote them.
      I think you know the pattern AというB B which is A
      You sometimes omit という/といった

  159. Hi, Maggie-sensei! I love your posts very-very much, thank you for your work!

    My question is about this example: 彼女はまだ20歳にはなっていないはずだ
    I didn’t know we can use wa twice in one sentence – it’s like we have two topics of the sentence. Could you elaborate on that please? Are there any tips/rules for using wa multiple times in a sentence?

    doumo :3

    1. Hello Valery

      You are right. You tend to avoid using the same particle because repeating the same particle may look/sound confusing.
      You can say
      彼女はまだ20歳になっていないはずだ as well but the nuance changes a little.

      彼女は this は is a topic marker
      20歳には→ this は is to show the contrast. (showing the contrast of 20 years old and other ages. For example, maybe she is close to 20, like 19 years old but not she hasn’t turned 20 yet.)

      So even if there are two は, it won’t be confusing.

      I will show you another example.
      = This company offers good salary but gave us a lot of work.

  160. Hello sensei,

    Thanks as always

    can i ask you what is the meaning (まんざら)


    tried dictionary but nothing make sense.

    1. Hi Beef Rendang

      まんざらでもない is a vague Japanese expression and it means “not so bad/ not totally bad and actually something is good” ./someone seems kind of satisfied or happy with something.

      I don’t know the situation but
      It seems like the girl’s outfits are not so bad.or The person who is wearing girl’s outfits seems to like wearing them.

      1. Ah, thank you much sensei

        The reason i got confused is because in some site i found an explanation that say まんざら=必ずしも。

        The scene is the tomboy girl is trying the dress, She is usually using boy clothes and when she tried to try skirt, She said to herself (女の子の服もまんざらじゃなさそうだし)


        1. まんざら is not exactly the same as 必ずしも.
          You often use まんざらじゃない/ まんざらでもない in the situation like you expect someone would be unhappy with something but actually they actually kind of like it.
          So in your example sentence, you assume the girl would hate that skirt because she was complaining or she usually hates wearing a skirt.
          But once she puts it on, she looks rather happy with it. Though she is not saying anything, you can see she is thinking “Hey, this is not that bad. I actually like it.”

  161. Maggie-sensei,

    Happy New Year! 今年もよろしくお願いします。

    I find your blog extremely helpful and one of the most useful out there. Thank you for all your work and effort.
    I wondered if you could create a lesson on
    こじんめんだん at Japanese kindergartens. It’s something that I am really struggling with.

    Any phrases/vocabulary similar to the below would be super appreciated!
    *My child has been toilet-trained.
    *She goes to the potty by herself at home, but cannot go by herself outside the house.
    *She speaks English at home and can only say a few single Japanese words.
    *How is she doing at school.
    *Ways to talk about one’s child: She is stubborn/independent/sociable/scared of strangers/quiet/very active at home.
    *She holds food in her mouth./ I am worried about choking hazards.
    and so on.

    Thank you so much.

    1. Hi Mini

      I’m happy to hear you find this site useful.
      OK, let me help you.

      *My child has been toilet-trained.
      = Uchi no ko wa toire no shitsuke ga dekite imasu./ omutsu ga toremashita.

      *She goes to the potty by herself at home, but cannot go by herself outside the house.
      Ie dewa hitori de toire ni ikemaseuga, ie no soto dewa hitori de ikemasen.

      *She speaks English at home and can only say a few single Japanese words.

      家では英語を話していますので1) 日本語は一言、二言しか話しません。/ 2) 日本語はほとんど話せません。(2) She barely speaks Japanese.)
      = Iedewa eigo wo shnashite imasu node 1) nihongo wa hitokoto futakoto shika hanasemasen / 2) Nihongo ưa Hotondo hanasemasen .

      *How is she doing at school?

      = Musume wa youchien de wa donna kanji desu ka? / Chanto yatte imasu ka?

      *Ways to talk about one’s child: 1) She is stubborn/2) independent/3) sociable/4 ) scared of strangers/ 5) quiet/ 6) very active at home.

      1) (娘は)頑固(がんこ)です。/ 2) 自立心があります。/ 3) 人懐っこいです。/ 人見知りしません/ 4) 人見知りをします 5) 大人しいです/ 6) 家ではとても活発です。
      =1) (Musume wa) ganko desu./ 2) Jiritsushin ga arimasu. /3) Hitonatsukkoi desu. / Hitomishiri shimasen ./ 4) Hitomishiri wo shimasu 5) Otonashii desu 6) Ie de wa totemo kappatsu desu

      *She holds food in her mouth./ I am worried about choking hazards.
      and so on.

      = Kuchi no naka ni tabemono wo iremasu / Nodo ni tsukaenai ka shinpai desu. (Or Chissoku shinai ka shinpai desu)

  162. Hello,

    What should I answer to this message?



    1. Hi Topaz
      So this person followed you first and you follow him/her back, right?
      Did you say thank you for following before? If not, you can say
      こちらこそフォローありがとうございます。And you can continue これからもよろしくお願いします。

    2. Maggie-sensei,
      Thank you so much for taking the time to reply.
      This is very helpful.
      Huge fan of your blog – thank you!

  163. Hello! I have a question about one grammar aspect, because my 先生 told me one thing and my workbook keeps mistaking those two (well, maybe the workbook is wrong)
    「思っていたより」と 「期待していたより」の違いはなんですか。
    先生 told me that 「思っていたより」is used when the outcome is better than expected, for example このケーキは思っていたよりおいしかった。 (You expected it to taste bad)
    And 「期待していたより」is used when the outcome is worse than you expected, for example 試験の点数は期待していたより悪かった。

    Is this right? Because when I searched in the internet, the opinions vary a lot and I don’t know anymore :((

    1. Hi Alioth

      Very good questions.
      思う = to think
      期待する = to expect
      And they both can be translated “to think” but 期待する means “to hope” and it is used for something one is looking forward to.
      So your teacher is right. The outcome should be good when you use 期待したより ~
      You can say このケーキは思っていたよりおいしかった/おいしくなかった。 but it sound unnatural to say このケーキは期待していたよりおいしかった。
      If it is a negative sentence, you can say

      I will give you other verbs that are often used in this pattern.
      予想する = to fore
      想像する= imagine
      考える = to think (logically)

      Among these verbs, only 期待する is used is used when the outcome is good.

  164. 新年明けましておめでとうマギー先生!

    No matter how many years pass, I always find myself visiting and revisiting your blog posts😂 Your quality is unrivaled.

    I have a vocab question: how do you say the word “interchangeable” in Japanese?
     ”Jealous” and “envious” mean the exact same thing. They are interchangeable. 
     ”Wanna” is interchangeable with “want to,” with the former being more casual.

    I typically wouldn’t want to bother you with words I can just look up in the dictionary, but I just can’t seem to find it.

    On jisho, 「同意語」and 「同義語」show up, but being interchangeable is a bit different from being synonyms. For example, “while” and “during” are synonyms, but they aren’t interchangeable.
     While I was sleeping, an earthquake happened.
     During I was sleeping, an earthquake happened. ❌

    The word that always comes up on DeepL is 「互換性」
     ”Wanna “は “want to “と互換性があります。
    However, when I look up example sentences, it’s used with computers and devices and is translated as “compatible.”

    Thank you as always!

    1. Hi Sora

      I’m happy to hear you have been visiting this site for many years. :)

      OK, the most common way to say “A and B are interchangeable” in Japanese is

      (You also say 置き換えることができる)

  165. Hello Maggie Sensei, Happy New Year and Wish you be Blessed with Good Health and Fortune

    This the first question on this year.

    1. What is the meaning of 僻む(ひがむ)
    2. What is the meaning of 振り回す in the sentence (彼女はいつも友達に振り回されていてイライラする)
    3. Are they have a same meaning : 取り繕う・決め込む・偽装

    Thank you very much

    1. Happy New Year! 明けましておめでとうございます! いい年になりますように🙏

      1. to have an inferiority complex feeling jealous of someone.

      2. 振り回す to involve someone into something for one’s own convenience in a selfish manner.
      For example, her friend says, “Let’s go out tomorrow and do something.” And though you were busy you arranged your schedule to go out with her. Then she said she changed her mind and she doesn’t want to go out anymore. So you rearrange your schedule. Then she said you should meet her somewhere instead. In this kind of situation you are 振り回されている.

      3. No, they are different.
      取り繕う to mend something/keep up with lies
      決め込む persist in doing something/make up one’s mind
      偽装 disguise


      1. sensei thank to explain in detailed manner. 改めてあけましておめでとうございます。

  166. みなさん、明けましておめでとうございます!
    Happy New Year, everyone! 🐶

  167. Hello Maggie sensei! I was reading a book and came across this sentence: “ぼうっと、その場に立ちすくんだ” and I can’t figure out what the use of んだ is for here! I hope you can help me understand.

    1. Hi 暇!
      OK, the main verb is 立ちすくむ and the past tense is 立ちすくんだ.
      (The verb which ends with む →(the past tense) んだ. Ex. 産む(うむ)→産んだ)

  168. Hi, Maggie!
    First of all, thank you very much for the lesson. It was incredibly helpful. ^^

    About にしては, apart from what it was explained in the lesson, my textbook says it can also appear in the form それにしては. However, I’m having a hard time trying to find helpful examples taken from real and daily-life Japanese that show me how is それにしては used. The very few ones I could find were kind of stiff sentences that, although they show the idea of the meaning of それにしては at some extent, they were a bit artificial. So, if you could please give me some examples of how それにしては is used in daily life, I’d appreciate a lot.

    Anyway, thanks a lot again for the lesson!

    1. Hi Natalie

      First, thank you for your kind message.

      You state something first. (Or someone states something)

      You use それにしては ( = even so, in spite of, although) when you hear/see something is different from your expectation.

      The speaker thinks there are fewer people on weekdays
      →Though it’s a weekday, there are unexpectedly many people today.

      The speaker had expected lower electric bill because they have been saving electricity.
      I have been trying to save electricity but still electric bill is high.

      A: 「👨のうちはお金持ちなんだって」
      = I heard 👨’s family is rich.
      B: 「それにしては毎日、コンビニで安いパンばかり買っているよ。」
      = But he buys cheap bread at a convenience store every day.

      B thinks if 👨 is rich, he wouldn’t buy cheap bread every day at a convenience store. (Different from B’s expectation)

      A: 「一度も海外に行ったことがありません。」
      = I have never been abroad

      B: 「それにしては英語がうまいね。」
      = But your English is great.

      B thinks if A has never been abroad, A’s English skill is so-so.

      1. Hi again, Maggie!

        Thank you very much for answering me and for your examples and explanations! They have been super helpful in order to understand better the usage of それにしては. ^^

        I appreciate a lot your help. 😊

  169. からって・からといってとと言ってもはどう違いますか

    1. からって is a casual way to say からといって so they mean the same.

      理由を強調 (Emphasizing the reason)
      Just because, it doesn’t mean ~

      Though ~, it doesn’t mean ~ (the reality is different)


  170. I’m confused to this sentence translation.
    ” 結婚するなら絶対にお金持ちというわけではない。
    It is not necessarily true that I would only marry a rich man. ” I get it as “It is not needed to be rich when getting married” . How about this 僕は絶対にお金持ちと結婚するとういわけではない。

  171. And also. Just right now saw this phrase
    I was watching the video about grammar:)
    In videos like that there are a lot ていく

  172. Hi, Maggie, thank you!!
    I have one question.
    I sometimes see it in different videos. For example, a girl comes to the cafe, and orders food. She shows what she orders, for example, a cake. Then says about this cake “食べていきます”. What kind of idea of ていく is that?

    Also, i often hear something like 説明していきます、見ていきます in the situations like the above one.
    what does it mean?

    1. Hello July

      食べていきます = I will eat (and leave the restaurant)
      It implies the speaker goes somewhere after they eat.
      So you can’t use this expression when you eat at home.

      In this case, it doesn’t imply any movement.
      You use ていきます when you express the process of explaining/seeing something.
      If you just say 説明します/見ます, it could be just one time action.
      By using Vていきます, you can express what you are going to do (for a certain period of time).

    1. こんにちは、ルナ
      的と上の使い方は違いますが、(健康上の理由 (x健康的な理由), 健康的な生活 ( X 健康上の生活))
      理論上は、可能だ。 = 理論的には可能だ。 = It is possible in theory/Theoretically possible
      技術上、難しい =  技術的に難しい Technically difficult
      技術上の問題 = 技術的な問題 = Technical problem

  173. Hello Maggie Sensei,

    Finally, I can again visit Japan. Since my first visit there has been a question that I have been wondering about. How would a Japanese person ask for their room key?

    I knew only about 73 Japanese words (and numbers) on my first trip. I asked reception how to ask for my key and was told that just saying the room number was OK. So, 363 = san roku san. And, yes, it worked. I always got my room key. In one case, in Kansai, the receptionist replied to “363” with “363で”.

    I want to do better this time. I notice that you use 号室. So, it would be better to say:

    363号室おねがいします, or

    Using overly polite language (in any language) sometimes creates complications for me, but would
    “363号室のかぎ呉れてもらえますおねがいします” be OK? That’s not something I would want to say 3 times a day for a week.

    Thanks, Michael

    1. Hello Michael,
      It is great hear that you can finally come back to Japan. :)


      They both work.
      →You don’t say もらえます+おねがいします togehter.
      →(more polite) 365号室のかぎいただけますか?

      Every day will be your great opportunity to practice your Japanese so try different way every time. 😉

      1. Thanks again for your comments. Yes, I am curious about how I will manage this time with my Japanese language “skills”. My biggest problem now is not being able to practice speaking, except to myself.

        For example, with “号室” I of course pronounce it “Gō shitsu”. Native speakers say something that sounds like “Gō sts” to me. It is all part of the fun of learning a language.

        I have one more question (if you don’t mind), which I will post somewhere else.

          1. Hello Maggie sensei,

            Update on the reality of speaking a language!

            I went to 4 different hotels. Three of them gave me a key card. I never had to ask for a room key. At the 4th hotel the reception staff recognized me after 2 days and usually gave me my room key even before I asked for it.

            Sometimes, speaking Japanese can be very easy.

          2. Hi Michael

            😆 Too bad that you couldn’t get to use Japanese at the hotels.
            I hope you got to speak Japanese while you were in Japan. Are you still in Japan?

          3. Hello Maggie,

            I am no longer in Japan, unfortunately.

            There were a lot of opportunities to speak Japanese, and to make a lot of mistakes.

            Most of my day to day practical dealings were in Japanese — hotels, restaurants and so on. Probably as a result of my listening practice (watching TV) my passive comprehension was quite good, within the limits of my vocabulary. I could understand some things even when I wasn’t paying 100% attention. Also, all your examples in your lessons taught me to not depend on knowing just a few fixed sentences.

            This made daily life feel more normal, because I could understand more of what was going on around me. And this meant more freedom in what I could do (not limited to tourist-friendly English) and also resulted in some more human interactions.

            On the other hand, the complication was that my passive comprehension was a lot quicker than my ability to speak (it took more time to remember words), so my speaking speed was always lagging behind what I could understand. It was frustrating, but just a matter of needing more practice talking in the real world.

            My concerns about not being understood were completely unfounded. It was obvious that my ‘accent’ (in other words, my sloppy pronunciation) sometimes confused a Japanese listener. It was actually better for me to speak slowly and clearly.

          4. Michael
            Thank you for sharing your precious experiences in Japan.
            I am glad to hear you got to interact with Japanese people and use Japanese.
            I do believe all your experiences will motivate you to learn Japanese more. 😉

  174. 日本語のレッスン、いつもどおりにとても役に立ちます!先生、どうもありがとうございます (^^)

  175. hello maggie senei! i love your posts a lot!

    could you please tell me what kind of meaning 〜たら has in this sentence? i feel like it means ‘so’ or something but that can’t be right 🥲



    1. Hello Alexa,
      This たら means “if”. (conditional)
      I assume they were talking about something and this person is saying he/she would do that if he/she thinks that is right.

  176. Hello. May I ask if we can use the たい form of a verb with ために when we want to express the cause. For example, would the following sentence be correct in Japanese:ゆかさんは大学に入りたいために、毎日勉強しています。

    1. You don’t use たいために. You say 入るため. If you want to use たい, you can say 入りたいので/ 入りたいから
      One exception: There is an expression to emphasize the desire
      入りたいがために. You see this form more in written forms.

  177. Hi sensei,
    むかしむかしある所に is once upon a time .
    but i dont understand why ある所にis used why not only所に

    1. Hello ritesh
      You can’t say むかしむかし所に
      あるところ means “in a certain place” and you don’t want to specify where it is so you add ある.

  178. Hi Maggie sensei,
    I have 2 question about this lesson
    in this lesson, sensei wrote that
    X 山田さんが加藤さんにお菓子をくれた。→wrong!

    we are all agree that くれる is use for “family group or very close friends”
    but today, my Japanese co-worker asked me that
    I just don’t understand that why he used “くれた” instead of “あげた”、he’s not in my “family group”, and he also don’t really know that the one bought me a bag is one of my family or not?

    I got confused about this example too:

    “= Can you give the sweets to my son?

    You can also say

    isn’t it should be translate to “can I received the sweets from my son”?
    because in ~もらう grammar, the one go with に・から is the one we received things from?

    1. Hello ルアン
      In this case, if the two parties, 山田さん and 加藤さん are not related to the speaker, it sounds unnatural.

      You say 誰が買ってくれた? (Who bought the bag for you?) or 誰に買ってもらったの? (Who did you get the bag from?) to someone who is close to you based on the idea or assumption that someone else bought the bag for you. (In this case, the giver could be your family , customers, friends, etc.)
      This phrase only works with someone close to you, equal to you or superior (who has been working more than you have or for the same period of time.)

      1. Thank you so much maggie sensei
        Can you explain this for me too?

        “= Can you give the sweets to my son?

        You can also say

        isn’t it should be translate to “can I received the sweets from my son”?
        because in ~もらう grammar, the one go with に・から is the one we received things from?
        It’s written in this lesson too

        1. If the sentence is
          そのお菓子は (or  を) 息子にもらった
          Then, it could be I received this snack for my son (from someone) or I received the snack from my son.

          However, そのお菓子を息子にもらえますか? is a request.
          If you are asking your son to give you the snack, you wouldn’t say 息子に
          You are obviously asking the listener so it won’t be translated can I received the sweets from my son”?

  179. Good night Maggie. Can you tell me the function of 間に in this sentence: 主神ゼウスと人間の娘との間に生まれた半神半人の英雄。I couldn’t understand that word even after reading your explanation you made.

    Could you also tell me the function of the も particle in this sentence: これは相当な手練れ。我が愛馬にも匹敵する怪物女王。

    1. Hello Leonarudo
      This 間 means “between”
      Here is the basic structure of this sentence.
      = ~ was born between A and B
      ~ is demigod hero who was born between zeus and human.

      我が愛馬に匹敵する  to be equal to my horse/to be a match for my horse
      By adding も you can add the nuance of “even”
      我が愛馬にも匹敵する to be even equal to my horse//to be even a match for my horse

  180. Hi Maggie Sensei! I love your use of example sentences for teaching, I find it super helpful :)

    One question: is it possible to attach がち to a negative verb/adjective ending? Like, in order to say things like “I don’t tend to forget people’s names,” could we say “人の名前を忘れないがち”?

    If not, what could we say instead?

    Thank you :)

    1. Hello Matt,

      You don’t use the negative form with がち so you don’t say X 忘れないがち
      忘れがち  = tend to forget people’s name
      The opposite will be “tend to remember people’s name” but it sounds unnatural even in English because you are supposed to remember people’s name.
      So you just say


      If it is the context such as “You tend to remember things (which you don’t need to remember/in the way you are not supposed to), you can use 覚えがち
      Ex. 人の名前を間違って覚えがちだ。

    1. Hi Faisal
      I don’t understand your question,
      →You can nominalize the sentence saying 友達との相談
      Ex. 友達との相談の結果、〜〜

  181. Hi, 先生!I’ve come back to this post a couple times, but I just can’t figure out which meaning of 限る is being used in this:

    This line is from a game I log into from time to time to practice Japanese. When you click on the character on the home screen, they talk. In this particular example, I guess the “…” represents the character listening to our response, which is apparently 「そういうやつに限って」.

    But I’m confused. If I were to reconstruct the conversation, it would be:
    Character: 俺、絶対に結婚遅いタイプだわー。
          I’m totally the type to get married late.
    Me:     そういう奴に限りますね。
          Yeah, you’re limited to that type of person (?????)
    Character: んなわけねーし。
          No way/Of course not.
    That’s not a conversation that makes very much sense to me. Basically the character says something, I agree, then he suddenly says the opposite? I’m definitely missing something here…

    1. Hi Sora

      I added a little note for you.
      ★Talking about opposite characteristics of what people would think, assume. (You may think A is ~ but actually it/he/she is quite opposite)

      Ex. 威張っている人に限って気が弱い。
      = Those who are arrogant tend to be cowards.

      そういうやつに限って is the same usage of this one.
      The speaker didn’t finish the sentence but

      The one who says “I am getting married later in life” tends to get married (early)…. No, I’ll take it back. There is no way.

      1. Ohhhhhh, that makes sooooo much sense!
        Thank you so much, 先生!I definitely would’ve never figured that out on my own 😅

  182. Can you elaborate on the negative versions?
    大きな目 not so big?
    少なめで not so much, less?
    Could you give me some example sentences with the negative usage?

    1. Hi Rita

      Technically the negative form is
      but it is rare to use these forms. You just use the opposite words, 小さめ, 多め
      The only case that you use the negative forms will be when you deny what someone just said.

      Ex. 「ご飯、少なめでいい?」 Would small serving of rice be OK with you?
      「少なめじゃなくて普通にもって」 Serve me regular portion not small portion.

  183. Could you please explain the second example under 3) Conditional sentences?


    I think I understand the first example, but in this one it looks like たりする means something similar to かもしれない

    In fact if I hadn’t seen your translation I would’ve completely misinterpreted the meaning of the sentence, as I was thinking of something along the lines “but he actually happens to be serious, you know”.

    Many thanks in advance!

    1. Hi enrique

      You can rephrase the sentence with かもしれない → まじめかもしれない
      The nuance difference is, たりする is more vague compare to かもしれない
      You bring up some possibilities more softly with たりする avoiding direct expression
      People tend to think shallow looking guys are not serious. But they could be serious. (there are cases such as they are serious.)

  184. Hi maggie sensei. I saw a sentence that had the word また別 and I saw that it translates as another or different in some sites. I would like to know what the difference between this word and 別, 区別 or 違い.

    1. Hi Ronaldo
      As you said the translation might change depending on the context but the general idea is
      別 another
      区別 distinguish
      違い difference

        1. Do you remember what word comes after また別?
          For example
          That’s another story.

          In this case, they mean the same but this また emphasize “another” more than just using 別

          Let’s meet another day.

          In this case, it depends on the context and it could be emphasizing another or “to meet again.”

  185. Hello Maggie-sensei!

    Thank you so much for providing us with such good lessons that are easy to understand! I stumbled across a sentence recently including 「つく」. It goes like this:

    And was translated as: The light comes on when you press this switch.

    I have two questions. The first one is: I would like to know why 電気 was translated as light and the second one is what’s the meaning of オマケつき.

    1. Hello Lazerel,

      電気 has two meanings 1) electricity 2) (electric) light Ex. 電気をつける = to turn on the light

      おまけつき = with free gift/feebie

      For example, you buy a magazine or snack and some freebie comes with it. That is おまけ付き

  186. Hello Maggie sensei! Thank you very much for your thorough explanation.

    However, I have come across a sentence in which instead of ことがありません, they use ことがありませんでした. The sentence is 日本に来る前に海を見たことがありませんでした。日本に来て、初めて見ました。In my opinion, following this lesson I would have opted for ことがありません. The past tense is already used in 見た. However, according to the key, it’s wrong. Could you please explain it?

    Thank you very much. I hope you have a nice day!

    1. Hello Sky
      You can decide which tense to use depending on the time which you focus on.
      日本に来る前 = before I came to Japan. This is the past. When are talking about your past experience in the past you use the past tense  見たことがありませんでした。

      If you are talking about your experience up to now.
      I have never seen the ocean (→I haven’t seen the ocean up to now.)
      The focus time is “now” so you say 海を見たことがありません。

  187. このレッスンはありがとうございました!自分の多くの意味と使い方は勘がもうあったんですけど、以前よく考えなかったです。


    1. こんにちは Para
      英語にするとどちらも oneselfになるからわかりにくいかもしれませんね。

      自身 = oneself
      Ex. 私/自分自身のための作品 = the artwork for myself/oneself
      自ら = 自分から何かをする = to do something voluntarily, to do something personally
      Ex.  自ら手伝う= to help someone voluntarily

  188. Hello Maggie-sensei 😊
    I have a little question. I reviewed this grammar point with the book “新完全マスター文法 日本語能力試験N3”. The book talks about another function of -ていく and -てくる but I don’t quite understand it because there is only two examples. The function is “A movement or shift occurring after an action” and the examples are “出かけるとき、天気予報を見てきました” and “荷物はここに預けていこう”. My question is fuzzy, but I don’t really understand the difference with the function of doing something and coming back, and doing an action without coming back. If you can enlighten me. お願いします🤗

    1. Hi Aurore

      You connect two actions with te-form.
      You do A and then do B.
      If the verb B is 行く or 来る,
      you do something (A) and you go somewhere or you come somewhere.
      (You can rephrase them with から)

      1) 出かけるとき、天気予報を見てきました (←天気予報を見てからきました)
      I checked the weather report (action A) when I left the house and came here*(acton B)
      (*wherever the speaker is now.)

      2) 荷物はここに預けていこう (←荷物をここに預けてからいこう)

      I will leave your bag (action A) here and go somewhere (action B).

      So these two examples happened to have verbs, 行く/来る but you can use other verbs.

      I had lunch and went out →昼ごはんを食べて出かけた。(←昼ごはんを食べてから出かけた)
      We talked about it and then decided. →よく話し合って決めた。(←よく話し合ってから決めた)

      1. Hello Maggie-sensei,

        Thank you very much for your quick response 😊. It’s clear to me now, I didn’t realize that in this case -て was only used to connect 2 actions. Thanks for the explanation and additional examples 😁.

        Have a nice week end

  189. Hello Maggie-sensei!

    Thank you so much for providing us with such good lessons that are easy to understand! I stumbled across a sentence recently including 「のに」. It goes like this:


    I have two questions. The first one is about what is the difference between ための and ために, the second is if the な (after 本気に) and the 、 have some function inside that sentence or you can remove them without having any problem.

    1. Hello Lazerel,

      1) There is a hidden noun after 為の
      マスターと僕の戦いのための(練習 or もの)なのに
      Since the word 練習 is already mentioned, you don’t have to say 練習 again and just say ための
      (You can sometimes rephrase it with もの as well)
      You often omit the noun and just use の
      (Check my の lesson if you want to learn more. The link is here.)

      So though you use の instead of the nouns 練習/もの, ための is considered as a noun so you use なのに

      Noun + なのに

      2) Is it one phrase? There is no space between 本気にな and 落ち込む?
      If so, I think it is a typo. 本気に落ち込む (本気に is an adverb which modifies the following verb, 落ち込む)

  190. Hello meggie sensei,

    I couldn’t understand the difference between たらすぐに vs 次第
    and ofcourse i came across another similar grammer
    するとすぐに and~か~ないかのうちに
    so please teach us the difference between this four

    1. Hi Ritesh

      As for the difference between すぐに and たらすぐに
      I explained in this lesson so please read the note. (Basically they means the same, as soon as but 次第 is more formal and たらすぐに is more conversational. But there are cases that you can not rephrase たらすぐ with 次第. Read Note. 2)

      するとすぐに vs たらすぐに
      Are very similar as well and they can be interchangeable.
      As soon as he got home, he went out.
      = 彼は家に着いたらすぐに出かけた
      The difference:
      1)verb dictionary form + とすぐに →focusing on the action itself
      2) Vたらすぐに →focusing of the completion of the action

      You can not use 1) when you tell someone what to do

      Ex. 家に着いたらすぐに電話をください。 = Call me as soon as you get home.
      →X You can’t say 家につくとすぐに電話をください。

      You use 1) when you talk about the past or daily routine.

      ~か~ないかのうちに is used when two actions are happening almost the same time.
      家につくかつかないかのうちに can be right before you get home.
      So you can’t say

  191. やっぱり!

    Something was puzzling me about という, and I thought that Maggie Sensei would have the answer.

    A beginner in any language first learns words and some stand-alone sentences. But, in daily life, people have conversations. They say things in response to what someone else has said, and often speak in half sentences. While watching TV I have recently noticed that という can be the first word that a person uses when saying something. This did not make sense to me, considering that a beginner learns to use という for quotes, definitions and so on, where という is in the middle of a sentence.

    But, you give some examples in “(2) To summarize /boil down something” which fits what was puzzling me:
    A: 「大きな台風が近づいています。」
    B: 「ということは、明日は誰も学校に来ないということですね。」

    という is being used to connect the meanings of two sentences/phrases, and in this case there are two different speakers and B is replying to and completing/modifying the thought of A.

    Unfortunately, I still cannot translate spoken Japanese quickly enough to always be able to connect a series of spoken sentences. But, I’m always learning something, so there is progress.